OB Employee Motivation
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1Definition of Motivation
According to Edwin B F lippo, Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of gain or reward.
The definition of motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. S imple acts such as eating are motivated by hunger. Education is motivated by desire for knowledge. Motivators can be anything from reward to coercion. From the scientific viewpoint, by most accounts, motivation is defined as an inner state of need or desire. That state of desire creates a movement or activity towards satisfying that desire. In my never-ending quest to spread the word about turning ideas into action, I view inspiration as the state of mind that primes us to come up with great ideas, and motivation as the state of mind that spurs us to action.
Concept of Motivation
In order to understand the concept of motivation, we have to examine three terms :
motive, motivating and motivation and their relationship
A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves and directs behavior towards
Motivating is a term which imp lies that one person includes another, to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy the motive becomes available and accessible to the individ ual.
Dubin has defined motivation as;
Motivation is the complex force starting and keeping a person at work in an organization. Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated
According to McFarland;
Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, aspirations, strivings, or needs direct, control, or explain the behavior of human being.
.NATURE OF MOTIVATION
1. Based on Motives: Motivation is based on individuals motives which are internal to the individual. These motives are in the form of feelings that the individual lacks something. In order to overcome this feeling, he tries to behave in a manner which helps in overcoming this feeling.
2. Affected by Motivating: Motivation is affected by way the individual is motivated. It can also activate the latent needs in the individual, that is, the needs that are the less strong and somewhat dormant, and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization.
2. Goaldirected Behavior: Motivation leads to goal-directed behavior. A goal-directed behavior is one which satisfies the cause for which behavior takes place.
4. Related to Satisfaction: satisfaction refers to the contentment experiences of an individual which he derives out of need fulfillment. Thus satisfaction is a consequence of rewards and punishments associated with past experiences.5. Complex Process: Motivation is a complex process; complexity emerges because of the nature of needs and the type of behavior that is attempted to satisfy those needs.6. Person Motivated in Totality: A person is motivated in totality and not in part. Each individual in the organization is a self-contained unit and his needs are interrelated. Theseaffect his behavior in different ways.
Motivation is a force that drives people to do things. Employees are normally motivated to achieve their needs, whatever they may include. Motivation is inside another person's head and heart. It may be intrinsic or extrinsic. This is what we call motivation. Employees of a company will be motivated if they associate certain incentives with an activity of work.Motivation is an important function which every manager performs by assigning the people to work for accomplishment of objectives of the organization .Issuance of well conceived instructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed .A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Effective motivation succeeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination to see that it is executed efficiently and effectively.In order to motivate workers to work for the organizational goals, the managers must
Determine the motives or needs of the workers and provide an environment in which Appropriate incentives are available for their satisfaction .If the management is successful in doing so; it will also be successful in increasing the willingness of the workers to work. This will increase efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. There will be better utilization of resources and workers abilities and capacities.
Concept of motivation
The word motivation has been derived from motive which means any idea, need or emotion that prompts a man in to action. Whatever may be the behavior of man, there is some stimulus behind it .Stimulus is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motive can be known by studying his needs and desires.There is no universal theory that can explain the factors influencing motives which control mans behaviour at any particular point of time. In general, the different motives operate at different times among different people and influence their behaviours. The process of motivation studiesthe motives of individuals which cause different type of behavior.
4Need of motivation
Managements basic job is the effective utilization of human resources for achie vements of organizational objectives. The personnel management is concerned with organizing human resources in such a way to get maximum output to the enterprise and to develop the talent of people at work to the fullest satisfaction. Motivation implies that one person, in organization context a manager, includes another, say an employee, to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy those needs and aspirations becomes available to the person. In addition tothis, the strong needs in a direction that is satisfying to the latent needs in employees and
Harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization.
Employee motivation is one of the major issues faced by every organization. It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinates or to create the will to work among the subordinates. It should also be remembered that a worker may be immensely capable of doing some work; nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work. A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them.
Significance of Motivation
Motivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization. The following results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated.
1. The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with Opportunities to fulfil their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will Cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towards the goals of the enterprise.2. Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and Knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity.3. The rates of labors turnover and absenteeism among the workers will be low.
4. There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease.5. The number of complaints and grievances will come down. Accident will also be low.
56. There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business.Motivation is t he activation or e nergization of goal -oriented behavi or; Intrinsic
From a practical standpoint, we can dig into our motives in order to get better results,
and move ourselves from point A to point B. For example, if you know what motivates you, you can use those motives to get yourself to do things that you wouldn't do otherwise. These same principles can be applied to motivating others as well.
Motivational techniques, therefore, are useful to teachers, leaders, parents, employers,
and really, almost anyone. The key is in understanding that you are not motivating someone else. Instead, you are simply providing a circumstance that triggers that person to be motivation.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself - the enjoyment of a puzzle or the love of playing. This form of motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. Intrinsic motivation has been explained by Fritz Heider' attributional theory, Bandura's work on self effeciency,and Ryan and Deci's cognitive evaluation theory. S tudents are likely to be intrinsically motivated ifthey:
Attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in), Believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not
determined by luck),
6 Are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote- learning to achieve good grades.
Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the performer. Money is the most obvious example, but coercion and threat of puni