Employee Motivation

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employee Motivation of Restaurant employees

Transcript of Employee Motivation

  • EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION:

    A COMPARISON OF TIPPED AND NON-TIPPED HOURLY RESTAURANT EMPLOYEES

    by

    CATHERINE R. JOHNSON B.M. Rider University, 1997

    A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

    for the degree of Master of Science in the Rosen College of Hospitality Management

    at the University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida

    Fall Term 2005

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    2005 Catherine R. Johnson

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    ABSTRACT

    Employee motivation shall be defined by Robbins (as cited in Ramlall, 2004) as: the

    willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the

    efforts ability to satisfy some individual need. To engage in the practice of motivating

    employees, employers must understand the unsatisfied needs of each of the employee

    groups. This study desires to provide practitioners in the restaurant industry the ability to

    recognize motivators for these different employment groups and their relationship to

    organizational commitment.

    The restaurant industry consists of two types of employees: salaried and hourly. This

    study focuses on hourly employees, and their subdivision: tipped employees. For the

    purpose of this research hourly employees shall be defined as employees that depend on

    their hourly wage as their main source of income and tipped employees shall be defined

    as employees that depend on the receipt of tips as their main source of income. The

    purpose of this study desires to provide practitioners in the restaurant industry a

    comparison and analysis of employee motivation between the two employment groups

    and their level of organizational commitment.

    After formulating a thorough research review, a questionnaire instrument was

    assembled. The sample for this study was a convenience sample consisting of 104

    restaurant hourly tipped and non-tipped, front of the house personnel employed in a

    single branded, national restaurant chain located in the metropolitan area of Orlando,

    Florida. The research instrument was a survey questionnaire instrument comprised of

    three sections: 1.) twelve motivational factors derived from Kovach (1995), 2.) nine

    questions from the reduced OCQ from Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979), and a section

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    concerning demographic information of gender, age, race, education level, marital status,

    job type and tenure in the industry.

    Results from the study revealed that firstly, all of the employees in this thesis study

    felt that management loyalty was the most important motivating factor; secondly,

    intrinsic motivation factors were more important to non-tipped hourly employees; thirdly,

    gender had a strong influence in half of the motivating factors; fourthly, promotion and

    career development was found to be more important to non-tipped employees; lastly,

    overall mostly medium positive relationships were found between employee motivation

    and organizational commitment. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future

    research are discussed in the final chapter.

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    To Shane.

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    I would like to express my gratitude to the people that guided and encouraged me

    through this study. First, I would like to thank my thesis committee chair and advisor,

    Dr. Randall Upchurch, for always taking time with me on a daily basis for my questions

    and guiding me through the thesis process. It was a pleasure to work with you this past

    year academically, allowing me to lead a project as a graduate research assistant, and

    planning the joint activities with the faculty and the Graduate Hospitality Association. It

    is nice to know that others also thrive while being busy.

    I would like to thank Dr. Po-Ju Chen, who served on my committee for the

    encouragement and knowledge. You encouraged my passion for research and made sure

    that my questions and answers were in order. I would also like to thank Dr. Denver

    Severt, who encouraged my ideas before the process ever started and helped me bring it

    to fruition.

    I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. Dana Tesone for the small chats and

    perspective into my study and Dr. Chris Muller, for many long chats and helping me

    develop my survey instrument.

    I would also like to thank the restaurant chain management that allowed me to

    survey their employees in my data collection process. I would also like to thank the

    participants that shared their information for this study.

    I would like to thank my parents Edward and Prajahkjit Johnson for their love and

    support, Diane Curtis for supporting me and loving me as a daughter through the last few

    years. My deepest gratitude is dedicated to Shane Curtis, for the love, support,

    encouragement, and most of all, patience. Finally, I would like to thank my friends all

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    across the United States and here at the Rosen College for listening and encouraging me

    through the thesis process.

    Thank you.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................ x LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................. xi CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION................................................................................. 1

    Purpose of Study............................................................................................................. 2 Background of Study: A Review of Literature ........................................................... 2

    Need for the Study .................................................................................................. 6 Objectives of the Study........................................................................................... 7 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................ 7 Definition of Terms................................................................................................. 8

    CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................... 10 Employee Motivation Need Theories ........................................................................... 10

    Maslows Theory ...................................................................................................... 11 McClellands Theory ................................................................................................ 13

    Employee Motivation Equity Theories......................................................................... 15 Adams Theory ......................................................................................................... 15

    Employee Motivation Expectancy Theories................................................................. 17 Vrooms Theory........................................................................................................ 17 Hackman & Porter .................................................................................................... 20 Porter & Lawlers Extension Of Expectancy Theory ............................................... 22

    Task and Goal Employee Motivation Theories ............................................................ 25 Herzbergs Two Factor Theory................................................................................. 25 Goal Setting Theory.................................................................................................. 27 Job Characteristics Model......................................................................................... 32 Theory X and Y ........................................................................................................ 35 Ten Job Related Factors............................................................................................ 37 Motivation Factors and the Caribbean...................................................................... 40 Motivation Factors in the U.S. & Canada................................................................. 41 Motivation Factors and Hong Kong ......................................................................... 43 Tipped Employees .................................................................................................... 45 Tipped Employee Motivation Theories .................................................................... 49

    Organizational Commitment......................................................................................... 53 Side Bet Theory ........................................................................................................ 54 Organizational Commitment and Social Relationships in the Workplace................ 55 Organizational Commitment and the Hospitality Industry....................................... 57 Timeline .................................................................................................................... 59

    Synthesis of Employee Motivation and Organizational Commitment Theories .......... 61 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................... 63

    Research Design ........................................................................................................... 63 Sampling Frame ........................................................................................................ 63 Questionnaire Inst