Rohit Employee Motivation
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Chapter I INTRODUCTION
Motivating EmployeesOne of the major issues faced by human resources departments and specialists is the issue of motivating employees. In the workplace, motivation is a primary factor when it comes to getting work done. No matter how skilled the workers in any specific department may happen to be, the goals of the supervisor will not reach the desired levels of success and timeliness if the proper employee motivation is not in place. But how, exactly, is motivation supposed to be instilled in the work force? Is employee s eage rness to get the job done a natural quality that should be relied upon, or must employee motivation being structurally imposed upon the workforce? Those are good questions that deserve a solid understanding of how to proceed in order to find the answer that best fits your human resource management scenario. In its capacity to answer these fundamental questions, the task of any human resources specialist or team of consultants becomes a bit complex. That s because not every worker is the same. While some have a self-starting approach to every job at hand, other employees may need an extra nudge in the right direction before results can be expected. Fortunately, however, employee motivation is proven to work in nearly every case when the right stimuli are ad ded into the mix. While the fast-acting techniques that are known to motivate employees are most needed among those who require higher levels of motivation in order to get work done, the practice of well-administered and objective-producing incentive enhancement is actually well advised for employee at all different levels of inherent motivation. Even the natural go -getters respond well to motivation techniques. In fact, many of these employees have, unfortunately, often been neglected as human resources departments focused more on those with lower levels of motivation. The outcome has been increased frustration among those who give it their all but end up feeling as if they ve been given the short end of the stick in return. Therefore, the best-applied motivation policy is universal. By creating a standardized, incentive -based system of
rewards for job performance, employees will, as a whole, generally respond quite well to motivation for high level goals.
Motivation TheoriesMotivation- Hygiene Theory Building on Maslow s research, Fredrick Herzberg discovered that Motivation as it pertains to improved job performance was related directly to the uppertwo levels of Maslow s hierarchy, Esteem and Self-Actualization needs.4 He stated that in the workplace, these needs are satisfied by the nature of the work itself and the drive to satisfy these needs results in more mature and productive behaviors. He called these upper-level needs Motivators. He went further to say that true job satisfaction is only possible when pursuing these needs. At the same time Herzberg found that the fulfillment of Basic, Security, and Social needs only served to prevent employees from becoming dissatisfied. Things such as salary, fringe benefits, and working conditions allow the individual to function on the job and only serve as a source of distraction when they are absent. Interestingly, when these factors are present employees are not satisfied nor are they motivated to do an excellent job, they are simply not dissatisfied. Herzberg called these lower-level needs.
A. Maslow s Needs Hierarchy TheoryMost individuals are not consciously aware of these needs; yet we all supposedly proceed up the hierarchy of needs, one level at a time. 1. Physiological Needs Needs based on physical drives, such as the need for food, water, and sleep. These needs are basic to survival. 2. Safety Need Needs stemming from the concern about safety from the elements, enemies, and other threats. Achieved by earning a living, unemployment assistance, and insurance. 3. Love Needs Striving for a sense of belonging in groups. 4. Esteem Needs Self-respect is the key to esteem needs, and typically comes from being accepted and respected by others. Esteem needs cannot be met without the fulfillment of the lower level needs.
5. Self-Actualization Needs Top level in Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs. Striving to become everything of which one is capable of. 6. Relevance of Maslow s Theory for Managers Teaches managers that a fulfilled need does not motivate an individual Encourage managers to anticipate emerging needs of each employee.
B. Herzberg s Two-Factor Theory Implies that a satisfied employee is motivated from within to work harder and that a dissatisfied employee is not self-motivated. 7. Dissatisfiers and Satisfiers Dissatisfaction is synonymous with complains about the job context or factors in the work environment. Satisfaction is centered on the nature of the task itself, as employees appear to be motivated by job content. 8. Implications of Herzberg s Theory One person s dissatisfier may be another s satisfier. Emphasizes the motivating potential of meaningful work.
C. Job Enrichment Theory
Job enrichment is redesigning a job to increase its motivating potential. Job enrichment occurs through the improvement of five work dimensions:
Skill Variety degree to which a job requires a variety of skills and talents of the person. Task Identity degree to which a job is completed from beginning to end with a visible outcome. Task Significance degree to which a job has an impact on other people. Autonomy degree to which a job allows the employee freedom and independence. Job Feedback degree to which the employee receives direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance
D. Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory is a model based on the assumption that motivational strength is determined by perceived probabilities of success 9. A Basic Expectancy Model The motivational strength of an individual increases as they perceive increased effort-performance and performancereward probabilities 10. Relevance of Expectancy Theory for Managers Effort Performance Reward
Expectations of the employee determine whether motivation will be high or low Managers can implement training and good listeni ng skills to enhance employee performance Employees work harder when they have a good chance of receiving personally meaningful rewards E. Goal-Setting Theory Goal setting is the method of improving the performance of an individual or group through the use of objectives, deadlines, or quality standards that are formally stated.11. A General Goal-Setting Model Properly conceived goals prompt a motivational process that enhances performance 12. Personal Ownership of Challenging Goals Through participation in the goal-setting process, each individual receives personal ownership in the goals Goals are effective if they are specific, difficult, and participatively set 13. How Do Goals Actually Motivate? Goals motivate by directing attention, encouraging effort and persistence, and fostering goal-attainment strategies and action plans 14. Practical Implications of Goal-Setting Theory The forces behind motivation of goal setting are the same in each environment
2. LITERATURE REVIEWRensis Likerthas called motivation as the core of management. Motivation is the core of management. Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of the management in inspiring the work force .It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinate or to create the will to work among the subordinates .It should also be remembered that the worker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work .creation of a will to work is motivation in simple but true sense of term.
Motivation is an important function which very manager performs for actuating the people to work for accomplishment of objectives of the organization .Issuance of well conceived instructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed .A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Effective motivation succeeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination to see that it is executed efficiently and effectively.
In order to motivate workers to work for the organizational goals, the managers must determine the motives or needs of the workers and provide an environment in which appropriate incentives are available for their satisfaction .If the management is successful in doing so; it will also be successful in increasing the willingness of the workers to work. This will increase efficiency and effectiveness of the organization .There will be better utilization of resources and workers abilities and capacities.
2.1 The concept of motivationThe word motivation has been derived from motive which means any idea, need or emotion that prompts a man in to action. Whatever may be the behavior of man, there is some stimulus behind it
.Stimulus is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motive can be known by studying his needs and desires.
There is no universal theory that can explain the factors influencing motives which control mans behavior at any particular point of time. In general, the different motives operate at different times among different people and influence their behaviors. The process of motivation studies the motives of individuals which cause different type of behavior.
2.2 Definition of Motivation.According to Edwin B Flippo, Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of gain or reward.
2.3 Significance of MotivationMotivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization. The fol