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    MSc Sustainable Design of Built Environment

    Sustainable Built Environment (ENV 01507)

    Dr. Moshood Olawale Fadeyi

    Amani AL Sammani


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    Table of Contents 2

    List of Figures . 31 Introduction . .. 4

    2 Causes 7

    2.1 Oil Exploration and Production (E&P) ......... 7

    2.2 Population explosion .. 8

    2.3 Extensive construction activities and Waste management. . 9

    2.4 The development of industrial complexes and large resorts innumerous coastal areas .......................... 11

    2.5 New farming and Green belt plantation ...... 12

    2.6 Carbon Dioxide emissions and Traffic overcrowding 13

    2.7 Industrial Development and Urbanization ... 14

    2.8 Over-Exploitation (trapping and hunting) 143 Impacts . 15

    3.1 Atmosphere . 15

    3.2 Biodiversity ......... 17

    3.3 Land Use and Deforestation 17

    3.4 Water Resources 19

    3.5 Marine Resources ......... 204 Solutions ... ...... 22

    4.1 Reduce the Carbon and GHGs Footprint ... 22

    4.2 Reduce Energy Footprint ...... 25

    4.3 Reduce Over-Exploitation and Industrial Development Footprint ... 28

    4.4 Reduce Urbanization Footprint . 30

    4.5 Reduce Good and Food Footprint 325 Conclusion .. 34

    Refe rences. 35

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    List of Figures Page

    Figure 1-1: Sources of Pollution... 4

    Figure 1-2: Average ecological footprint per pers on in the UAE. 5

    Figure 2- 1: UAE Crude Production .. 7Figure 2- 2: Total Population.. 8

    Figure 2- 3 a: Under construction buildings by type...... 9

    Figure 2-3 b: completed buildings by type ........... ....................... 9

    Figure 2- 4 a: General Waste by type..... ....................... 10

    Figure 2-4 b: Total Waste (2005 2009) 11

    Figure 2-5: Hotels and Resorts Const ruction in coastal areas in Dubai............. ................ 11

    Figure 2-6 a: Number of farms ......... .................................................. 12

    Figure 2-6 b: area of green cover by M2 ... ....................................................... 12

    Figure 2-7: Air Pollution Indicators at monitoring sites . 13

    Figure 2-8 New and Renew vehicles 13

    Figure 2- 9: vehicles per thousand populations.. 14Figure 3-1: CO2 e missions in the world 16

    Figure 3-2: farming in AL Ain and its salinity problems ......... ........................ 18

    Figure 3-3: Abu Dhabi coastline 18

    Figure 3-4: Water Supply Station in Abu Dhabi . 19

    Figure 3-5: Over fishing problem in the UAE 20

    Figure 4- 1: Masdar City as the worlds largest and most comprehensive alternative energy

    program .

    . 22

    Figure 4-2: Oil and Gas Flaring of ADNOC ... .................................. 23

    Figure 4-3: ADNOC emissions reduction 24

    Figure 4-4: Reduction of CO2 emissions . 24Figure 4-5: Wind Power Turbine in Sir Bani Yas Islan 25

    Figure 4-6: Solar Farm in Masdar city ... ............................... 26

    Figure 4-7: Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) 27

    Figure 4-8: Water well inventory and registration program .. 28

    Figure 4-9: Al Qarm as one of the most sustainable species in the UAE .. 29

    Figure 4-10: Dubai Metro as efficient public transportation working by clean energy .. 31

    Figure 4-11: special lanes for public transport vehicles only in Dubai . 31

    Figure 4-12: Abu Dhabi Organic Farm . 32

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    Ecological footprint is a tool that uses accounting principles to calculate theresource consumption and waste absorption requirements of a defined human

    population or economy corresponding to a land area. It is a measure of the load

    imposed by a given population on nature.

    (The World Wildlife Fund WWF: Living planet report 2008) ranked UAE as the

    country with the world's largest Ecological Footprint per capita in 2005, which is

    more than three times higher than the average humanity's Footprint. The report

    recorded that each person in the UAE requires an average of 10.5 global

    hectares (gha) to sustain current rates of consumption and carbon emissions.

    The problem of huge Footprint of UAE comes from the high rate of consumption

    and unfriendly environmental activities which producing several kinds of

    environmental problems and pollutions. Figure 1-1 shows the sources of pollution

    including the oil exploration and production, factories, toxic sewage systems, and

    release of components from industrial entities.

    Figure 1-1: Sources of Pollution

    (Source: Wright 1981)

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    This means that if the earths population consumed and emitted carbons as

    much as UAE residents do, more than 4.5 earths would be required to sustain

    it. While global biocapacity is 2.1 gha per person, the average per personfootprint in the UAE is 10.5 global gha.

    The global report has ranked the UAE as the worst in the world for its per capita

    environmental footprint as shown in Figure 1-2.

    Figure 1-2: Average ecological footprint per person in the UAE.

    (Source: The World Wildlife Fund WWF : Living planet report 2008)

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    2. CAUSES

    WWF: Wildlife Society (2001) referred the major environmental concerns inthe UAE to the fast rate of development. The conversion from a traditional

    economy based on subsistence fisheries, oasis agriculture and livestock to a

    modern, highly urbanized country in less than 30 years is affecting the

    environment . Jorgenson and Burns (2006) summarized the causes of change in

    the ecological footprints between different nations in 8 points as following:-

    2.1 Oil Exploration and Production (E&P).

    2.2 Population explosion.

    2.3 Extensive construction activities and Waste management.2.4 The development of industrial complexes and large resorts in numerous

    coastal areas.

    2.5 New farming and Green belt plantation.

    2.6 Carbon Dioxide emissions and Traffic overcrowding.

    2.7 Industrial development and Urbanization.

    2.8 Over-Exploitation (trapping and hunting).

    This research will study how the factors mentioned by Jorgenson and Burns

    (2006) have affected the Ecological footprint in UAE.

    2.1 Oil Exploration and Production (E&P).

    With the burning of fossil fuels, like natural gas, crude oil and coal, many different

    gasses are emitted to the air and they could cause a serious pollutions and

    health hazards. ADNOC (2008) piled the main gasses emitted by oil burning and

    cause air pollution as CO2, SO2, NOX, CH4 and VOC. There is solid evidence

    that the increase in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions is leading to global

    warming and climate change. These GHGs are mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) and

    methane (CH4) ADNOC (2008).

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    OPEC (2005) pointed that the production of UAE from oil exceeded 3 million

    barrels daily as its the fourth largest oil producer in the world. Oil and gas

    production are the main income for economy in the UAE and will remain a majorrevenue earner long into the future, due to the huge reserves at the countrys


    Embassy of UAE in Washington DC (2009) reported that UAE is an important

    provider to global energy markets with almost 10 percent of the total world supply

    of proven crude oil reserves. As a mainstay to the economy, oil exports now

    account for about 30 percent of total UAE gross domestic product. While some

    OPEC nations and many non-OPEC nations have seen production declines over

    the last five years, the UAE has increased its total production of crude oil byapproximately 31 percent. Embassy of UAE in Washington DC (2009)

    Figure 2-1 shows the UAE crude production between 2002 and 2007. The

    average annual production never fallen below the previous year.

    Figure 2-1: UAE Crude Production

    (Source: Abu Dhabi Executive Affairs Authority ADEAA: Economic Affairs Unit 2007)

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    2.3 Extensive construction activities and Waste management.

    COMIX construction machinery exhibition, Dubai (2008) mentioned that around30000 or 24% of the world s construction cranes are presently operating in

    DUBAI, that cranes are serving 513 services buildings, 4314 complex and 1301

    multistory buildings. The fuel consumed by these cranes in one year can cover

    the requirements of city like Paris for 5 years COMIX (2008). The construction

    also kicks up a lot of dust, carbon dioxide and ever increasing traffic.

    Figure 2-3 a, and Figure 2-3 b shows the number of complexes, multistory

    buildings, and recreational and services buildings completed and under

    constructio n between 2004 2008.

    Figure 2-3 a: Under construction buildings by type

    (Source: Dubai Municipality: Building Department 2008)

    Figure 2-3 b: completed buildings by type

    (Source: Dubai Municipality: Building Department 2008)

    Villas & Residentialcomplexes

    Multistorey & CommercialBuildings

    Recreational & ServicesBuildings

    2004 3580 590 682

    2006 3857 899 586

    2008 4314 1303 513



    Villas & Residentialcomplexes

    Multistorey & CommercialBuildings

    Recreational & ServicesBuildings

    2004 1436 393 290

    2006 1529 337 386

    2008 1432 381 409



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    The domestic waste is generated as result of lifestyle and household activities

    such as the cooking, cleaning, empty containers, packaging and huge use of

    plastic carry bags.Dubai municipality (2008) reported that domestic waste per person was doubled

    between 1996 and 2006. The figure was 720 kilos of wastes in 1996 and it

    increased significantly to 941 kilos in 2000 then it jumped to more than 1450 kilos

    of waste in 2006. The report added, In 2004, non-oil industries and other sources

    generated estimated 6,000 12,000 tones of hazardous waste. This amount is

    expected to increase to 22,000 tons by 2015.

    Waste disposal and treatment can result in emissions of several greenhouse

    gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. The most significant

    GHG produced from waste is methane. It is released during the breakdown oforganic matter in landfills. Methane is 20 times more potent as a GHG than

    carbon dioxide (CO2).

    Figure 2-4a shows that the construction waste as the major problem of the waste

    control and management compared with the solid waste and agricultural waste.

    Figure 2-4b shows the tremendous increase of total waste from 2005 to 2007

    and then a decrease in 2009. That decrease of waste in 2009 due to the decline

    of the construction works because of the economic crises.

    Figure 2-4 a: General Waste by type

    (Source: Dubai Municipality 2009)



    Solid Waste

    2005 8,447,180 133,038 2,364,911

    2007 27,697,237 142,816 3,347,135

    2009 17,697,425 191,141 3,516,912








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    Figure 2-4 b: Total Waste (2005 2009)

    (Source: Dubai Municipality 2009)

    2.4 The development of industrial complexes and large resorts in

    numerous coastal areas.

    Outdoors activities are affecting significantly the environment. The UAE coastline

    is affected by the development of large resorts and industrial complexes. Several

    coastal areas of regional importance are being threatened.

    Figure 2-5 showing an example of the construction works for the investment

    projects, such as hotels and resorts facing the coastal areas in Dubai. Artificial

    human made island might also have negative impacts on the habitats as the

    shoal and reef fish habitats are changing.

    Figure 2-5: Hotels and Resorts Construction in coastal areas in Dubai (Photo by: Tom Green 2006)

    2005 2007 2009

    Total waste 11,163,254 31,187,188 21,405,478





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    2.5 New farming and Green belt plantation.

    DEWA (2009) pointed that the UAE is the worlds third largest per capita wate rconsumer after the U.S. and Canada. And the cost of buying one liter of petrol

    and one liter of water is nearly the same. Ground water is being extracted rapidly

    to fulfill the demand of the new farming and green belt plantation. The green

    cover requires huge efforts to be preserved. It needs maintenance, care, and

    control which mean consuming more water, fertilizers, energy and other services.

    There is a significant increase in the number of farms and green cover in UAE.

    Figure 2-6 a shows the number of farms between 2005 and 2007, Figure 2-6 b

    shows the area of green belt and it almost needs 2 years to be doubled. This

    rapid increase of farms and green cover is doubling the demand of water,fertilizers and energy consumption thus the environment is affected.

    Figure 2-6 a: Number of farms

    (Source: Ministry of Environment and Water 2007)

    Figure 2-6 b: area of green cover by M2

    (Source: Dubai Municipality 2005)

    2005 2006 2007

    number of farms 1165 1204 1385





    2003 2004 2005

    green cover by m2 20460772 21207000 22072850








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    2.6 Carbon Dioxide emissions and Traffic overcrowding.

    Two aspects record a negative air situation in UAE, first the rapid pace ofUrbanization and Industrial Development, and second, the extreme increase of


    Dubai Municipality (2006) mentioned that Vehicles emissions account for 75-80%

    of UAEs air pollution while the rest is due to em issions from manufacturing

    industries and power plants.

    Figure 2-7 shows Air Pollution Indicators at monitoring sites and it is clear that

    the polluting gasses are increasing extensively from 2004 to 2006.

    Figure 2-7: Air Pollution Indicators at monitoring sites

    (Source: Dubai Municipality 2006)

    Road and Transport Authority RTA (2008) records shows around 27 percent

    yearly increase in the vehicles registered between 2004 and 2008. The number

    of new cars is increased from 119,177 in 2004 to 284309 cars in 2008.

    Figure 2-8 shows the New and Renew vehicles between 2004 and 2008. The

    huge number of cars introduced to the city every year would have a negative

    impact on the air quality in UAE.

    Figure 2-8 New and Renew vehicles

    (Source: Road and Transport Authority RTA 2008)

    new renew

    2008 284,309 553498

    2006 212867 3844602004 119177 289008


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    RTA (2008) mentioned that Dubai has more than 541 vehicles per thousands

    population, while city like New York 444, London 345, and Singapore 111

    as shown in Figure 2-9 .

    Figure 2-9: vehicles per thousand populations

    (Source: Road and Transport Authority RTA 2008)

    RTA (2008) said that Vehicles in Dubai take 3.1 million trips a day, this number is

    elected to be doubled by the year 2015. According to RTA (2008) report 17% of

    the petrol vehicles and 24% of the diesel vehicles on Dubai roads are more than

    7 years old which also a sign for gasses embedded by theses car in higher


    2.7 Industrial development and Urbanization.

    WSP (2001) pointed that the industrial development and urbanization are rising

    at the expense of habitat for wildlife which has been lost because of that. Also,

    overgrazing and over fishing are affecting negatively on the environment.

    2.8 Over-Exploitation (trapping and hunting).

    WSP (2001) Many species are wiped out and declined in the recent years due to

    over-exploitation (hunting and trapping). The main problem is the lack of space

    and appropriate environment for the various species.

    Dubai London New York Singapore

    vehicles per thousandspopulation 541 345 444 111








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    3. IMPACTS

    Pollution is an addition to the ecosystem of something which has a negative

    effect on it. One of the most important causes of the pollution in the UAE is the

    high rate of energy usage by modern growing population.

    3.1 Atmosphere

    Abu Dhabi Municipality ADM (2009) recorded that the air quality in the UAE is

    generally acceptable but may deteriorate in some industrial areas like Musaffah

    and Mafraq in Abu Dhabi and in some areas in Dubai because of the increase of

    Urbanization and industrial development. However (SO2) is concentrated around

    the cities and it may exceed the safe limits in some areas. Some areas also

    experienced high concentration of Ozone at ground level.

    ADEDI (2009) pointed that Pollution levels are either close to or exceed air

    pollution guidelines in most of the UAE major cities. NO2 levels have exceeded

    air pollution guidelines in parts of Abu Dhabi, Al Ain and D ubai. There is a

    relatively high, naturally occurring level of particulate matter in the air exceeding

    the air quality guidelines in Abu Dhabi and Dubai ADEDI (2009). G as and oil

    industry is ranked as the main cause of air pollution in UAE. SO2 and NOx

    produced from power and transportation sector came in the second stage.

    As a result of different types of air pollution and the emissions of greenhouse

    gases the report of State of Environment referred to the significant increases in

    the global mean temperature and the different hazards could be caused by that,

    Climate change may affect the UAE by rising the sea level, extreme weather

    and additional flooding. Destruction of coral reef habitats has also been related to

    the climate change ADEDI (2009) . The report added, Waste and its

    management contribute to a number of environmental problems as emissions of

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    greenhouse gases, heavy metals and other environmentally hazardous


    Dubai Municipality DM (2006) reported that Dubai is the world's worst air

    pollution. The city rank among the worst in the developed world using an On-road

    Vehicle Emission Measurement device, which assigns a percentage score for the

    levels of destructive pollutants including hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide,

    nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide. Figure 3-1 shows the CO2 emissions in

    different cities in the world in 2006 and it is clearly that the UAE is the highest

    CO2 producer compared with the world countries in that year. The scoring

    system presents a higher percentage supported by two factors: the quantity of

    cars on a road throughout the testing period, and the amount of emissions fromeach motor vehicle. On both counts, Dubai reaches negatively in comparison to

    developed countries: there are more cars on the road at any one time, and each

    car is emitting out more pollution Dubai municipality (2006).

    Figure 3-1: CO2 emissions in the world

    (Source: 2006)

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    3.2 Biodiversity

    Environmental Agency of Abu Dhabi EAD (2009) Pointed that several large

    mammal species in Abu Dhabi are wiped out as a result of hunting. There is 47

    mammal species remained in Abu Dhabi , 15 are on the Worlds Red List of

    Threatened Species. There are over 430 bird species and 15 of these are listed

    as Globally Threatened. Abu Dhabi waters are home to 240 fish species and

    turtles. Four of the fish species are in danger and two turtle species are critically

    in danger of extinction. EAD added, the majority of the UAE inhabitants live in the

    coastal zones, where the human impact on environment is most directly felt. A

    number of habitats have been seriously fragmented or degraded, and a range of

    animal and plant species have become extremely rare or even extinct in the


    3.3 Land Use and Deforestation.

    DM (2009) said that 94% of the urban and industrial developments in the UAE

    are concentrated in the coastal areas. Accordingly coastal landfilling is increasing

    rapidly particularly in Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

    The internal zones also experienced significant changes in land use over the last

    decades. Overgrazing is one of the problems facing the internal areas in UAE.

    The desert has intensified in recent years, threatening to destroy the natural

    balance. The petrochemical industry, sprawling cities, the artificial recreation

    areas and increased areas of irrigated agriculture and forestry have brought

    about significant changes in land use DM (2009).

    Al Ain Municipality AAM (2009) mentioned that the green covered areas have

    doubled twenty times in the past 30 years. Nowadays more than 25,000 farms in

    Abu Dhabi increasing the water demand to about 1949 million cubic meters water

    annually (Figure 2-6 a and Figure 2-6 b). The necessary irrigation increases the

    salinity of the soil and reduces its productiveness in the long run. It is founded

    that about 90 percent of the farms around Al Ain had salinity problems Figure3-2.

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    Figur 3-2: farming in AL Ain and its salinity problems

    (Source: Al Ain Municipality 2009)

    ADM (2009) mentioned that the tourism is an important part of the government

    strategy to diversify the Emirates economy to reduce reliance on the

    petrochemical industry. In the construction process, large portions of land are

    being sealed as they are covered with asphalt for new roads and airports.

    Coastal zones are transformed into artificially landscaped areas for people flying

    in from all over the planet Figure 3-3.

    Figure 3-3: Abu Dhabi coastline

    (Source: ADM 2009)

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    3.5 Marine Resources.

    ADEDI (2009) recorded that the majority of commercially exploited bottom

    dwelling species and the most important surface dwelling species are being

    exploited well in excess of sustainable levels as shown in Figure 3-5. Some

    stocks have been depleted by 80 percent over the past 30 years. A large

    proportion of catches is composed of immature fish. An estimated 95 percent of

    the landed catches have not reached maturity. Furthermore, the reproductive

    capacity of the tocks has been impaired because adult stock sizes have been

    reduced below critical threshold levels.

    Figure 3-5: Over fishing problem in the UAE

    (Source: ADEDI : SoE report 2009)

    The report added, Physical alterations such as land reclamation, dredging andthe construction of breakwaters, in conjunction with increasing urban sprawl has

    resulted in the loss, degradation and fragmentation of coastal and marine

    habitats in the UAE.

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    Furthermore, urbanization, which is being driven by a dramatic increase in the

    population growth rate, has lead to increased pollution loads, particularly in the

    near shore areas where the reduction in water quality has impaired naturalprocesses and the productivity of coastal ecosystems.

    DM (2009) reported that the most of the heavy industries are located on the

    coast as seawater is accessible for industrial usage or cooling purposes. The

    associated thermal hyper-saline water discharges exacerbate the already

    demanding marine environment and critical habitats. Also, fish kills caused by

    harmful algal blooms, are common in coastal waters where nutrient enrichment

    has occurred as a result of the input of industrial liquid wastes.

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    4. Solutions

    It became clear from the previous discussion that Footprints are the result ofmany unhealthy behaviors from individual or governmental activities. There are

    numerous ways to reduce footprint as individuals by changing and improving

    quality of life or as authorities by influence policy so that future generations have

    the same opportunities to enjoy rich and rewarding lives.

    4.1 Reduce the Carbon and GHGs Footprint.

    UAE government became aware about the environmental impacts of high

    footprint. The UAE is working in different plans and strategies to reduce its

    carbon footprint:

    A capital of $20 billion has been invested by Abu Dhabi government in Masdar

    city as shown in Figure 4.1. Masdar city is considered as the worlds largest and

    most comprehensive alternative energy program. the strategies and design

    development was done in a partnership with US partners include MIT, Columbia

    University, Colorado-based CH2MHill, Chicago-based Adrian Smith + Gordon

    Gill Architecture, and other institutions worldwide, such as WWF, Imperial

    College of London, and Tokyo Institute of Technology.

    Figure 4.1: Masdar City as the worlds largest and most comprehensive alternative energyprogram(Source: Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company MASDAR 2009 )

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    E.UAE.WDC (2009) mentioned that the UAE government is in the process for

    exploring nuclear energy as an alternative resource of energy to cover the rapidly

    growing demand for electricity, due to incredible growth as well as intense waterdesalination requirements. This step will play a major role to reduce domestic

    demand for natural gas and the need for oil-burning.

    E.UAE.WDC (2009) Recorded significant reductions in CO2 emission. In 1990

    the UAE emitted 32,6 tons CO2 per person per year and in 2002 the amount had

    dropped to 25,1 tons per person per year. This significant drop was due to the

    better technologies and transition to more natural gas in power plants, emissions

    of CO2 per capita have decreased.

    ADEDI (2009) reported a significant reduction from oil and gas flaring productionas it reduced from approximately 7.5 million cubic meters per day to 2.5 million

    cubic meters per day. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) has set zero

    flaring as a strategic objective. As a result of reducing flaring, the overall CO2

    emission have been reduced by 4%, by long-term the achievement of large-scale

    reductions of CO2 emissions would be met via alternative means and new

    technologies e.g. re- injection, sequestration, carbon capture ADEDI (2009).

    Figure 4.2 showing the oil and gas flaring and its emissions in to Atmosphere.

    Figure 4.2: Oil and Gas Flaring of ADNOC(Source: ADNOC Health, Safety, and Environment annual report 2008)

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    ADEDI (2009) reported that from the 1st of January 2003, the UAE introduced

    unleaded petrol on the local market as part o f its UAE Goes Green program .

    This involved the conversion of 500 filling stations nationwide to unleaded petrol,the training of transport and service station personnel, and an awareness

    campaign for 750,000 UAE motorists.

    ADNOC (2008) announced that the environmental performance is against

    ADNOC Strategic HSE Objectives. HSE Objectives are based upon international

    standards for environmental management which ADNOC aim to have as

    performance scale on par with international best practices. Figure 4.3 shows the

    reduction of ADNOC emissions which have negative impact on ambient air

    quality. These emissions result mainly from the combustion of fuels and gases.

    Figure 4.3: ADNOC emissions reduction

    (Source: ADNOC Health, Safety, and Environment annual report 2008)

    Figure 4.4 shows ADNOC Efforts within the last five years to manage GHGs

    emissions from their operations which led to 4% reduction in CO2 emissions.

    Figure 4.4: Reduction of CO2 emissions

    (Source: ADNOC Health, Safety, and Environment annual report 2008)

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    4.2 Reduce Energy Footprint.

    Nuclear Energy

    E.UAE.WDC (2009) announced that the UAE is pursuing a peaceful, civilian

    nuclear energy program that upholds the highest standards of safety, security,

    nonproliferation and operational transparency. The development of a peaceful,

    civilian nuclear energy program was based on an in-depth evaluation of the

    UAEs future energy needs. An initial study determined that national annual peak

    demand for electricity is likely to rise to more than 40,000 megawatts by 2020,

    reflecting a cumulative annual growth rate of about nine percent from 2007. Even

    with adjustments to account for the worldwide economic slowdown, the projecteddemand is well beyond current capacity.

    Wind Power

    Unlike oil, gas and fossil fuel power sources, wind power consumes no fuel, and

    emits no air pollution. DEWA (2009) reported that 850 KW wind powered

    electricity plant was constructed at the island of Sir Bani Yas, and the UAE

    government is in the process of coordinating a setup of three wind farms in

    various locations that would have a total capacity of 66 MW.Figure 4.5 shows one of the wind power turbines in Sir Bani Yas Island.

    Figure 4.5: Wind Power Turbine in Sir Bani Yas Islan(Source: DEWA- Electricity & Water Conservation report 2009)
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    Solar Power

    BBC weather forecast (2008) recorded that the sun is shine in the gulf region formore than 88 percent of the year; solar power is one of the most efficient and

    affordable energy alternatives available especially in the gulf region due to the

    solar power that they can produce. DEWA (2009) revealed that UAE is in a

    series stage aims to introduce solar power as one of the main sources in the

    domestic use, UAE developing and promoting solar power as an alternative form

    of energy and houses running on solar power will soon be available in the

    country DEWA (2009) . Some Other projects will use solar energy are in the


    Fee collection machines in car parks.

    Public Telephone cabins.

    Warning signal lights.

    Program for the production of solar cells and the execution of photovoltaic

    systems in the UAE.

    Solar powered communication stations in remote areas.

    Establishment of a factories and farms for sun plates as shown in Figure 4.6.

    Figure 4.6: Solar Farm in Masdar city(Source: Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company MASDAR 2009 )

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    Use of Energy-Saving Features.

    DEWA (2009) mentioned a few energy conservation tips for helping users to

    save energy while using their home appliances:

    Water flow reducers for taps and showerheads

    Plastic bottle filled with sand and water for placement in toilet tank. Or use of

    a toilet displacement device or bag.

    Point-Of-Use water heaters installed beneath kitchen or bathroom sink to

    give instant hot water.

    Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) Figure 4.7.

    Drip irrigation system for trees and shrubs in the garden.

    Solar powered garden or walkway lightsLight dimmers

    Energy Star or high-efficiency home appliances

    LCD monitors.

    Window and door frame foam/rubber seals to stop air escaping or coming


    Sensor lighting or light timers.

    Figure 4.7: Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs)(Source:

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    4.3 Reduce The Over-Exploitation and Industrial Development Footprint

    Improve the Waste Management.

    ADEDI (2009) appreciated the great efforts by UAE government to propos and

    apply the law no. (21) Of 2005 on Waste Management for the Emirate of Abu

    Dhabi. This law includes new strategies for the management of municipal waste;

    medical waste and hazardous waste from the non-oil sector were also prepared

    in 2005-2006. These strategies will provide the basis for tenders for new waste

    facilities, some of which are already in progress.

    Improve Groundwater Management.

    ADEDI (2009) described the establishment of ground water monitoring network in

    2005 as an important strategy helps to conserve this important resource for

    water. Another step has been taken by the government in 2006 by establishing

    the water drilling law that strengthened EADs role in permitting policy. Since that

    time, EAD has begun to develop a comprehensive water resources database for

    the Emirates water well inventory and registration program as shown in


    Figure 4.8 : Water well inventory and registration program(Source: ADEDI- State of Environment report 2009)

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    Species and Habitat Restoration.

    EAD (2009) pointed that Al Qarm (mangroves) considred as one of the most

    sustainable species in the UAE. These habitats are abundant in Abu Dhabi, but

    declining rapidly due to coastal development, climate change, and unsustainable

    exploitation of resources. A mangrove management and monitoring program is

    being implemented to gain a better understanding of the characteristics and

    sensitivities of this unique habitat. Two hotels in the western region on Sir Bani

    Yas Island were opened, each guest plants a mangrove, while Qasr Al Sarab

    resort near Liwa is adjacent to a 9,000 square kilometer protected wildlife reserve

    managed by the Abu Dhabi Environment Agency. The reserve will be home to

    several thousand free-roaming indigenous Arabian animals, including the

    Arabian Oryx, Mountain Gazelle and Sand Gazelle.

    On the other hand new law established that prohibiting the use of bicycles,

    vehicles and automobiles in grazing activities. The regulations also restrict

    cutting or burning plants, littering, hunting or harming animals and birds,

    destroying nests, collecting eggs, and bringing animals infected with

    communicable diseases to pastoral areas ADEDI (2009).

    Figure 4.9: Al Qarm as one of the most sustainable species in the UAE

    (Source: ADEDI- State of Environment report 2009)

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    ADEDI (2009) pointed that the National Avian Research Centre has operated a

    breeding and reintroduction program for Houbara Bustards. In 2006 almost 650

    chicks reared, 79 birds were released and high survival rates have been shownin recent years. Also, Abu Dhabi sustains the largest known population of

    Dugong (Dugong Dugon). Over the past five years, the population has remained

    due to the management measures by the government of Abu Dhabi to protect the


    Well protection of the species and their environment.

    Declaration of the marine protected area of high Dugong density.

    Banning the use of drift nets, locally called Al hayali, which considered being

    the major cause of Dugong mortality.

    4.4 Reduce Urbanization Footprint.

    Dubai Municipality (2009) revealed that Dubai is developing its master

    environmental plan. That plan is aiming to ensure that growth and progress are in

    parallel while protecting the environment.

    Reduce vehicles and support public transportation

    Roads and Transport Authority (2009) established a serious of decisions and

    actions in order to reduce the demand on private vehicles and increase the car

    sharing and public transportation. Dubai Metro as shown in Figure 4.10 has given

    a boost to the public transport in Dubai as the number of passengers reached an

    average of 842,000 per day. According to the statistics released by RTA, more

    than 288 million passengers used public transport including the Metro, buses and

    the marine transport (abra and water buses) in 2009. RTA (2009) reported that

    the public bus was used by 120 million persons yearly with a daily ridership of

    325,000 passengers. Marine transport system including traditional abras and the

    water bus carried around 17 million passengers.

    RTA mentioned that several congested stretches of roadway in Dubai will be

    opened up for buses and taxis by creating special lanes for public transport

    vehicles only as shown in Figure 4.11. This step is reinforcing the efforts to

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    reduce the pollution caused by cars and reduce the ecological foot print as a


    Figure 4.10: Dubai Metro as efficient public transportation working by clean energy

    (Source: Road and Transport Authority 2009 )

    Figure 4.11: special lanes for public transport vehicles only in Dubai

    (Source: Road and Transport Authority 2009 )

    4.5 Buildings rules and regulations.

    UAE government has introduced many changes to building rules and design

    regulations in order to insure its compatibility with environment. Dubai

    municipality (2009) mentioned New Building Regulations to cover minimumrequirements to satisfy green building principles are currently being drafted by

    Dubai Municipality. Dubai municipality (2010) mentioned that within the second

    quarter of 2010 the Green Buildings Rules and Regulations will be issued and

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    Dubai Municipality will start the operational plan soon. According to the Emirates

    Green Building Council, there are more than 450 buildings waiting for

    accreditation under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)evaluation structure. In Abu Dhabi, the Urban Planning Council (UPC) has

    developed a rating system which will apply to new and existing buildings and is

    being applied to a few pilot projects to test its effectiveness. UPC is also working

    on new proposals for building regulations in line with their proposal for Estidama,

    which will apply within the emirate of Abu Dhabi.

    DEWA (2009) reported that introducing the new rules for green building will force

    investors to go for green building materials which Inquire about the different

    types of walls, pipe systems, wiring, insulation, heating and cooling systems,windows, lighting and interior materials that will help in energy efficiency. It might

    cost a little more but it will pay itself in energy savings and conservation.

    Reduce Good and food Footprint.

    Ministry of Health and Ministry of Environment and Water (2009) supported the

    Middle East Natural & Organic Products Expo MENOPE which is a leading

    platform for global companies in organic products sector to operate at the Dubai

    International Convention and Exhibition Centre yearly.

    MEW (2008) mentioned that the first internationally organic farm in the UAE has

    been certified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

    and by the Food and Agriculture Organization in December 2007. Figure 4.12

    shows the Abu Dhabi Organic Farm.

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    Figure 4.12: Abu Dhabi Organic Farm

    (Source: Abu Dhabi Organics 2009 )

    Emirates Environmental Group EEG (2003) mentioned that the level of material

    consumption is the amount of waste that ends up in rubbish bin. Many individual

    actions can be taken by the people so the waste can be reduced. Reducing the

    goods temporary packing and the using of disposable bags can be a solution.

    Reevaluating the food behaviors where the leftovers ends up in rubbish is some

    times more than the food eaten. Eating more seasonal and local food could also

    participate in reducing the food footprint as it cross shorter way to the consumer.

    EEG (2003) established a recycling Project with the support of Governments and

    privet sectors to sensitize the community about the weakness of the earth and

    the need for appropriate environmental action to preserve its irreplaceable

    resources. The recycling project aims and objectives follow:

    Reduce, reuse, segregate and recycle waste to minimize the quantity sent to


    Contain depletion of natural resources, promote water and energy

    conservation and facilitate material recovery from waste streams.

    Influence social and environmental behavior of the community and promote

    an environmental conscious culture among them.

    Compliment the waste management efforts of the local authorities.

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    5. Conclusion

    By putting side by side the end results we got from the earlier data and statistics,it is so obvious that the elements which have a damaging impacts on ecological

    footprint in UAE are increasing tremendously. The new construction and growing

    of the built area and the total number of vehicles are increasing insignificantly.

    While the green cover is almost formed of grass lands and small plants which

    doesnt have the strong effect to reduce the UAEs Ecological Footprint but

    actually it needs maintenance, care, and control which mean consuming more

    water, fertilizers, energy and other services as we said before.

    High rate of energy usage by modern growing population is the major factor

    impacting on sustainability in the UAE and the results are not blessing. The

    amount of pollution in the UAE is almost equalized to the amount of pollution in

    USA and the UAE Footprint is three times hig her than the average humanitys

    Footprint. WWF (2009)

    The humanitys growing pressure on the Earth, it is imperative that individuals

    and institutions around the world recognize the reality of ecological limits and

    start making decisions consistent with these limits.

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