India's Ecological Footprint
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Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Ecological Footprint: A Global Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
India and Ecological Debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Water Footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Biological Capital and Human Well-Being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Indias Ecological Footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Business, Industry and the Ecological Footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Case Study: Green Building in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Case Study: Sustainable Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Case Studey : Innovations in Energy and Energy Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Ecological Footprint: Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Jamshyd N GodrejChairman, CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre
As todays pressing issues of climate change, food scarcity and spiking prices for basicgoods make clear, Indias long-term economic success is dependent on the health of its ownnatural capital as well as that of other nations. Indias current rapid industrialization and ad-vancing technology are bringing it unprecedented economic prosperity, with gross nationalincome per capita almost doubling since 2000. But this rapid economic growth comes at anecological cost. India must work to manage natural capital in a way that allows maintenanceof a strong economy while improving the well-being of its population.
This report examines the balance between Indias demand on and supply of natural capital.It shows that India is depleting its ecological assets in supporting its current economic boomand the growth of its population. This suggests that business and government interventionare needed to reverse this risky trend, and ensure a sustainable future in which Indiaremains economically competitive and its people can live satisfying lives. The report alsoillustrates ways in which Indian industry can continue to operate successfully in the face ofgrowing local and global resource constraints.
The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) works to maintain the positive growth of theIndian economy through consensus building between Business and Government. CII haslaunched an initiative called Mission on Sustainable Growth (MSG), with an objective topromote and champion conservation of natural resources in Indian Industry without com-promising on high and accelerated growth. As part of this effort, CII has worked with theGlobal Footprint Network and World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India) to producethis report on ecological footprint of India. I am confident that this report will createawareness and accelerate action towards ecologically sustainable growth in the country.
In 2003, humanity s Ecological Footprint (itsdemand on nature) exceeded global biocapacity(natures ability to meet this demand) by 25percent (Fig. 1). This indicates that the currentglobal level of consumption is not sustainable.While the Ecological Footprint of an averageIndian citizen is low compared to that in manyother countries, Indias total demand on bioca-pacity is exceeded only by that of the UnitedStates and China. Indian industries will play akey role in determining both Indias future well-being and that of the rest of the world.
This report focuses on Indias Ecological Foot-print and biocapacity, and the implications ofcurrent and future trends for Indian industry. Italso examines water consumption and humandevelopment concerns, and concludes with casestudies suggesting opportunities for addressingIndias Ecological Footprint.
The report finds that:India represents approximately 6 percent ofthe worlds Ecological Footprint, 4 percent ofthe worlds biocapacity, and 17 percent of theworlds population. Focusing on individualconsumption, Indias Ecological Footprint in 2003was 0.8 global hectares per person, significant-ly lower than the world average of 2.2 globalhectares, and ranking India 125th among 152countries. At the same time, because of popula-tion growth Indias total national Footprint hasdoubled since 1961, contributing to the degra-dation of its natural capital.
Indias Human development Index scoreincreased from 0.4 to 0.6 over the past 30years (0.8 is the threshold for high developmentaccording to the united Nations), but a growingecological deficit and the highest total wateruse of any nation puts this improvement at risk.and while Indias overall wealth as measuredby GDP has grown, its per capita EcologicalFootprint has shrunk, suggesting that while thestandard of living has improved for some,the majority are making due with less.
Since 1991, when its economy was opened toforeign investment and competition, Indiasindustry has grown rapidly. The United Nationsprojects that Indias population will reach1.7 billion by 2050; if this is the case, India willrequire increased imports from other countriesas it cannot support a population that sizeon domestic bio-capacity alone. To maintain arobust economy and a decent standard of livingin the face of this demand, Indian businesses andgovernment will need to invest in low-Footprintmanufacturing, renewable sources of energy,and resource-efficient urban infrastructure.
CII is already working with Indian businesses tohelp reduce Indias Footprint and demand on itsbiocapacity. The Indian industry has been takingup several steps towards sustainable develop-ment by adopting the green building concepts,energy efficiency and utilizing renewable energyfor industrial and commercial applications.
FIGURE 1: Ecological Footprint by component (1961 2003)
HUMANITYS FOOD, FIBER, AND BUILT-UP LAND FOOTPRINT
Co2PORTION OF HUMANITYS ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT
1961 19821979197619731964 198819851967 1991 19941970 20001997 2003
The Ecological Footprint measures humandemand on the biosphere in terms of theland and sea area required to provide theresources we use and to absorb the wastewe generate. this includes all the cropland,grazing land, forest and fishing grounds usedto produce food, fibre and timber, to absorbthe carbon emitted in burning fossil fuels, andto provide space for infrastructure. Peopleconsume resources and ecological servicesfrom all over the world; their Footprint is thesum of these areas, wherever they are locatedon the planet.
Humanity s Footprint first grew larger thanglobal biocapacity, the total amount of pro-ductive area available, in the mid-1980s (Fig-ure 1). This ecological overshoot has beenincreasing every year since. In 2003 the globalEcological Footprint was 14.1 billion globalhectares, or 2.2 global hectares per person. (aglobal hectare is a hectare with world aver-age ability to produce resources and absorbwastes). Total biocapacity was 11.2 globalhectares, or 1.8 global hectares per person.With demand exceeding supply by about 25per cent in 2003, it took the Earth approxi-mately a year and three months to regeneratethe ecological resources humanity used thatyear.
Consumption differs considerably by country(Figure 2 and Figure 3). Indias EcologicalFootprint in 2003 was on average 0.8 globalhectares per person, ranking it 125th of 152nations measured. Most people in Indiaconsumed less than this average, while othersconsumed far more.
Despite this low average consumption perperson, because of its large population, Indiahas the third largest total Footprint, exceededonly by the United States and China (Figure 3).
THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT:A GLOBAL CONTEXT
294 82 143 127 178 1311 1065
POPULATION (Millions )
FIGURE 2: Ecological Footprint per person, by country (2003). This includes all countries with populations greaterthan 1 million for which complete data are available.
FIGURE 3: Ecological Footprint for selected nations, with population (2003)
Food, fiber, and timber
Rest ofthe world45%
2003 World Average Biocapacity
Countries with ecological deficits consumemore than the ecosystems within their borderscan provide. With a per person Footprint of0.75 global hectares and per person bioca-pacity of 0.4 global hectares, India is runningan ecological deficit of approximately 100percent.
There are only three ways in which it is pos-sible for India and other ecological debtorcountries to consume more than the ecosys-tems within their borders can provide. Theycan import ecological resources from othernations, liquidate domestic ecological assets,or utilize the atmosphere, a globally sharedcommons, as a dumping ground for carbondioxide emissions.
While Indias Footprint is higher than itsbiocapacity, rapid population growth hascaused Indias per capita Footprint to decreaseover the past half-century (Figure 4); inessence, this means that there are manymore people today in India living on limitedavailable resources.
Figure 5 shows that as India industrializes,its carbon Footprint continues to grow rapidlydue to an increasing per capita consumptionof fossil fuels.
Indias ecological debt also results from adecrease in Indias per capita biocapacity(Figure 6). From 1961 to 2003, Indias perperson biocapacity dropped 46 percent,from just over 0.7 global hectares per personin 1961 to 0.4 global hectares in 2003.India has been successful in the past withincreasing the productivity of its cropland.However, this increase has been outpacedby a doubling of population over the sameperiod. As a result, more and more peopleare sharing a limited amount of biocapacity.
INDIA AND ECOLOGICAL DEBT
FIGURE 4: Indias growing Ecological debt (1961 2003)
ECOLOGICAL DEBT IS GROWING OVER TIME
1961 19821979197619731964 198819851967 1991 19941970 20001997 2003
The majority of Indias biocapacity is crop-land. Other land types, such as forest andgrazing land, while used by humans alsoserve as the habitat for a variety of endan-gered species, such as the Bengal tiger. Asthe need to feed more people grows, pres-sure will increase to convert forest to crop-land. This competition for biocapacity couldbe devastating to the remaining forest species.In addition to loss of habitat for wild species,conversion will also reduce the capacity offorests to provide ecological services such asCo2 sequestration, freshwater collection, anderosion control in mountainous regions.
People living at lower-income levels are likelyto be more affected by the growing ecologi-cal deficit than those at higher income levels.While wealthier individuals are more likely tohave sufficient income to purchase importedfood and goods to meet their needs, poorercommunities often depend more directly onlocal biocapacity, and thus are more impactedby the health and productivity of these ecosys-tems.
Climate change is an example of ecologicaldebt on a global scale that affects India directly.Already, warming temperatures are caus -ing glaciers to melt in the Indian Himalayas,altering the flow rates of many of Indias mostimportant rivers, causing increased landslidesand flooding such as that which displacedone million people in the northern state of Bihar.In addition, global warming can produceshifts in the growing seasons for major cropssuch as rice, production of which could fall byas much as 40%. The Indira Gandhi Instituteof Development Research has projectedthat future climate-related factors could causeIndias GDP to decline by upto 9%.
Indias growing ecological debt is the result ofboth increasing population and increasing percapita consumption of resources, particularlyof non-renewable energy.
FIGURE 5: Indias Ecological Footprint per person,by component (1961 2003)
FIGURE 6: Indias Biocapacity per person, by component(1961 2003)
1961 19851967 19911973 19971979 2003 1961 19851967 19911973 19971979 2003
Red(2003). Illustrates national Ecological FootprintFIGURE 7: Ecological debtor and creditor countries
relative to nationally available biocapacity.countries are ecological debtors; Green countriesare ecological creditors.
Footprint more than 150 percent larger than biocapacity
Footprint 100-150 percent larger than biocapacity
Footprint 50-100 percent larger than biocapacity
Footprint 0-50 percent larger than biocapacity
Biocapacity 0-50 percent larger than biocapacity
Biocapacity 50-100 percent larger than biocapacity
Biocapacity 100-150 percent larger than biocapacity
Biocapacity more than 50 percent larger than biocapacity
Many Asian nations beside India have lessbiocapacity per capita available within theirborders than they consume (Figure 7). China,for example, has an average Footprint of 1.6global hectares per person, while only half thatamount of biocapacity. And it is not just theAsian nations that are running ecologicaldeficits the U.S. and the EU, for example,are also using roughly twice their domesticbiocapacity. As resources become less avail-able and more costly, ecological debtor coun-tries will find themselves in an increasinglyprecarious economic position.
At the same time, ecological creditor countries,those with biological capacity that exceedstheir own consumption, may gain greaterleverage in the global economy.
Will India have sufficient economic reservesto compete for the biocapacity needed tosupport its population in the future? The coststo the Indian economy may grow when thelaws of supply and demand put a highervalue on the biocapacity available in nationsthat have an ecological reserve.
Clean water is needed for the most vital ofhuman activities: drinking and cooking, washingand maintaining hygiene, raising domesticanimals and supporting industrial and agricultur-al activities. Along with land area, nutrients andenergy, freshwater is also critical to ecosystemhealth and productivity.
Hence, both human activity and the health oflocal ecosystems are influenced and potentiallylimited by the availability of water to meetthese competing needs.
Unlike energy use, which has global impactin the form of Co2 emissions, the ecologicalimpact of water tends to be largely local. Theimpact of each litre of freshwater use varies bygeography and season. In wet areas, for exam-ple, when crops need little or no irrigation, wa-ter withdrawals have minimal impact on yieldsor biodiversity. But in dry areas, each litre ofwater used for households, industries or agricul-ture puts further stress on local ecosystems. Sinceinsufficient data are available to measure thisdemand on freshwater in terms of its impacton biocapacity, and since demand on wateraffects ecosystems in ways not accounted forby the Ecological Footprint, water use is trackedhere with a parallel measure called theWater Footprint, a tool originally developed byArjen Hoekstra et al.
Whereas the Ecological Footprint refers to thearea (in global hectares) used by an individualor group of people, the Water Footprint indi-cates the volume of water used (measured incubic meters per year). Water Footprint analysisdiffers from the Ecological Footprint, however,in that it provides a local analysis of the waterdemand since very little water is traded acrosswatersheds.
A nations Water Footprint has two components:the internal and the external Water Footprint(Figure 8). The internal Water Footprint is definedas the volume of domestic resources used toproduce goods and services consumed byinhabitants of the country. The external WaterFootprint is defined as the annual volume ofwater resources used in other countries toproduce goods and services consumed by apopulation. Both internal and external WaterFootprint include the consumptive use of bluewater (originating from ground and surfacewater), the consumptive use of green water(infiltrated or harvest rainwater), and the produc-tion of gray water (polluted ground and surfacewater) (Hoekstra and Chapagain 2008).
FIGURE 8: Water footprint of India(1997 2001), by internal or external use(Hoekstra and Chapagain 2008)
India has the largest total Water Footprint of anycountry in the world, adding up to 987 billionm3/year. Yet at the same time, its water useper capita is less than in many countries withsimilar or higher per capita income (Figure9). While India contributes 17 percent to theglobal population, Indian people contributeonly 13 percent to the global Water Footprint.Between 1997 and 2001, the global WaterFootprint was 7,450 billion m3/year or 1,240m3 per person. Figure 9 shows that Indias percapita Water Footprint is 980 m3/year, lowerthan that of many other countries.
Compared to industrialized nations, lower-income nations typically use a higher percentageof water for agricultural purposes, and Indiais no exception. India ranks second only tothe U.S. in terms of available arable land, andits industrial innovation is well recognized.However when it comes to agriculture, the na -tions cropland output (yield factor) and ef-ficient use of water, as measured by the WaterFootprint, lags far behind the technical po-tential (NFA 2006, Hoekstra and Chapagain2008). In addition, forty years after the Greenrevolution, many experts argue that Indiaspopulation is growing faster than its ability toproduce staples such as wheat and rice (Sen-gupta 2008).
Some attribute the lag to the fact that the IndianGovernment has not expanded irrigation oragricultural research since the 1980s, butgroundwater has also been depleted at alarm-ing rates. In Punjab for example, more than 75percent of districts extract more groundwaterthan is replenished by nature.
If another Green revolution were to occur, itis likely that an even greater demand would beput on the shared water resources within thecountry, unless water use efficiency improvesdramatically.
What does this mean for Indias industrialsector? If competition for scarce amounts ofwater becomes more prominent for Indianindustries in years to come, they will need todevelop and rely on aggressive water-savingtechnologies to remain competitive. India isnot alone in its need for these technologies,and could become a leading exporter of water-efficient technologies to the rest of the World.
USA ITALY THAILAND RUSSIA MEXICO BRAZIL INDONESIA PAKISTAN JAPAN INDIA CHINA
FIGURE 9: National water footprints for selected countries, by contribution of different consumption categories(Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2008)
A sustainable society lives within the biologi-cal limits of the planet while securing peoplesbasic human needs. There is growing recogni-tion that existing economic indicators such asGross Domestic Product (GDP) are unable tocapture improvements in human well-beingand development. There is, however, broadconsensus on the minimum conditions essen-tial for a healthy society. These include basicsecurity of food and shelter, longevity, and ac-cess to education. Recognizing this, theUnitedNations Development Programme created theHuman Development Index (HDI ), an index thatgoes beyond the GDP in reflecting the extentto which these three conditions have beenachieved in a given nation.
Combining the Ecological Footprint, an indica-tor of human demand on the biosphere, withthe UNDPs Human Development Index givesclear minimum conditions for sustainable hu-man development.
The United Nations considers an HDI of 0.8to be the threshold for high human develop-ment. Additionally, an Ecological Footprint ofless than 1.8 global hectares per person (theaverage per capita amount of biocapacityavailable worldwide) makes an individualsresource demand globally replicable. Despiteincreasing adoption of sustainable developmentas an explicit policy goal, most countriesdo not meet both minimum requirements.
Using the two criteria of HDI (to measuredevelopment) and Footprint (to measureresource demand), we can divide the plot intofour quadrants (Figure 10). Countries locatedin the lower right quadrant meet the minimumrequirements for sustainability: This quadrantrepresents a high level of human developmentand a lifestyle that could be replicated globallywithout exceeding available resources.Nations need to start thinking inside the boxto reach this goal.
BIOLOGICAL CAPITAL AND HUMAN WELL-BEING
Middle East/Central Asia
FIGURE 10: UNDP Human Development Index and Ecological Footprint, selected nations (2003)
UN Human Development Index (HDI)
Threshold for high human development,according to UNDP
Global average available bio-capacity per person[with no space set aside for wild species]
0.2 0.3 0.4 05 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.90
The health and well-being of human society isintricately linked to the health of the biologicalcapital on which it depends. Recognizing andaccounting for biological capacity available to asociety can help identify opportunities and chal -lenges in meeting human development goals.
Indias trajectory has shown a steady increasein human development. Indias HDI increasedfrom 0.4 to 0.6 over the last 30 years withoutgrowth in per capita demand on natural resources.Over the same time period, however, biocapacitydropped from 0.55 to 0.39 global hectares perperson. Even with an increase in HDI, manyIndians continue to have a low standard of living;poverty and infant mortality remain significantchallenges. Indeed, to improve human develop-ment, the Ecological Footprint of many Indians
may need to increase to allow for increasesin food calories, shelter, electricity, sanitaryinfrastructure, medicine and material goodsthat are not currently accessible to the entirepopulation. The ultimate challenge in thecontext of growing global overshoot is: Howcan Indians make their development successlast, and improve their well-being withoutliquidating their resource base?
The health and well-being of human society is intricatelylinked to the health of the biological capital on whichit depends. recognizing and accounting for biologicalcapacity available to and used by a society can help identifyopportunities and challenges in meeting human developmentgoals.
Looking at a plot of Indias Footprint andGDP growth provides some perspective onthe past. Since 1961, Indias GDP per capita(in constant USD) has nearly tripled, goingfrom $177 per person to $512. Over thatsame period, Footprint per capita has actuallygone down by 12 percent, from 0.85 to 0.75global hectares per person, likely due in largepart to a dramatic population increase of 135percent. Bio-capacity has had a more precipi-tous drop, falling from 0.72 global hectaresto 0.39 global hectares, a decrease of over 45percent.
There is in no clear indication that a higherFootprint is required for an increase in GDP;however, there is some evidence to suggestthat per capita Footprints can be limited byavailable bio-capacity, as appears to be thecase in India. While Figures 12-14illustrate howThailands, Chinas and Korea Republics percapita Footprints continued to grow alongsideGDP despite their decreasing bio-capacity,India shows a marked contrast, with a Footprintdecreasing along with its bio-capacity. Interesting-ly, population has increased dramatically in allfour of these countries, albeit with the greatestincrease in India.
PER CAPITA PERCENT CHANGE 1961 To 2003
GDP FOOTPRINT BIOCAPACITY % POPULATION CHANGE
India 190% -12% -46% 135%
Thailand 569% 56% -25% 129%
China 1458% 100% -22% 95%
Korea Republic 985% 363% -54% 85%
INDIAS ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT
01961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
FIGURE 11: Indias Ecological Footprint, Biocapacityand GDP (1961 2003)
FIGURE 12: Thailands Ecological Footprint, Biocapacityand GDP (1961 2003)
P per ca
pita ( co
The critical question is, how can India ensureboth continued economic growth and aglobally replicable quality of life for its citizens?If bio-capacity is a limiting factor, how can Indiasafeguard its remaining bio-capacity whilemeeting the Footprint demands of a growingpopulation? By looking at the five factors thatinfluence Footprint and bio-capacity we canbegin to see how business and policydecisions can contribute to both the prosperityand risk India faces in managing its biologicalassets.
By looking at the five factors that influence Footprint andbiocapacity we can begin to see how business and policydecisions can contribute to both the prosperity and riskIndia faces in managing its biological assets.
1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
FIGURE 13: Chinas Ecological Footprint, Biocapacityand GDP (1961 2003)
FIGURE 14: Koreas Ecological Footprint, Biocapacityand GDP (1961 2003)
Gdp per capita (constant 2000 U
Indian industry has undergone a transformationsince 1991, the year the economy was openedto foreign investment and competition. Thiseconomic growth, coupled with increasingdemand for Indian industrial goods, hasprompted some industry experts, governmentagencies and researchers to focus much moreintently on the efficiency and sustainabilityof Indian industrial processes and technology.
While selected Indian industrial sectors havebeen shown to display very high efficiency,approaching world best-practices, the averageFootprint and energy intensity lags behindoptimal levels. Research suggests that severalIndian industrial sectors use energy moreintensively than comparable sectors in otherindustrializing counties. CII and GlobalFootprint Network plan additional researchto look more closely into the Footprint ofIndias industrial sectors.
While it is true that improvements in energyefficiency have created energy savings since1991, there is considerable opportunity forimprovement by a number of industrial sectors.Some examples are discussed in the casestudies that follow in the latter part of thisreport. Potential improvement can be madenot only in terms of intensity of resource useand waste creation in the production process,but also in the other four areas that contributeto Indias ecological deficit (Figure 15).
In total, five factors influence the size of a nationsecological deficit. Three of these factors shapethe Ecological Footprint, or demand on bioca-pacity: population size, the average consumptionper person in that population, and the averageFootprint intensity per unit of consumption.
The five factors described here not only determinea nations ecological deficit, but also predict theextent of global overshoot. If industries in anecological debtor nation like India are to continueto compete in a global economy, it is criticalthat they consider ecological limits, and the impactglobal overshoot will have on the economyand their competitiveness.
BUSINESS, INDUSTRY ANDTHE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT
1. POPULATION Increase in population can be slowedand eventually reversed by supporting families in choosingto have fewer children. Offering women access to bettereducation, economic opportunities, family planning andhealth care are proven approaches to achieving this. Theseinvestments also enhance the health and educationaloutcomes of those families children.
2.CONSUMPTION OF GOODS AND SERVICESPER PERSON The potential for reducing consumptiondepends in part on an individuals economic situation.While people living at or below subsistence level may needto increase their consumption to move out of poverty, moreaffluent people can reduce consumption and still improvetheir quality of life, particularly by making cities compactand resource-efficient.
3. FOOTPRINT INTENSITY The amount of resources usedin the production of goods and services can be significantlyreduced. this can take many forms, such as increasingenergy efficiency in manufacturing and in the home, minimi-zing waste and increasing recycling and reuse, using fuel-efficient cars, and reducing the distance goods are trans-ported. Business and industry do react to government policiesthat promote resource efficiency and technical innovation where such policies are clear and long-term as well asto consumer pressure. The remaining two factors determinebio-capacity, or supply: the amount of biologically productivearea available and the productivity or yield of that area.
4. BIOPRODUCTIVE AREA Can be extended, and degradedlands can be reclaimed through careful management.Terracing has had historical success, and irrigation can makemarginal lands more productive, though the gains may notpersist. Above all, good land management must ensure thatbioproductive areas are not lost, for example, to urbanization,salinization, or desertification.
5. BIOPRODUCTIVITY Depends both on the type of eco -system and the way it is managed. agricultural technologiescan boost productivity but can also diminish bio-diversity.Energy-intensive agriculture and heavy reliance on fertilizermay increase yields, but at the cost of a larger Footprintassociated with increased inputs, and may so impoverishsoil that yields ultimately begin to fall. Bio-capacity can bepreserved by protecting soil from erosion and other formsof degradation; safeguarding river basins, wetlands, andwatersheds to secure freshwater supplies; and maintaininghealthy forests and fisheries. Preventing or mitigating theimpacts of climate change can also help maintain yields,as can eliminating the use of toxic chemicals that candegrade ecosystems.
AREA x BIOPRODUCTIVITY = BIOCAPACITY(supply)
SUPPLY AND DAMAND:
OVERSHOOT1.8 gha per person
2.2 gha per person
FIGURE 15: Five factors influencing ecological overshoot.
POPULATION x FOOTPRINT INTENSITY x BIOCAPACITY =ECOLOGICALFOOTPRINT(demand)
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021
If we continue on our current trajectory, evenoptimistic United Nations projections, withmoderate increases in population, food andfibre consumption, and Co2 emissions, suggestthat by 2050 humanity will demand resourcesat double the rate at which the Earth canregenerate them (Figure 16).
Reaching this level of consumption may beimpossible, however, as the natural capitalbeing used to enable this overshoot may wellbe depleted before mid-century. Efforts toavoid ecosystem collapse must take intoaccount the slow response times of humanpopulations and infrastructure. Even after birthrates fall below replacement levels, popula-tions continue to expand for many years. Lifeexpectancy has more than doubled in the 20th
century alone a child born today will, onaverage, consume resources for the next 65years. Human-made infrastructure, too, can lastmany decades.
Figure 17 compares typical lifespans for somehuman and physical assets. Together, thepeople born and the infrastructure built todaywill shape resource consumption for much ofthe rest of the century.
Some business choices have a more far-reaching effect than others. An office buildinghas a projected life span of 50 to 100 years.The cost and amount of energy required tobuild an energy-efficient office building iscomparable to building a traditionally designedstructure, but there is a significant difference inoperating costs. a comprehensive study by theU.S. Green Building Council found that an av-erage 2 percent increase in the construction costof an energy-efficient building typically yieldsoperating savings of over ten times the initialinvestment. The overall cost savings results froman average 30 percent decrease in energy useas well as decreases in other waste, emissionsand worker health-related costs. Because theenergy demands of a society s buildings consti-tute a significant percentage of its total energyuse, energy-efficient buildings can play an im-portant role in moving from a business-as-usualscenario to one in which overshoot begins to bemeaning-fully addressed.
Similarly to buildings, power plants have ahave a long life span, often up to 75 years.a coal-fired plant will typically generate morethan a tonne of global warming-causing carbondioxide for each MWh produced. An averagecars carbon Footprint occupies about oneglobal hectare, with limited opportunities avail-able for retrofitting to lessen these impacts.
FIGURE 16: Ending global overshoot: three scenarios (1961-2100)
2031 2041 2051 2061 2071 2081 2091
CARUS AVERAGE: 9 YRS
NUCLEAR POWER STATIONUS/EUROPE AVERAGE: 40 YRS
HIGHWAYAVERAGE: 20-50 YRS
BRIDGEAVERAGE: 30-75 YRS
COAL POWER STATIONAVERAGE: 30-75 YRS
HUMANNATL AVERAGE: 32-82 YRS
COMMERCIAL BLDG. DESIGNAVERAGE: 50-100 YRS
HOUSING, RAILWAY AND DAMAVERAGE: 50-150 YRS
FIGURE 17: Life spans of people, assets, and infrastructure
Business as usual
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR BUSINESS
What are the options for reducing a country secological deficit? a useful way to address theoverall gap is to break it down into a numberof wedges. Wedges are groupings of activitiesthat represent reductions in a portion of acountry s overall demand. Rather than lookingfor a single solution to reduce humanity sforeseeable 12.2 billion global hectare gapby 2050, we can think about the need for a suiteof wedges that, together, form a large change.The question is whether we can create a sufficientnumber of wedges to end overshoot (Figure 18).
From a business perspective, wedges representgrowing market opportunities with significantpotential rewards for market leaders. Theseopportunities can be focused on serving growinglocal markets where Indias environmentalissues are having an influence on customersbuying decisions. Wedges are also an avenue forIndian business and industry to becomeestablished in export markets currently dominatedby companies maintaining business-as-usualmarket positions. For example, the Indianautomobile industry has an opportunity to redefinethe market space through the use of new materials,new construction principles, and other ways toboost vehicles fuel economy by a factor of fouror more over todays best practices. However, toavoid the rebound effect in which increased fueleconomy leads to more expendable income fortravel, thereby negating overall Footprint savings,other governmental policies must be put intoplace to promote social behavior changes.
2050 PROJECTED OVERSHOOT :
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 2051
FIGURE 18: A suite of sustainability wedges could help bring the world out of overshoot by 2050
While the previously mentioned wedges areespecially suited to market-based solutions,other wedges will require efforts that includegovernment promotion and communityengagement. Increasing cropland productivityis an example of such a wedge, as is investingin women, and creating distributed villageenergy systems.
Government can play an important role inthe process by speeding the adoption of newpractices. Extensive information-exchangenetworks will need to be established to pro-mote innovative approaches and allow com-munities to learn from each others successes.
A focus on wedges helps create discrete Foot-print reduction initiatives that can be trackedat national and sub-national levels. Goals canbe identified and championed. Trackingprogress becomes more manageable withdiscrete initiatives compared to the commonalternative: a large set of potential solutionswith no sense of cohesion.
WHAT IS A WEDGE?
A wedge is a strategy that can reduce a country sor the worlds demand on the biosphere by reduc-ing the area of bioproductive land (global hectares)used to meet the demands of a given population.Examples of wedges include energy efficiency, low-carbon fuels, efficient mobility solutions, decreasedpopulation growth, increased cropland productiv-ity, industrial production efficiency, cradle-to-cradledesign, and increased food systems productivity.
PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION
2061 2071 2081 2091
RENEWABLES REPLACING FOSSIL FUELS
INCREASE IN CROPLAND PRODUCTIVITY
INCREASED INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY
DECREASE IN ABSOLUTE ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Construction is one of Indias largest industriesand is growing at an average annual rate of9.5 percent, nearly twice the global rate. Withthis growth there has been increasing aware-ness in the construction and green buildingindustries of the consequences of processes andproducts on the planet and local environments.
The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) wasformed in 2001 to provide a common platformfor carrying forward green building activities inthe country and promoting sustainable buildingpractices and materials. The IGBC is representedby architects, developers, product manufacturersand institutions, as well as corporate, govern -ment and nodal agencies.
Green building brings together a vast arrayof practices and techniques to reduce theimpacts of buildings on the environmentrelative to the impact of to traditional buildingpractices. For instance, buildings rated as greenby LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environ -mental Design standard consume at) least40 to 50 percent less energy and 20 to 30percent less water than a conventional building.other less tangible benefits of green buildingscan include improved health for occupants,safety benefits and a positive image of corporatecitizenship. Several corporations are alsoseeing Green Building rating as a tool toenhance marketability.
Today, 30 buildings in India have been awardedthe LEED rating, seven of which have earned theprestigious platinum rating. Over 300 greenbuilding projects in the country are under way,amounting to more than 230 million squarefeet of space and representing construction thatis significantly less resource-intensive thantraditional construction.
The Indian Green Building Council has setthe goal of achieving one billion square feetof green building space by 2012.
Reducing and reversing overshoot will requireconscious decisions on the part of Indiangovernment, society and business to ensure weare not building a destructive legacy thatwill undermine our social and physical well-being. Wise choices made today can preventthe negative long-term impacts caused byfuture-unfriendly infrastructure and technologies.While LEED certified buildings promote moreenvironmentally friendly construction, weneed to continue to promote overall resource ef-ficiency to reduce our Footprint.
CASE STUDY: GREEN BUILDINGS IN INDIA
Key strategies to increase green buildingin India:
Add 1 billion sq. ft of green-certified buildingspace by 2012
Tap Rs.15000 Cr of the green buildingmaterials market by 2010
Facilitate capacity-building in greenbuilding services
Develop different rating programs to includeall types of buildings, includung integratedtownships, residential buildings, individualhomes, etc.
Spread awareness and recruit morestakeholders to the green building movement
INNOVATION IN CONSTRUCTION:FAL-G BRICKS
Approximately four million tonnes of fly ash, aby-product of coal combustion, are releasedinto the atmosphere annually in India. T hethick clouds that result directly affect the well-being of the large populations living in urbanareas, and contain trace amounts of carcino-genic heavy metals. For every 200 Mt of coalburned, 80 Mt end up as fly ash (as residuesent through chimneys) or bottom ash (residueat the bottom of the furnace).
Once thought of as a waste product, fly ashcan now be trapped and used to make bricksusing FAL-G technology. This technologyprovides an alternative to traditional clay brickswhich can be damaging to fertile soil. Not onlydo these bricks use what would otherwise bereleased as waste, they also require minimalenergy in the process, which in turn leads to adecrease in greenhouse gas emissions. Theinvention of the FAL -G fly ash brick hasprompted the Indian government to commit tobanning new construction using clay bricks inurban centres and has been promoted withinIndias construction sector as the preferredalternative.
Electric scooters made in India are becomingan increasingly popular mode of transport forcity dwellers worldwide. The vehicles popular-ity is in large part due to the increasing cost ofgasoline and the growing of air quality prob-lems in major cities. More than 3.5 millionelectric scooters were sold in China in 2006.
To accommodate electric vehicle drivers, somemanufacturers, like Eko-vehicles from Banga-lore, have started Charge and Chai kiosksacross Bangalore and Kerala, featuring arapid-charger facility. These roadside kiosks sellrefreshments and feature a two-pin plug thatcan charge an electric scooter in less than 12minutes.
Switching from oil-based to plant-based fuelsmay be an option that can help address globalclimate change. But if the right crops arentused, plant-based fuels can be a cure that isworse than the disease. It is critical that industryand policy makers promote only the mostefficient biofuels. Corn-based ethanol forexample, has been promoted in the U.S.as a possible alternative to oil-based fuel.However, while corn ethanol can have apositive energy balance (generating slightlymore energy than it takes to farm and produce),and generates fewer greenhouse gas over itsemissions life cycle than gasoline does, theefficiency of corn-based ethanol becomes moreproblematic when looked at from a Footprintperspective. This is due to the fact that, whileit may reduce pressure on resources due tocarbon emissions, it also requires considerableland area.
CASE STUDY: SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY
In India, there is much interest in generatingbiodiesel from Jatropha (an oil-producingsucculent native to India) grown on marginallands. Is this a sustainable use of Indias bioca-pacity? More research is required to come toa conclusion about this crop, but it shows somepotential to be a good fuel alternative. Gettingout of overshoot will, however, require goingbeyond these crops. As more and more peoplein the world begin to own cars, developingtruly low-Footprint mobility is essential. Thiswill require not only lower-Footprint alternativefuels and ultra-efficient vehicle technologies,but also a focus on city infrastructure thatsupports extensive mass transit. In order todecrease the overall amount of driving and itsassociated Footprint, it is important to combinebetter fuel economy with measures to reduceoverall social demand for driving.
Switching from oil-based to plant-based fuelsmay be an option that can help us addressglobal climate change. But if the right cropsarent used, plant-based fuels can be a curethat is worse than the disease.
PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY ININDIAN INDUSTRIES
Overall, about 61 percent of Indias green-house gas emissions come from energygeneration, and this amount is expected togrow along with future demand. The solutionto emissions reductions in the power sectormust come from a planned transition to alow-carbon economy through an emphasison renewable power generation.
Renewable sources of energy currently constituteonly 8 percent of total installed capacitynationwide, and 2 percent in terms of energyoperation. However, India is bestowed withabundant renewable energy sources, with atotal estimated potential of 122,000 MW ofgrid-interactive power (without consideringsolar energy potential). This translates into aninvestment potential of Rs 610,000 Crores(USD 135 billion), in addition to the currentannual turnover of 8 to 10 Thousand CroreRupees in the renewable energy sector.
In spite of the huge opportunities for growthin the renewable energy sector in India, it isstill lacking large scale commercialization.
To catalyze more corporate investments andenhance penetration of renewable energysystems for industrial and commercial applica-tions, CII-Godrej GBC has formed a Council onRenewable Energy to facilitate more privatesector participation in tapping the hugepotential in the RE sector in India. The Counciladdresses policy issues at the State and Centrallevel, supports technology transfer, andfacilitates innovative financing mechanismsby bringing all stakeholders together.
Today India is in a position to play a major rolein large-scale commercialization of renewableenergy technologies, and can offer technologytransfer to other developing countries andsupport in building capacity. The country hasalready achieved installation of over 10,000MW of renewable-based capacity, and standsat fourth position worldwide in terms of windpower installed capacity. It is notable that morethan 95 percent of the total investments inrenewable energy in India have come fromthe private sector.
CASE STUDY: I NNOVATIONS IN ENERGYAND ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Today India is in a position to play a major role inlarge-scale commercialization of renewable energytechnologies, and can offer technology transfer to otherdeveloping countries and support in building capacity.
INNOVATIONS IN HOME ENERGY
Gasification represents a new innovation inthe energy sector, allowing the conversion ofcarbonaceous matter such as rice husks intocarbon monoxide and hydrogen through useof heat, pressure, and steam. The products ofgasification include syngas (or hydrocarbongases), hydrocarbon oils, and char (carbon ashby-product). The resulting syngas product ismore energy dense than the original biomass,and is thus a more energy-efficient fuel.
Gasification has changed life in Baharbari,an isolated village in the state of Bihar that is notconnected to the electricity or telephone grid andis cut off from the outside world during mon-soon season. In 2002, for the first time, villagersharvested 25 acres of irrigated summer wheatfor the creation of biofuels. A small rice huskingindustry has grown so that it competes with amonopolistic business set up by a powerfulfamily some years ago. Several members oflower castes and a disabled woman havefull-time salaried jobs; some have bought landfor the first time.
What happened? With skills and technicalassistance from desipower, a self-formed co-op-erative has succeeded in transforming the villagein the past years by installing a village powerplant run by a biomass gasifier. Fuelled by ricehusk and dhaincha, a weed commonly grown inIndia to restore nitrogen to depleted soils, thepower plant runs agro-processingmachines, irrigation pumps, and a batterycharging station. It doesnt take much just25 kilowatts to power these village industrieson clean, renewable, local energy.
WORLD CLASS ENERGY EFFICIENCYIN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY
India is the second-largest cement producer inthe world, with an installed capacity of 166million tonnes. Indias projected GDP growthrate of 8 percent, coupled with a boomingconstruction industry, has spurred the cementsector to start gearing up for the high demand.
As the cement industry grows, attention must bepaid to the associated environmental impact.The cement industry is highly energy-intensive,the cost of energy within some plants reachingas high as 55 percent of manufacturing costs.Because it powers its clinker production withcarbon-intensive coal fuel, the global cementindustry is responsible for contributing about4 percent of global Co2emissions.
The Indian cement industry has become a fore-runner in energy-efficient cement manufacturing,with some of its plants operating at among thelowest specific energy consumption levels inthe world. Due to increases in overall production,this energy efficiency may not reduce the overallFootprint. Neverless, it is important to note thatIndian manufacturers are making steps todecrease their demand on Indian biocapacity.
The cement industry brings together a vast arrayof practices and techniques to reduce its impacton the environment. A significant effort in thisdirection was the World Class Energy Efficiencyinitiative in Indian cement plants.
Major initiatives taken up by the cement industrytowards minimizing the industry s Ecological Foot-print include:
Adoption of energy-efficient technologies
Use of alternative fuels
Installation of waste heat recovery system
As part of the initiative, major cement compa-nies shared their best practices and experienceswith respect to the efficient utilization of energyresources. With a focus on the impact of wasteproducts and the importance of low specific en-ergy consumption per tonne of cement produced,the initiative was able to significantly reduce thecement industry s environmental impact.
The average electrical energy consumption forthe cement industry in 2005-06 was 82 kilowatthours per tonne of cement (kWh/t), and thermalenergy consumption was 725 kilocalories perkilogram (kcal/kg). It is expected that the averageelectrical energy consumption will decreaseto 78 kWh/t of cement, and thermal energyconsumption to 710 kcal/kg by the end of 2012.this improvement can be made possible bynew options in retrofitting and the adoption ofenergy-efficient equipment, better operationsand process control of instrumentation facilities.
How is the Ecological Footprint calculated?
The Ecological Footprint measures the amountof biologically productive land and water arearequired to produce the resources an individual,population or activity consumes and to absorbits waste, given prevailing technology and re-source management. This area is expressed inglobal hectares, hectares with world-average bio-logical productivity. Footprint calculations use yieldfactors to take into account national differences inbiological productivity (e.g., tonnes of wheat perU.K. hectare versus per Argentina hectare) andequivalence factors to take into account differencesin world average productivity among land types(e.g., world average forest versus world averagecropland).
Footprint and bio-capacity results for nationsare calculated annually by Global Footprint Net-work. The continuing methodological developmentof these National Footprint accounts is overseenby a formal review committee (www.footprintstan-dards.org). A detailed method paper and copies ofsample calculation sheets can be obtained at nocharge: see www.footprintnetwork.org.
What is included in the EcologicalFootprint? What is excluded?
To avoid exaggerating human demand on nature,the Ecological Footprint includes only those as-pects of resource consumption and waste produc-tion for which the Earth has regenerative capacity,
and where data exist that allow this demand tobe expressed in terms of productive area. Forexample, freshwater withdrawal is not included inthe Footprint, although the energy used to pumpor treat it is.
Ecological Footprint accounts provide snapshots ofpast resource demand and availability.They do not predict the future. Thus, while theFootprint does not estimate future losses caused bypresent degradation of ecosystems, thisdegradation, if persistent, will likely be reflected infuture accounts as a loss of bio-capacity.
Footprint accounts also do not indicate the inten-sity with which a biologically productive area isbeing used, nor do they pinpoint specific biodi-versity pressures. Finally, the Ecological Footprintis a biophysical measure; it does not evaluatethe essential social and economic dimensions ofsustainability.
How does the Ecological Footprint account for theuse of fossil fuels?
Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gasare extracted from the Earths crust rather thanproduced by ecosystems. When this fuel is burned,carbon dioxide is produced. In orderto avoid carbon accumulation in the atmosphere,the goal of the U.N. Framework Conventionon Climate Change, two options exist: a) humantechnological sequestration, such as deepwell injection; or b) natural sequestration.
ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT:FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Natural sequestration corresponds to thebiocapacity required to absorb and storethe Co 2 not sequestered by humans, less theamount absorbed by the oceans. This isthe Footprint for fossil fuel. Currently, negligibleamounts of Co2 are sequestered throughhuman technological processes.
The sequestration rate used in Ecological Footprintcalculations is based on an estimate of howmuch carbon the worlds forests can removefrom the atmosphere and retain. One 2003global hectare can absorb the Co2 releasedby burning approximately 1450 litres of gasolineper year.
The fossil fuel Footprint does not suggest thatcarbon sequestration is the key to resolving globalwarming. rather the opposite: it shows that thebiosphere does not have sufficient capacity tocope with current levels of Co2 emissions. Asforests mature, their Co2 sequestration rateapproaches zero, the Footprint per tonne of Co2sequestration increases, and eventually, forestsmay even become net emitters of carbon.
How is international trade takeninto account?
The National Ecological Footprint accountscalculate each country s net consumptionby adding its imports to its production andsubtracting its exports. This means that the
resources used for producing a car that ismanufactured in Japan, but sold and used inIndia, will contribute to the Indian, not theJapanese consumption Footprint.
The resulting national consumption Footprintscan be distorted, since the resources usedand waste generated in making products forexport is not fully documented. This affects theFootprints of countries whose trade flows arelarge relative to their overall economies.these misallocations, however, do not affectthe total global Ecological Footprint.
Does the Ecological Footprint take intoaccount other species?
The Ecological Footprint describes humandemand on nature. Currently, there are 1.8global hectares of biocapacity available perperson on planet Earth, less if some of thisbiologically productive area is set aside foruse by wild species. The value society placeson biodiversity will determine how much ofa biodiversity buffer to set aside. Efforts toincrease biocapacity, such as monocroppingand application of pesticides, may also increasepressure on biodiversity; this can increasethe size of the biodiversity buffer required toachieve the same conservation results.
Does the Ecological Footprint say what isa fair or equitable use of resources?
The Footprint documents what has happenedin the past. It can quantitatively describe theecological resources used by an individual ora population, but it does not prescribe whatthey should be using. resource allocation isa policy issue, based on societal beliefs aboutwhat is or is not equitable. Thus, while Foot-print accounting can determine the averagebio-capacity that is available per person, it cannot stipulate how that bio-capacity should be al-located among individuals or nations. However,it provides a context for such discussions.
How do I calculate the Ecological Footprint ofa city or region?
While the calculations for global and nationalEcological Footprints have been standard-ized within the National Footprint accounts,there are a variety of ways used to calculatethe Footprint of a city or region. The family ofprocess-based approaches use productionrecipes and supplementary statistics to allocatethe national per capita Footprint to consump-tion categories (e.g., food, shelter, mobility,goods and services).
regional or municipal average per capitaFootprints are calculated by scaling thesenational results up or down based ondifferences between national andlocal consumption patterns. The family ofinput-output approaches use monetary, physicalor hybrid input-output tables for allocatingoverall demand to consumption categories.
There is growing recognition of the need tostandardize sub-national Footprint applicationmethods in order to increase their comparabilityacross studies and over time. In response to thisneed, methods and approaches for calculatingthe Footprint of cities and regions are currentlybeing aligned through the global EcologicalFootprint standards initiative. For moreinformation on current Footprint standardsand ongoing standardization debates, see:www.footprintstandards.org.
For additional information about Footprintmethodology, data sources, assumptionsand definitions please visit:www.footprintnetwork.org/2006technotes
Diamond, J. 2005. Collapse: New York: Viking Penguin.How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.
Flannery, T. 2005. The Weather Makers: The History & Future Impact of Climate Change.Melbourne: Text Publishing.
Hoekstra, A. and A. 2008.Chapagain. Globalization of water, sharing the Planets FreshwaterResources. New York: Blackwell Publishing.
Kitzes, J., M. Wackernagel, J. Loh, A. Peller, S. Goldfinger, D. Cheng, and K. Tea, 2006.Shrink and Share: Humanity s Present and Future Ecological Footprint.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 363 (1491): 46775.
Meyer, A. 2001. Contraction & Convergence: LThe Global Solution to Climate Change. ondon: Green Books.www.schumacher.org.uk/schumacher_b5_climate_change.htm (accessed July 2006).
Pacala, S. and R. Socolow, 2004. Stabilization wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the next50 years with Current Technologies. Science 305: 968972.
Sengupta, S. In Fertile India, Growth Outstrips Agriculture. , July 22, 2008.New York Times
Schwartz, P. and D. Randall,2003. An abrupt Climate Change scenario and Its Implications forUnited states National Security. Global Business Network.http://www.gbn.com/articledisplayservlet.srv?aid=26231 (accessed July 2006).
Socolow, R., R. Hotinski, J. Greenblatt, and S. Pacala, 2004. Solving the Climate Problem:Technologies available to curb Co2 Emissions. 46 (10): 819.Environmentavailable at http://www.princeton.edu/~cmi/
Wackernagel, M., C. Monfreda, D. Moran, P. Wermer, S. Goldfinger, D. Deumling and M. Murray. 2005.National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts 2005: The Underlying Calculation Method. Global Footprint Networkhttp://www.footprintnetwork.org (accessed July 2008)
Monfreda, C., M. Wackernagel, and D. Deumling, 2004. Establishing National Natural Capital AccountsBased on Detailed Ecological Footprint and biological Capacity Assessments. 21: 231246.Land Use Policy
Wackernagel, M., B. Schulz, D. Deumling, Callejas Linares, A. Jenkins, M. Kapos, V. Monfreda,C. Loh, J. Myers, N. Norgaard, R. and J. Randers, 2002. Tracking the Ecological overshoot of the humaneconomy. . (USA) 99(14): 92669271.Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci
Wilson, E O. 2002. New YThe Future of life. ork: A. Knopf.
Additional references can be found at:www.footprintnetwork.org/2006references
ABOUT GLOBAL FOOTPRINT NETWORK
Global Footprint Network promotes a sustainable economy by advancing the EcologicalFootprint, a tool that makes sustainability measurable. Together with its partners, the Networkcoordinates research, develops methodological standards, and provides decision makerswith robust resource accounts to help the human economy operate within the Earthsecological limits.
The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) works to create and sustain an environmentconducive to the growth of industry in India, partnering with industry and governmentalike through advisory and consultative processes.
CII is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry led and industry managed organisation,playing a proactive role in Indias development process. Founded over 113 yearsago, it is Indias premier business association, with a direct membership of over 7500organisations from the private as well as public sectors, including SMEs and MNCs,and an indirect membership of over 83,000 companies from around 380 nationaland regional sectoral associations.
CII catalyses change by working closely with government on policy issues, enhancingefficiency, competitiveness and expanding business opportunities for industry through arange of specialised services and global linkages. It also provides a platform for sectoralconsensus building and networking. Major emphasis is laid on projecting a positiveimage of business, assisting industry to identify and execute corporate citizenship programmes.partnerships with over 120 NGOs across the country carry forward our initiatives inintegrated and inclusive development, which include health, education, livelihood, diversitymanagement, skill development and water, to name a few.
Complementing this vision, CIIs theme [email protected]: The Emerging Agenda, reflects itsaspirational role to facilitate the acceleration in Indias transformation into an economicallyvital, technologically innovative, socially and ethically vibrant global leader by year 2022.
With 63 offices in India, 8 overseas in Australia, Austria, China, France, Japan, Singapore,UK, USA and institutional partnerships with 271 counterpart organisations in 100 countries,CII serves as a reference point for Indian industry and the international business community.
ABOUT CII-GODREJ GBC
CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (CII Godrej GBC), a division of CII, is Indiaspremier developmental institution, offering advisory services to the industry on environmental as-pects and works in the areas of green buildings, energy efficiency, water management, renewableenergy, product incubation and climate change activities. The centre sensitises key stakeholdersto embrace green practices and facilitate market transformation, paving way for India to becomeone of the global leaders in green businesses by 2015.
The centre is housed in a green building which received the coveted LEED (Leadership in Energyand Environmental Design) Platinum rating in 2003. This was the first platinum rated GreenBuilding outside of the U.S. and also the first in India. The Centre was inauguratedby H.E Shri A P J Abdul Kalam, the then President of India, on July 14, 2004.
ABOUT WWF INDIA
World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India) is one of country s largest non-governmental organizations workingtowards the conservation of biodiversity and natural habitats. It engages with multiplestakeholders including local communities, teachers, students, state and central governments,industry and civil society organizations, so as to ensure a living planet for future generations.WWF-India works through a network of 15 state, 22 field and 8 divisional offices withapproximately 300 staff working across the country to implement its mission and work.The secretariat is based in New Delhi and the organization is a part of theWWF International network, with its headquarters located in Gland, switzerland.
WWF-India has several programme divisions that work on specific areas of conservationand sustainable development. These include: Climate Change and Energy Forest Conservation Freshwater and Wetlands Marine Species Conservation Sustainable Livelihoods Programme Centre for Environmental Law Environment Education Programme Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre (IGCMC) Living Ganga Program
Besides these initiatives WWF-India will be part of two large global programmes thatwill commence in 2008, namely the Tiger Initiative and the Living Himalayas Initiative.
All these programs do cross cutting work on landscapes that have been identified asfragile and important due to the critical role they play to ensure that sub continentalbiodiversity of flora and fauna in thrives. These landscapes are:
Khangchendzonga Satpuda- Maikal North Bank Kaziranga-Karbilong Terrai-Arc Sundarbhans Nilgiri and Eastern Ghats
WWf-Indias field staff works tirelessly to ensure that nature conservation is conductedin a scientific manner so as to ensure gradual reduction in man induced degradation ofthe environment and also to ensure that sustainable development practices are adopted.
USAID is an independent federal government agency that receives overall foreign policyguidance from the Secretary of State of the United States of America. USAID works in agri-culture, democracy & governance, economic growth, the environment, education, health,global partnerships, and humanitarian assistance in more than 100 countries to providea better future for all.
ABOUT ICICI BANK
ICICI Bank is Indias second-largest bank, and second amongst all the companies listedon the Indian stock exchanges in terms of free float market capitalization. The Bank has anetwork of about 1,308 branches and 3,950 ATMs in India and presence in 18 countries.The Bank currently has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, Russia and Canada, branchesin United States, Singapore, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Qatar and Dubai InternationalFinance Centre and representative offices in United Arab Emirates, China, South Africa,Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia.
DR REDDYS LABORATORIES
Dr. Reddy s is committed to providing affordable and innovative medicines for healthier lives.Dr Reddy s is a global, vertically integrated pharmaceutical company with a presence acrossthe value chain through its various businesses, including Pharmaceutical Services & ActiveIngredients (PSAI), Global Generics and Innovation. The company s products are marketedin over 100 countries with an emphasis on North America, Europe, India, Russia and otheremerging markets. Dr Reddy s conducts NCE drug discovery research in the areas of meta-bolic disorders, cardiovascular indications and cancer at its research facilities in Atlanta (USA)and Hyderabad (India). Through its PSAI business, Dr Reddy s provides drug substance anddrug product development and manufacturing services.
Dr Reddy s is among the leading pharmaceutical companies from India and has a globalworkforce of 9,500 employees. It has been consistently recognized for its HR practices andhas ranked among the Best Places to Work in India in the pharmaceutical sector.
Dr Reddy s is guided by the Triple Bottom Line approach that ensures its care and concernfor the environment, resource conservation, socially responsible engagement of employeesand economically sustainable relationships with customers, suppliers, business partnersand shareholders. Through Dr Reddy s Foundation, a non-profit organization set up byDr Reddy s in 1996, the organization has pioneered innovative programs in educationand sustainable livelihoods.
R E D D Y SR
ONGC pioneered the nations petroleum quest and is now present over the entire hydrocarbonvalue chain. As Indias only company to feature in Fortunes Most admired Companies list,it has taken a giant leap forward for promoting sustainable growth and development byharnessing natures clean alternatives like wind power and solar energy. ONGC intends tobe carbon neutral and has invested substantially towards renewable energy research.
ABOUT TATA POWER
Tata Power is Indias largest integrated private power company with consolidated revenuesof Rs. 10,890.86 Crores for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2008. Inspired by a powerful vision,the founders of Tata Power pioneered the generation of electricity in India with the commis-sioning of Indias first large hydro-electric project in 1915. Today, Tata Power hasan installed generating capacity of over 2300 MW and a presence across the entire valuechain in generation (thermal, hydro, solar and wind) transmission, trading and distribution.The Company has emerged as a pioneer in the Indian power sector, with a track recordof performance, and a frontrunner in introducing state-of-the-art power technologies.
Among its achievements, the Company has to its credit the installation of Indias first 500MW unit at Trombay, the first 150 MW pumped storage unit at Bhira, and a Flue GasDe-sulphurization plant for pollution control at Trombay. Having served Mumbais consumersfor over nine decades the Company has since spread its footprint across the country andabroad. Outside Mumbai, the Company now has generation capacities in the States ofJharkhand and Karnataka and a distribution Company in Delhi. The thermal power stationsof the Company are located at Trombay in Mumbai, Jojobera in Jharkhand and Belgaumin Karnataka. The hydro stations are located in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra andthe wind farm in Ahmednagar. An optimum mix of hydel and thermal capacity enablesthe company to supply power at competitive tariffs to its customers. At 2.25% theCompanys transmission & distribution losses are among the lowest in the country. Also,at the core of reliable power supply to the city is the unique Islanding system pioneered byTata Power, due to which the city of Mumbai has the advantage of assured uninterruptedreliable supply of power. In case of a grid failure, an Islanding system ensures power sup -ply within the city limits.
For more information visit www.tatapower.com
The Company has successful public-private partnerships in generation, transmission anddistribution- North Delhi Power Limited with Delhi Vidyut Board for distribution inNorth Delhi, Powerlinks Transmission Ltd. with Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.for evacuation of Power from Tala hydro project in Bhutan to Delhi and Maithon Power Ltd.with Damodar Valley Corporation for a 1000 MW Mega Power Project.
2008 by Global Footprint Network and Confederation of Indian Industry
Global Footprint Network312 Clay Street, Suite 300Oakland, CA 94607-3510 USATel. +1-510-839-8879Fax +1-510-251-2410www.footprintnetwork.org
World Wide Fund forNature India172 B, Lodhi Estate,New Delhi- 110003Tel : +91 11 4150 4815Fax : +91 11 2469 1226www.wwfindia.org
CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business CentreSurvey No. 64, Kothaguda Post,Near Hi-tech City, RR Dist.,Hyderabad - 500 032Tel : +91 40 23112971-73Fax : +91 40 2311 2837www.greenbusinesscentre.com
2008, Global Footprint Network and Confederation of Indian Industry
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission from Global Footprint Network, USA or CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad.
While every care has been taken in compiling this report, neither Global Footprint Network & CII GodrejGBC nor USAID accepts any claim for compensation, if any entry is wrong, abbreviated, cancelled, omitted orinserted incorrectly either as to the wording, space or position in the report. The report is only an attempt tocreate awareness and share the status of ecological footprint of India.
The report on Indias Ecological Footprint a Business Perspective was supported in part by a grant from theGovernment of India pursuant to the agreement between India and United States of America for the trade inEnvironment Services and Technologies (Clean technology Initiative) (EST/CTI). The views and informationcontained herein are those of the Global Footprint Network & CII Godrej GBC and not necessarily those ofGovernment of India or ICICI Bank or USAID or the corporate sponsors of the report. The Government ofIndia or USAID or ICICI Bank or the corporate sponsors assumes no liability for the contents of this manual byvirtue of the support given.
Published by Confederation of Indian Industry, CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, Survey No 64,Kothaguda post, Near Hitech City, R.R. Dist, Hyderabad 500032