Employee Motivation 2
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Transcript of Employee Motivation 2
- 1.Chapter Objectives
- Explainthe motivational lessons taught by Maslows theory and Herzbergs theory.
- Explainhow job enrichment can be used to enhance the motivating potential of jobs.
- Describethe motivational processes in expectancy theory and goal-setting theory.
- Distinguishextrinsic reward from intrinsic rewards andlistfour rules for administering extrinsic rewards effectively.
2. Chapter Objectives(contd)
- Explainhow open-book management and self-managed teams promote employee participation.
- Discusshow companies are striving to motivate employees with quality-of-life programs.
3. Motivation Theories
- The psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.
- Theories of Motivation
- Maslows needs hierarchy theory
- Herzbergs two-factor theory
- Job enrichment theory
- Expectancy theory
- Goal-setting theory
4. Figure 11.1 Individual Motivation and Job Performance 5. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory
- People have needs, and when one need is relatively fulfilled, other emerge in predictable sequence to take its place.
- Maslows hierarchy of needs:
- Physiological needs: food, water, sleep, and sex.
- Safety needs: safety from the elements and enemies.
- Love needs: desire for love, affection, and belonging.
- Esteem needs: self-perception as a worthwhile person.
- Self-actualization: becoming all that one can become.
6. Motivation Theories(contd)
- The Self-Actualizing Manager
- Has warmth, closeness, and sympathy.
- Recognizes and shares negative information and feelings.
- Exhibits trust, openness, and candor.
- Does not achieve goals by power, deception, or manipulation.
- Does not project own feelings, motivations, or blame onto others.
- Does not limit horizons; uses and develops body, mind, and senses.
- Is not rationalistic; can think in unconventional ways.
- Is not conforming; regulates behavior from within.
7. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Relevance of Maslows Theory for Managers
- Beyond physical and safety needs, which higher order need will emerge cannot be predicted.
- A fulfilled need does not motivate an individual.
- Effective managers can anticipate emerging needs based on individual need profiles and provide opportunities for fulfillment.
- The esteem level of needs satisfied by jobs and recognition provides managers with the greatest opportunity to motivate better performance.
8. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
- A theory of motivation based on job satisfaction.
- A satisfied employee is motivated from within to work harder.
- A dissatisfied worker is not self-motivated to work.
- Conclusion: Enriched jobs are the key to self-motivation.
- Dissatisfiers:factors associated with the job context or work environment.
- Satisfiers:factors associated with the nature of the task itself (job content).
9. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Implications of Herzbergs Theory
- Satisfaction is not the opposite of dissatisfaction.
- There is a need to think carefully about what motivates employees.
- Meaningful, interesting, and challenging (enriched) work is needed to satisfy and motivate employees.
- Problems with Herzbergs theory
- Assumption of job performance improving with satisfaction is weakly, at best, supported.
- One persons dissatisfier is another persons satisfier.
10. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Job Enrichment Theory
- Redesigning jobs should increase their motivational potential
- A better fit between persons and their jobs should foster both high work productivity and a high-quality experience for the people who do the work.
- Vertical loading(introducing planning and decision-making responsibility) increases the challenge of work (complexity and job depth) and reverses the effects of overspecialization.
- Job enrichment works best for individuals who have a desire for personal growth.
11. Motivation Through Job Design(contd)
- Five Core Dimensions of Work
- Skill variety:the variety of activities required in carrying out the work.
- Task identity:the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
- Task significance:how substantial an impact the job has on the lives of other people.
- Autonomy:the freedom, independence, and discretion that one has to do the job.
- Job feedback:how much performance feedback the job provides to the worker.
12. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
- A model that assumes motivational strength is determined by perceived probabilities of success.
- Expectancy: ones subjective belief or expectation that one thing will lead to another.
- A Basic Expectancy Model
- Ones motivational strength increases as ones perceived effort-performance and performance-reward probabilities increase the likelihood of obtaining a valued reward.
13. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Relevance of Expectancy Theory for Managers
- Employee expectations can be influenced by managerial actions and organizational experience.
- Training increases employee confidence in their efforts to perform.
- Listening provides managers with insights into employees perceived performance-reward probabilities.
14. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Goal-Setting Theory
- Goal setting:the process of improving performance with objectives, deadlines, or quality standards.
- A General Goal-Setting Model
- Properly conceived goals trigger a motivational process that improves performance.
15. Figure 11.5 A Model of How Goals Can Improve Performance 16. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Personal Ownership of Challenging Goals
- Characteristics of effective goals:
- Specificity makes goals measurable.
- Difficulty makes goals challenging.
- Participation gives personal ownership of the goal.
- How Do Goals Actually Motivate?
- Goals are exercises in selective perception.
- Goals encourage effort to achieve something specific.
- Goals encourage persistent effort.
- Goals foster creation of strategies and action plans.
17. Motivation Theories(contd)
- Practical Implications of Goal-Setting Theory
- The developed ability to effectively set goals can be transferred readily to any performance environments.
18. Motivation Through Rewards
- Extrinsic Rewards
- Payoffs (external) granted to the individual by others
- Money, employee benefits, promotions, recognition, status symbols, and praise.
- Intrinsic Rewards
- Self-granted and internally experienced payoffs
- Sense of accomplishment, self-esteem, and self-actualization.
19. Motivation Through Rewards(contd)
- Improving Performance with Extrinsic Rewards
- Rewards must satisfy individual needs.
- Cafeteria compensation:a plan that allows employees to select their own mix of benefits.