Employee Benefit Motivation
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Employee Benefit Motivation
The summer training gives an opportunity to form the real situation & make our self aware about the real world problem. I extend my sincere gratitude SSIM, to our most Dr. venerable S.S. Mr. Devendra (Dy. Malik
(Chairman, SSIM, Moradabad), Mr.V.K.S.Malik (Vice-Chairman, SSIM, Moradabad), Dr.A.K.Tyagi (Director, Moradabad), Chauhan Director), Mr.A.K. Upadhyay (H.O.D., SSIM, Moradabad) for providing me an opportunity to work on this project. Other than this I would like to thank my Project Incharge & Internal guide Mrs. Chhavi Mehrotra, whose able guidelines helped me to prepare this report. I am also thankful to all faculty members, Librarian Sir and Computer Lab Staff who have encouraged and supported me. All because of their kind consideration and cooperation I could able to complete this report. I would also like to thank Mr. Parth Bhattacharya (HR Manager) TATA Motors, Pantnagar who has granted the permission to complete the training and supervised me and spared his/her valuable time for suggestions and help. At last, I would like to thank my family and ALMIGHTY GOD, as without their blessings and support the project could not have been completed.
Prem Veer Singh Roll No.- 11131031
Prem Veer Singh hereby declare that this Research Project Report entitled EMPLOYEE
MOTIVATION IN COMMUNICATION INDUSTRY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO VODAFONE COMMUNICATION submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement of Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) from SSIM, Moradabad It is Based on Primary & secondary data found by me in various departments, Books, magazines and websites & Collected by me in under guidance of my Project Guide Mrs. Chhavi Mehrotra
Prem Veer Singh
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe present report is prepared for the partial fulfillment of PGDM- III Sem curriculum. and as a part of
This is an attempt to determine and do a EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN INDUSTRY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO VODAFONE profile is given,
COMMUNICATION The report has two sections, in its first section company
where as in second section, research methodology is given which includes sample design, analysis on sample and findings are given. Suggestions with respect to the survey for future improvement is given to improve the survey because there competitors have also taken up the survey. At the end of the report limitations, Conclusion of the research. Last there is Bibliography.
MOTIVATION: Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is defined as an urge in an individual to perform goal directed behavior. Therefore, motivation cannot be inflicted from outside but it is an intrinsic desire in a man to achieve the target goal through performance or activity. Motives are expression of persons need. Hence, they are personal and internal. Incentives on the other hand are external to the person. They are made part of work environment by management in order to encourage workers to accomplish task. The motivational model indicates that a sense of felt deprivation generates needs and such needs create tension in an individual. The individual perceive and makes cost benefit analysis on the ways and means of releasing such tension. Once such perception is cleared, individual pounces upon the activities and achieves some results. If it is success he feels rewarded and falls in the cycle of motivation again. If it is failure he feels punished and once again after due modification of ways and means pounces back on the cycle or feels frustrated. Therefore, motivation leads to a goal directed behavior.
When people join an organization, they bring with them certain needs that affect on-the-job performance. Some of these needs are physiological ; others are related to psychological and social values. The later are much more difficult to determine and satisfy, and they vary greatly from one to another. Maslow has developed a hierarchy of needs as follows : physiological, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. They interact with the environment to shape on-the-job wants that are the basis of motivation. In addition, motivation is affected by peoples perceptions, including their feelings of equity or fairness in a situation. According to a model developed by Herzberg, motivation is influenced by maintenance and motivational factors. Important motivational factors are the work itself, achievement, growth, responsibility, advancement and recognition. These are primarily intrinsic motivators rather than extrinsic ones. The Maslow and Herzberg models have many similarities because they both focus on needs, but they do so from somewhat different points of view. Two different models of motivation are the expectancy model and behavior modification. The expectancy model states that motivation is a product of how much one wants something and the probability that a certain action will lead to it. The formula is valence X expectancy = motivation. Valence is the strength of a persons performance for one outcome in relation to others. Expectancy is the strength of belief that a given act will be followed by particular outcomes.
Behavior modification states that behavior depends on its consequences. It is achieved through operant condition. Its various approaches include positive and negative reinforcement, shaping, and extinction. Punishment normally is not used. Reinforcement can be continuous or
partial. Criticism of behavior modification are that it manipulates people and does not apply very well in complex work environments. Cognitive models dominate thinking about motivation, but behavior modification is finding increasing use. Most attention has been given to type A motivation (macromotivation) ; but in order to build a complete motivational environment, more emphasis must be given to type B motivation (micromotivation).
USE AND IMPORTANCE OF TOPICManagers have the opportunity to influence the motivation of employees through design of their jobs. Well-designed jobs help accomplish two important goals: getting the necessary work done in a timely and competent manner, and motivating and challenging employees. Both the business and the employee benefit from successful job design. Poorly designed jobs leave to chance whether the expected tasks will get done in a timely and competent manner. Poorly designed jobs, moreover, are likely to be discouraging, boring and frustrating to employees. Even if employees would otherwise be enthused, competent and productive, poorly designed jobs almost certainly lead to employee disappointment. Managers have the responsibility of designing jobs. If they ignore this responsibility, employees will design their own jobs. Not surprisingly, the jobs designed by employees are more likely to be attuned to employee experiences and preferences than to the goals of the business. Neither the business nor the employees are long-term winners from managers defaulting job design to employees. Job design starts with determining the duties, tasks and activities for each job. The process of determining the content of jobs is called job analysis. Job analysis is sometimes considered the foundation of human resource management. The content of jobs, 10
job descriptions, hiring, orientation and training are all built on what is learned from job analysis. In this paper, we will consider four keys to the design of jobs that motivate and challenge employees: job analysis, job design, characteristics of desirable jobs and fine tuning of jobs through job enrichment and adjusted work schedules to further increase their capacity to motivate and challenge employees. Job Analysis Job analysis is a process of obtaining the information necessary for job design. Job analysis requires efficient collection of data about existing jobs and needs that new jobs are to address. A manager has several important sources of data about job needs. In most businesses, the people now doing a job understand it best. Their experiences and insights are critical to understanding what the job is, the extent to which it is meeting the needs of the business and opportunities for an improved design. A cautionary note to keep in mind is that employees may fail to understand that job analysis is a process of gathering data about the job not an evaluation of the person doing the job. Managers need to explain carefully to employees that the goal is to improve their jobs not find a substitute for annual performance reviews. Supervisors can add additional understanding of a job. In many farm and ranch businesses, managers and supervisors have often done many of the jobs in the business. Therefore, their experiences in the job are a valuable source of information. Job analysis should generate data about tasks, duties and responsibilities of the person in the job. For a milker, the tasks, duties and responsibilities might include: with one other person, prepare and milk 300 cows; examine cows for health probl