Employee Motivation 2

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Transcript of Employee Motivation 2

  • 1.Chapter Objectives
    • Explainthe motivational lessons taught by Maslows theory and Herzbergs theory.
  • Explainhow job enrichment can be used to enhance the motivating potential of jobs.
  • Describethe motivational processes in expectancy theory and goal-setting theory.
  • Distinguishextrinsic reward from intrinsic rewards andlistfour rules for administering extrinsic rewards effectively.

2. Chapter Objectives(contd)

  • Explainhow open-book management and self-managed teams promote employee participation.
  • Discusshow companies are striving to motivate employees with quality-of-life programs.

3. Motivation Theories

  • Motivation
    • The psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.
  • Theories of Motivation
    • Maslows needs hierarchy theory
    • Herzbergs two-factor theory
    • Job enrichment theory
    • Expectancy theory
    • Goal-setting theory

4. Figure 11.1 Individual Motivation and Job Performance 5. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory
    • People have needs, and when one need is relatively fulfilled, other emerge in predictable sequence to take its place.
  • Maslows hierarchy of needs:
    • Physiological needs: food, water, sleep, and sex.
    • Safety needs: safety from the elements and enemies.
    • Love needs: desire for love, affection, and belonging.
    • Esteem needs: self-perception as a worthwhile person.
    • Self-actualization: becoming all that one can become.

6. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • The Self-Actualizing Manager
    • Has warmth, closeness, and sympathy.
    • Recognizes and shares negative information and feelings.
    • Exhibits trust, openness, and candor.
    • Does not achieve goals by power, deception, or manipulation.
    • Does not project own feelings, motivations, or blame onto others.
    • Does not limit horizons; uses and develops body, mind, and senses.
    • Is not rationalistic; can think in unconventional ways.
    • Is not conforming; regulates behavior from within.

7. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Relevance of Maslows Theory for Managers
    • Beyond physical and safety needs, which higher order need will emerge cannot be predicted.
    • A fulfilled need does not motivate an individual.
    • Effective managers can anticipate emerging needs based on individual need profiles and provide opportunities for fulfillment.
    • The esteem level of needs satisfied by jobs and recognition provides managers with the greatest opportunity to motivate better performance.

8. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
    • A theory of motivation based on job satisfaction.
      • A satisfied employee is motivated from within to work harder.
      • A dissatisfied worker is not self-motivated to work.
      • Conclusion: Enriched jobs are the key to self-motivation.
    • Dissatisfiers:factors associated with the job context or work environment.
    • Satisfiers:factors associated with the nature of the task itself (job content).

9. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Implications of Herzbergs Theory
    • Satisfaction is not the opposite of dissatisfaction.
    • There is a need to think carefully about what motivates employees.
      • Meaningful, interesting, and challenging (enriched) work is needed to satisfy and motivate employees.
    • Problems with Herzbergs theory
      • Assumption of job performance improving with satisfaction is weakly, at best, supported.
      • One persons dissatisfier is another persons satisfier.

10. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Job Enrichment Theory
    • Redesigning jobs should increase their motivational potential
      • A better fit between persons and their jobs should foster both high work productivity and a high-quality experience for the people who do the work.
      • Vertical loading(introducing planning and decision-making responsibility) increases the challenge of work (complexity and job depth) and reverses the effects of overspecialization.
      • Job enrichment works best for individuals who have a desire for personal growth.

11. Motivation Through Job Design(contd)

  • Five Core Dimensions of Work
    • Skill variety:the variety of activities required in carrying out the work.
    • Task identity:the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
    • Task significance:how substantial an impact the job has on the lives of other people.
    • Autonomy:the freedom, independence, and discretion that one has to do the job.
    • Job feedback:how much performance feedback the job provides to the worker.

12. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
    • A model that assumes motivational strength is determined by perceived probabilities of success.
      • Expectancy: ones subjective belief or expectation that one thing will lead to another.
  • A Basic Expectancy Model
    • Ones motivational strength increases as ones perceived effort-performance and performance-reward probabilities increase the likelihood of obtaining a valued reward.

13. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Relevance of Expectancy Theory for Managers
    • Employee expectations can be influenced by managerial actions and organizational experience.
    • Training increases employee confidence in their efforts to perform.
    • Listening provides managers with insights into employees perceived performance-reward probabilities.

14. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Goal-Setting Theory
    • Goal setting:the process of improving performance with objectives, deadlines, or quality standards.
  • A General Goal-Setting Model
    • Properly conceived goals trigger a motivational process that improves performance.

15. Figure 11.5 A Model of How Goals Can Improve Performance 16. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Personal Ownership of Challenging Goals
    • Characteristics of effective goals:
      • Specificity makes goals measurable.
      • Difficulty makes goals challenging.
      • Participation gives personal ownership of the goal.
  • How Do Goals Actually Motivate?
    • Goals are exercises in selective perception.
    • Goals encourage effort to achieve something specific.
    • Goals encourage persistent effort.
    • Goals foster creation of strategies and action plans.

17. Motivation Theories(contd)

  • Practical Implications of Goal-Setting Theory
    • The developed ability to effectively set goals can be transferred readily to any performance environments.

18. Motivation Through Rewards

  • Extrinsic Rewards
    • Payoffs (external) granted to the individual by others
      • Money, employee benefits, promotions, recognition, status symbols, and praise.
  • Intrinsic Rewards
    • Self-granted and internally experienced payoffs
      • Sense of accomplishment, self-esteem, and self-actualization.

19. Motivation Through Rewards(contd)

  • Improving Performance with Extrinsic Rewards
    • Rewards must satisfy individual needs.
      • Cafeteria compensation:a plan that allows employees to select their own mix of benefits.