Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration

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Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration. New Age of Human Achievement Characteristics Renaissance = Rebirth 1300s – 1600s - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration

Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration

New Age of Human AchievementCharacteristicsRenaissance = Rebirth1300s 1600sAssimilation of classical ideas of ancient Greece and of the Arabic worldRenaissance & ReformationNew Age of Human AchievementCame through ItalyVenices and the merchant Republics relationship with the Middle EastScholars searching the libraries of the world for works of ancient GreeceBlack Death encouraged secularism because of the Catholic Churchs inability to stop the diseaseRenaissance & ReformationNew Age of Human AchievementCharacteristicsIndividualism - moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independenceAlso increasing urban areas made these changes across society

Renaissance & ReformationUrbanismItalian City-StatesMilan ruled by the Visconti dukesVenice ruled by the merchants who elected a DogeFlorence ruled by the De Medici family

Renaissance & ReformationNew Age of Human AchievementNiccol MachiavelliWrote The PrinceSaid that rulers should do things for the sake of the stateOld writers stressed that rulers must behave based on Christian moralsRenaissance & ReformationSecular Humanismhumanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making a non-religious life stance focusing on the way human beings can lead good and happy livesRenaissance & ReformationEducationMany intellectuals wrote books and open schools based on their ideasLiberal StudiesThey believed studying these liberal arts let people reach their full potentialRenaissance & ReformationMath and ScienceCreated the square root, and positive and negative numbersArchitecture brought new forms of engineeringRediscovered astronomy and our heliocentric solar systemGalileo was excommunicated by the church for writing that the earth revolved around the sunRenaissance & ReformationRenaissance LiteratureDanteThe Divine ComedyWilliam ShakespeareWrote plays in comedic, historic, and tragedy formsRomeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Julius CaesarRenaissance & ReformationMiguel de CervantesWrote the comedic romance story of Don QuixoteRenaissance & ReformationRebirth of ArtRealistic styleDeveloped by a fresco painterPainting becomes technical even mathematicalInvestigation of movement and human anatomyHuman Nudes

Renaissance & ReformationMasters of the High RenaissanceLeonardo da VinciRealistic paintingDissected human bodies to see how nature workedRaphaelPerfected perspectiveMichelangeloSistine Chapel ceilingThe DavidRenaissance & ReformationLeonardo da Vinci

Renaissance & ReformationRaphael

Renaissance & ReformationMichelangelo

Renaissance & Reformation

Northern MastersAlbrecht DrerRitter, Tod und Teufel

Renaissance & Reformation

Jan van EyckGiovanni Arnolfini and His Bride

Renaissance & ReformationProtestant ReformationI do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each othermy conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise. God help me. Amen.-Martin LutherRenaissance & ReformationBefore LutherChristian HumanismGoal: Reform the Catholic ChurchCombine reason and faithErasmusBelief: the philosophy of ChristLive good lives, no need for salvationInternal religious validationRenaissance & ReformationThe Church Before ReformationPopes failed the people spirituallyPopes gained military powerPopes more worried with moneySold indulgences (buying salvation to raise money for the Church)

Renaissance & ReformationMartin LutherWas a monk and professor in Wittenberg, GermanyBelieved humans were not saved by good worksBut through faith in God aloneJustification by Faith

Renaissance & Reformation95 ThesesLuther was upset about the selling of indulgencesEspecially upset at Johann TetzelOn Oct. 31, 1517, Luther nailed his 95 theses to the Church door in WittenbergGot help from the German princesKept only two sacraments (communion and baptism)

Renaissance & ReformationexcommunicatedWas made an outlaw by the Edict of WormsWent into hiding and his beliefs spread throughout N. EuropeLutheran Church began

Renaissance & Reformation

ZwingliSwitzerland reformer; less elaborate church services and decorations; no relicsJohn CalvinWrote Institutes of the Christian ReligionAgreed on justification by faithBut believed in predestinationPredetermination by God on who will go to Heaven and those who will go to HellBecame stronger than LutheranismRenaissance & Reformation

Henry VIIISplit with the Catholic Church because the pope refused to annul one of his marriagesCreated the Church of EnglandBecame the Anglican Church (Episcopal)Renaissance & Reformation

AnabaptistsDid not like princes or kings having so much power in the churchAdult baptism not infantEach church chose its own leaderWere persecuted by Catholics and other protestants alikeRenaissance & ReformationCatholic ReformationThe Society of Jesus, JesuitsStarted by Ignatius of LoyolaMissionaries used education to teach and spread Catholic doctrinePapal ReformStopped corruption of the pastCouncil of TrentFaith and good works needed for salvationIndulgences forbidden

Renaissance & ReformationResults of the Protestant ReformationReligious Conflicts throughout EuropeThirty Years War between France and different kingdoms within the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) and a decades long civil war in France between the Huguenots and the Catholics that ended with the Edict of Nantes, declaring religious freedom except in ParisRenaissance & ReformationChurch leaders reform the Catholic ChurchMissionaries start to spread Catholicism more after renewed vigor from the Catholic ReformationNorthern Europe becomes largely ProtestantProtestant churches practice self-government (except in England)The idea of federalism starts within these churches and spreads to local governmentsEspecially in SwitzerlandRenaissance & Reformation