The Renaissance and Reformation The Renaissance and Reformation Chapter 17
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Transcript of The Renaissance and Reformation The Renaissance and Reformation Chapter 17
The Renaissance and ReformationChapter 17
The Italian RenaissanceRenaissance means rebirth.During the Renaissance, Europeans believed that people could change the world and make it better. The Renaissance in Europea rebirth of interest in art and learningoccurred between 1350 and 1550.
The Italian Renaissance (cont.)Though they were still religious, they celebrated human achievements and became more secular, meaning they were more interested in the world than in religion. Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire. The Renaissance began in Italy.
The Italian Renaissance (cont.)The country had also become very wealthy so it could afford to pay artists to create art. Florence and Venice were important city-states during the Renaissance. Because Italy was still divided into small city-states, individuals wanted to create works that would increase the fame of their cities.
The Italian Renaissance (cont.)More people in Italy lived in the city-states than in the country. The artists in the city-states had more customers to buy their work.
The Rise of Italys City-StatesNo one ruler was able to unite all of Italy. This did not occur, in part, because the Catholic Church wanted to prevent a strong ruler from controlling the pope and the Church. Another factor was that the small city-states were equally powerful and wealthy.
The Rise of Italys City-States (cont.)Italy was in a perfect location for trade. The Italians traded with the French, Spanish, Dutch, English, Turks, Arabs, and Byzantines. The Mongols helped promote trade in Italy by protecting the Silk Road. Marco Polo, a merchant from Venice, had published a book about his travels to the East.
The Rise of Italys City-States (cont.)Florence was the first city-state to grow wealthy and is the most famous city of the Renaissance. Florentine bankers became experts at valuing coins. They began lending money and charging interest.
The Rise of Italys City-States (cont.)Venice was the wealthiest city-state. Venice is built on a set of swampy islands. Venetians navigated their city-state by boat and became great sailors and shipbuilders.Florences richest family, the Medici, were bankers.
The Rise of Italys City-States (cont.)Pier and the Ducal Palace in Venice during the Renaissance.The Ducal Palace today.
The Urban NobleNoble families moved into cities and mixed with wealthy merchants there. Wealthy merchants copied the nobles manners, and soon the children of the merchants and nobles were marrying each other. These families became the urban upper class. At first, the city-states were republics.
The Urban Noble (cont.)Gradually the city-states gave power to one man to run the government. In Venice, the doge, or duke, had power. Later, the doge lost power to a small group of nobles. In Florence, the Medici family gained power and ruled for many years.
The Urban Noble (cont.)To deal with other city-states, Italian rulers developed diplomacy, which is the art of negotiating or making deals. Niccol Machiavelli, a diplomat in Florence, thought people were too greedy and self-centered. He thought rulers should not try to be good, but should do whatever is necessary to keep power and protect a city.
Renaissance HumanismHumanists sought a balance between religion and reason. Western Europeans began studying Greek and Roman works in the 1300s. Humanism was a way of understanding the world that was based on the values of the ancient Greeks and Romans. During the Crusades, Western Europeans were exposed to Greek and Roman culture that had been preserved by Arab scholars.
Renaissance Humanism (cont.)Petrarch was a famous scholar of ancient works. He encouraged Europeans to search for Latin manuscripts in monasteries. Italians studied ancient books, statues, and buildings. New libraries were built to house the manuscripts, including the Vatican Library in Rome.
Renaissance Humanism (cont.)Dante Alighieri wrote The Divine Comedy, one of the worlds greatest poems, in the vernacular. In England, William Shakespeare emerged as the great writer of the era.Writers during the Renaissance began writing in the vernacular, the everyday language of a people. Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press that used movable type.
Renaissance Humanism (cont.)Gutenbergs Bible was the first European book printed on the press. Leonardo da Vinci was a great scientist, artist, inventor, and engineer. The press could print books quickly, so more books became available. Leonardo imagined machines long before they were invented, such as the airplane and helicopter.
Renaissance Humanism (cont.)People studied plants, human anatomy, and medicine, as well as astronomy and mathematics. Interest in other topics flourished as well.
Artists in Renaissance ItalyRenaissance artists used new techniques, such a perspective and chiaroscuro, to add realism and express drama and emotion. There are major style differences between medieval and Renaissance art. The peak of the Renaissance occurred between 1490 and 1520. Leonardo da Vinci, a great scientist, was also a trained artist.
Artists in Renaissance Italy (cont.)Raphael was one of Italys most famous painters who painted frescoes in the Vatican. Two of his most famous works were The Last Supper and The Mona Lisa. His best-known painting is School of Athens. Michelangelo Buonarroti was a painter and sculptor. He is best known for his sculpture David.
The Renaissance SpreadsThe Northern Renaissance refers to art from places we know today as Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, and the Netherlands. Northern Renaissance artists used different techniques than artists in Italy. Artists in Flanders, a region in what is today northern Belgium, developed oil painting.
The Renaissance Spreads (cont.)Jan van Eyck was a great oil painter. Albrecht Drer was an artist best known for his engravings. Engravings are made in wood, metal, or stone, and covered in ink. The image is then printed on paper.
The Renaissance Spreads (cont.)In England, the Renaissance created great works of theater and literature. William Shakespeare was the greatest English writer of the Renaissance. He wrote tragedies, comedies, and historical plays.
Calls for Church ReformMartin Luther was a monk who challenged the Roman Catholic Church. At first Luther wanted only to reform the Catholic Church, leading to the period being called the Reformation. The movement to create Christian churches other than the Catholic Church became known as Protestantism.
Calls for Church Reform (cont.)Desiderius Erasmus was a leader in Christian humanism. He felt humans could use reason to be better Christians. People became upset with the Churchs focus on money.
Calls for Church Reform (cont.)They were also upset by over the sale pardons for sin. This practice motivated Martin Luther to write a list of 95 arguments against selling indulgences.
Calls for Church Reform (cont.)Church leaders felt threatened by Luther, and the pope excommunicated him. Luthers ideas led to a new religious denomination, or organized branch of Christianity.Lutheranism was the first Protestant denomination.This list became known as the Ninety-Five Theses.
Politics and LutheranismKings realized they could increase their power if they supported Lutheranism. When the kings became Lutheran, their entire kingdoms did also. Local kings and nobles of the Holy Roman Empire did not want Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, to become too powerful.
Politics and Lutheranism (cont.)Charles V warred with the local kings but could not defeat them. The fighting ended with the Peace of Augsburg.The Catholic Church could not earn income from the Lutheran kingdoms.
Calvin and CalvinismForced to flee Paris because of his discussions of Lutheranism, Calvin found safety in Geneva, Switzerland. Early in his life, John Calvin studied theology, the study of questions about God, in Paris. Calvin taught that Gods will is absolute and decides everything in the world in advance, including who will go to heaven and who will not.
Calvin and Calvinism (cont.)Calvinism encouraged people to work hard at their business and to behave themselves. This belief is called predestination. Calvins belief that congregations should choose their own leaders supported the idea of English settlers in America that they should be able to elect their own political leaders.
Calvin and Calvinism (cont.)Calvinism became the basis of many Protestant churches, such as the Puritans and Presbyterians.
Counter-ReformationAlthough the Catholic Church fought against Protestantism, it knew it needed to reform some practices. They began a counter-reformation.Catholic clergy were instructed to better teach people in the faith. The Church created seminaries, or special schools, to train priests.
Counter-Reformation (cont.)The priests belonging to the Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits, were the popes agents in Europe. Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits. The Jesuits taught, preached, and fought heresy, or religious beliefs that contradict what the Church says is true. The lower classes in France were mostly Catholic.
Counter-Reformation (cont.)Many French nobles were Protestant. French Protestants were known as Huguenots. The Bourbons, who were Protestant, were the second most powerful family in France. Huguenot nobles wanted to weaken the king