Carbon footprint and Ecological Footprint

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Gabriella Chiellino eAmbiente Srl Carbon footprint and Carbon footprint and Ecological Footprint Ecological Footprint

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Lezione tenuta dalla dott.ssa Gabriella Chiellino, AD eAmbiente Srl, presso l'università di Yaoundè - Camerun.

Transcript of Carbon footprint and Ecological Footprint

  • 1.Gabriella Chiellino eAmbiente Srl Carbon footprint andEcological Footprint

2. 3. CO 2and Global warming Global climate change Increased concentration of CO 2in the atmosphere since the revolution industry. The temperature rise It represents one of the most important indicators that we are living beyond the capacity of ecosystems to absorb disturbances. Decreased emissions An effort by the productive sectors to reduce emissions and the concentration of CO 2in the atmosphere is vital to combat climate change in progress. 4. Consumption ofresources Population is growing Since XX century population is growing quickly. Life style is changing In Europe and America expecially, people are living beyond the capacity of ecosystems to absorb disturbances. Resources are scarce To make goods we need to use resources that are not always renewable. 5. The differences CARBON FOOTPRINT Assessment throughout the life cycle of a product / process related to the impact category "global warming " (in terms of CO 2eq.) ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT The ecological footprint isa statistical indexused to measure requestforhumannature and its factories.Itrelates the human consumption ofnatural resources with theearth's capacity to regenerate them. WATER FOOTPRINT The WF is a geographically explicit indicator showing volumes of water consumption and pollution and the locations 6. First part: Carbon footprint CARBON FOOTPRINT FIRST PART 7. Applicable law Screening study Complete study under the rules UNI EN ISO 14040:2006 UNI EN ISO 14044:2006EPDEnvironmental Product Declaration Time + internal resources for data retrieval Testing a possible third body on internal methodology Certification of a possible third body in accordance with standard Comunication Comunication / Ecodesign Comunication 8. Carbon markets

  • The trading of greenhouse gas emissions has been established through the EU Directive 2003/87/EC to fulfill their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Annex I of Directive:
  • Combustion installations exceeding 20 MW
  • Petroleum Refineries
  • Coke ovens
  • Etc.
  • There are independent verification and validation services to voluntary projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, for the issuance of VERs (Verified Emissions Reductions), or "emission reduction units".

Objective: environmental communication 9. What happended with CO 2 ? The whole life on earth is based onphotosynthesis of chlorophyll: Reactionsduringwhichgreenplantsproduceorganic substances-mainlycarbohydrates-fromcarbon dioxideand water,in the presenceof light. Thisseries ofchemical reactionswithinthe anabolic processes(synthesis)ofcarbohydratesand istotally opposedto thereverseprocessofcatabolisi(oxidation). Reaction of the molecules 6CO 2 (carbon dioxide) +6H 2 O(Water) +light->C 6 H 12 O 6(glucose) +6O 2 (Oxygen) 10. And then? Thefood chain or net chain (better) provides to feed animals and the uman: 11. Dynamic balance TheCO 2cycle on earth (but also water cycle, nitrogen cycle etc.) are indynamic balanceduring the years. Only with other sources not renewable (fossils) this dynamic balance is altered with many pollution problems. 12. Carbon footprint: measure CF measures the impact that human activities have on the environment in terms of amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO 2equivalent). Production Activities kWh energy m3 water Materials / resources Administrative kWh energy m3 methane Transportation Km covered Waste Kg produced Processing tonnesofCO2equivalent SimaPro 7.3.0. Analyst 13. Carbon footprint: measure Processing Method of calculation Categories of impact Mid-Point Evaluate the causes of the damage End-Point Evaluate the damage

  • Acidification
  • Eutrophication
  • Global Warming
  • Thinning of the ozone layer
  • Photochemical oxidation
  • Land use
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Ecotoxicity
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Human Health
  • Ecosystem quality
  • Decay of natural resources

SimaPro 7.3.0. Analyst 14. Example of results The results are expressed as: Equivalent units CO 2eq. kg SO 2eq. kg CFC-11 eq. "Eco-points" Normalized equivalent units around them, with a percentage of the total European currency. Example with different kind of beverages bottles! Explanationofcategories Decay of natural resources Ecosystem quality Human health 15. Reduce and compensate emissions The calculation of carbon footprint provides tons of CO2 equivalent produced in a year The Company may decide to reduce emissions with a reduction plans (technological improvements, logistics etc.). So they may decide to compensate (offset) for remaining emissions (in part or entirely) . Total CO 2 CO 2reduced CO 2offset A number of tonnes ofCO 2 16. Projects Project Choice Purchase of creditscorresponding 1 ton = 1 credit Emissions offset Publication on the register Cancellation of debt certificates Environmental Communication Forest managemet Energy saving Biogasfromlandfills

  • 1 ton = 1 credit
  • Public Register
  • Credits Certificates

17. Our experience Calculation of CO2 equivalent Projections of the reduction with improvement initiatives Communication on the company website and 1.000.000 of paper carnet Withdrawal of claims and posting to register eCO2care Calculation of CO2 equivalent to 20 emitters 18. Second part: Ecological footprint First part: Carbon footprint ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT SECOND PART 19. Introduction It measuresthe areaofbiologicallyproductiveland and seaneeded to regenerate the resourcesconsumed by ahuman population. Usingthe ecological footprint, it ispossible to estimatehow manyvirtual"Planet Earth" is needed to supporthumanityifeverybody livedaccording to a certainlifestyle. 20. First approach 21. In detail To calculatethe ecological footprintof mens consumption (goods,cereals,meat, fruits,vegetables,roots andtubers,legumes,etc.)you putin report theamount of eachgood consumedwith a constantyieldinkg/ha (kilogramsper hectare). The result isa surface . 22. We have different behaviour 23. The situation: our world Density of worlds populationEffective growth and forecast of worlds population 24. Why is it important? We need to do green choices Scenarios 25. Methodology Overview The 2010 National Footprint Accounts use over 5,000 data points for each country, each year, derived from internationally recognized sources to determine the area required to produce the biological resources a country uses and to absorb its wastes, and to compare this with the area available. Biocapacity is measured by calculating the amount of biologically productive land and sea area available to provide the resources a population consumes and to absorb its wastes, given current technology and management practices.Equivalence factors, and the specific land use types included in the Ecological Footprint: cropland, grazing land, fishing ground, forest land, carbon uptake land, and built-up land. DATA REPORT EQUIVALENCE FACTORS 26. Methodology Overview An example of methodology of calculation 27. Report Regarding some studies, even with modest projections for population growth, consumption and climate change, by 2030 humanity will need the capacity of two Earths to absorb carbon dioxide waste and keep up with natural resource consumption. 28. Standards path Global Footprint Network has released the Ecological Footprint Standards 2009 and has begun the2012Standards update process. The2009Standards build on the first set of internationally recognized Ecological Footprint Standards, released in2006 , and include key updates such as, for the first time, providing standards and guidelines for product and organizational Footprint assessments. Ecological footprint is still a young method 29. Problems Both the Carbon Footprintand the Ecological footprint must develop to comply on a global level, so that the results are actuallycomparable . The drafting of standards goes in this direction, although it is also necessary to standardize the methodology of data collection, processing not only of themselves. 30. Future Environmental problems need to be measured and possibly solvedwith effective methods. Carbon footprint and Ecological footprint, using their indicatorscan direct us to take effective action to minimize impacts and changing lifestyles, and industrial production. 31. Second part: Ecological footprint First part: Carbon footprint WATER FOOTPRINT THIRD PART 32. Water Footprint

  • The Water Footprint (WF) is a measure of human appropriation of freshwater resources
  • Blue WFrefers to consumption of blue water resources (surface and ground water).
  • Green WFis the volume of green water (rainwater) consumed, which is particularly relevant in crop production.
  • GreyWFis an indicator of the degree of freshwater pollution and is defined as the volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards.
  • The WF is a geographically explicit indicator showing volumes of water consumption and pollution and the locations

33. Water Footprint 34. Water Footprint - Product

  • the volume of fresh water used to produce the product
  • summed over the various steps of the production chain.
  • when and where the water was used: a WF includes a temporal and spatial dimension

35. Water Footprint - Consumer

  • the total volume of water appropriated for the production of the
  • goods and services consumed
  • equal to the sum of the water footprints of
  • all goods and servicesconsumed
  • dimensions of a Water Footprint
  • ( Volume, where, when,Type of water use)
  • Global average Water Footprint: 1385 m3/yr per capita

Countries United Kingdom Italy Cameroon Kenya USA Canada Japan France Germany Average Water Footprint (m3/yr per capita) 1258 2303 1245 1101 2842 2333 1379 1786 1426 Part of footprint falling outside of the country (%) 75,2 60,7 5,4 17,4 20,2 20,7 76,9 46,3 68,8 36. Water Footprint - Nation

  • Water footprint of national consumption
  • total amount of water that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the nation.
  • two components:
    • internal water footprint inside the country.
    • external water footprint in other countries.
  • Water footprint of national consumption =
  • = water footprint within the nation + virtual water import virtual water export

37. Water Footprint- Nation 38. Water FootprintRappresentation of virtual water balance per country and direction of gross virtual water flows related to trade in agricultural and industrial products over the period 1996-2005. Only the biggest water savings (> 5 Gm3/yr) are shown. 39. Water FootprintRappresentation of global water savings associated with international trade in agricultural products (1996-2005).Only the biggest water savings (> 5 Gm3/yr) are shown. 40. Water Footprint- Business

  • Operational water footprint
    • the direct water use by the producer for producing, manufacturing or for supporting activities
  • Supply - chain water footprint
    • the indirect water use in the producers supply chainvirtual water import virtual water export
  • total volume of freshwater that is used directly and indirectly to runand support a business
  • temporal and spatial dimension:when and where was the water used.
  • three components:
    • green: volume of rainwater consumed
    • blue: volume of surface or groundwater consumed
    • grey : volume of polluted water

41. Water Footprint 42. WF and CF

  • Water footprint and carbon footprint are complementary tools

Water footprint Carbon footprint

  • measures freshwater appropriation
  • spatial and temporal dimension
  • actual, locally specific values
  • always referring to full supply-chain
  • focus on reducing own water footprint
  • (water use units are notinterchangeable)
  • measures emission GHG
  • no spatial / temporal dimension
  • global average values
  • supply-chain included only in scope 3carbon accounting
  • many efforts focused on offsetting
  • (carbon emission units are interchangeable)

43. WF and LCA - CF

  • For companies, water footprint assessment and LCA are complementary tools .
  • WF assessment is a tool to support formulation of a sustainable water management strategy in operations and supply chain
  • LCA is a tool to compare the overall environmental impact of different products
  • WF is a general indicator of water use; application of WF in inventory phase of LCAis one particular application.

Water footprint Life Cycle Assessment

  • measures freshwater appropriation
  • multi-dimensional (type of water use,location, timing)
  • actual water volumes, no weighing
  • measures overall environmental impact
  • no spatial dimension
  • weighing water volumes based onImpacts

44. WF AssessmentIngeneral, the approach is basedon: And the assessment 45. WF Assessment

  • Sustainability of the
  • cumulative
  • water footprints in
  • different catchments

Sustainability of the WFs of specific processes Sustainability of the WFs of specific products 46. WF Assessment

  • Step 1 Sustainability Criteria
  • Environmental
      • Environmental flow requirements
      • Environmental green water requirements
      • Ambient water quality standards
  • Social
      • Basic human needs min. drink-water, food security, employm.
      • Rules of fairness fair allocation, water user & water polluterprinciple
  • Economic
      • Efficient allocation and use of water

47. WF Assessment

  • Step 1 - Environmentale Flow requirements
  • Catchment level
  • Monthly level
  • Generic rule of thumb: 80% of natural runoff, on a monthly basis
  • Use data from generic global methodology, but replace with better studies give better local estimates

48. WF Assessment

  • Step 2 Hotspots
  • Environmental sustainability criteria
      • Green water footprint < available green water
      • Blue water footprint < available blue water
      • Grey water footprint < available assimilation capacity

If we consider the Grey WF criterion: Grey Water Footprint < runoff Assimilative capacity non fully used Grey Water Footprint = runoff Fulle assimilative capacity of the river used Grey Water Footprint > runoff Pollution exceed the assimilative capacity of the envorinment 49. WF Assessment

  • Step 3 - 4 Primary and secondary impacts
  • Primary impacts
      • Changes to hydrology
      • Changes to water quality
  • Secondary impacts
      • Effects on abundance of certain species
      • Effects on biodiversity
      • Effects on human health
      • Effects on employment
      • Effects on distribution of welfare
      • Effects on income in different sectors of economy

50. ISO Standard on WF

  • Water Footprint: Requirements and Guidelines
  • International standard for water footprinting (ISO 14046)
  • This International Standard specifiesrequirements and guidelines to assess and report Water Footprint based on LCA
  • Terminology, communication
  • Important stages to consider
  • Consistency with ISO 14000 series including environmental metrics such as Carbon footprint, LCA(ISO14040), Greenhouse Gases quantification and communication (ISO14064, ISO 14067) and Environmental communication (ISO14020)
  • Review/Validation
  • Reporting
  • Towards industry and practitioners

51. ISO Standard on WF

  • The proposed International Standard will deliver
  • principles, requirements and guidelines
  • for a water footprint metric of
  • products, processes and organisations
  • based on the guidance of
  • impact assessment as given in ISO 14044
  • It will define how the different types of water sources (for example ground, surface, lake, river) should be considered, how the different types of water releases should be considered, and how the local environmental conditions (dry areas, wet areas) should be treated.
  • Forproducts : it will apply the life cycle approach and will be based on the same product system as specified in ISO 14040and ISO 14044
  • Fororganisation : it will consider the guidance given by ISO 14064 for GHG
  • The standard will also address thecommunication issues linked to the WF

52. Shared responsability

  • Consumersor consumer or environmental organizations push businesses and governments to address water use andimpacts along supply chains
  • Somebusinessesact voluntarily in an early stage, driven by
  • consumers orinvestors
  • Governmentspromote businesses in an early phase and implement regulations in a later phase
  • Governments, companies, consultants and accountants use same standard definitions and calculation methods
  • International cooperation , through UN and other institutions ...

53. Current Development

  • Increasing communication on water
  • Publication of Water Footprint results of products in the news,
  • Increasing demand for standards
  • E.g., The company said it was the worlds first food company to add an H2O label to product packaging and that it had developed its own calculation model because no internationally established formula and product label yet exists. [] we need to ensure that there are consistent standards across the board, -Carbon Footprints to Water Footprints (The New York Times, April 172009)
  • Multitude groups active in water
    • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)
    • Water Footprint Network (WFN)
    • UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative
    • Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS)
    • World Resource Institute (WRI)
    • Water Environment Federation (Water Quality)
    • ...

54. WF reduction and offsetting

    • Reduce
      • Reduce by avoid: do not undertake water - using activities altogether
      • Reduce by improved production: replace one technique by another technique that results in a lower or even zero Water Footprint
  • Offset
  • Compensate the residual water footprint by making a reasonable investment in establishing or supporting projects that aim at a sustainable, equitable and efficient use of water in the catchment where the residual WaterFootprint is located

55. WF reduction and offsetting 56. Ultimate perspective Agricolture Industry Green WF Decrease greenwater footprint (m3/ton) by increasing green water productivity (ton/me) in both rain - fed and irrigated agricolture. Increase total productionfrom rain - fed agricolture Not relevant Blue WF Decrease blue water footprint (m3/ton) by increasing blue water productivity (ton/m3) in irrigated agricolture. Decrease ratio blue/green water footprint. Decrease global blue water footprint (e.g. by 50%) Zero blue water footprint: no losses trough evaporation - full recycling - only blue water footprint related to the incorporation of water into a product cannot be avoided Grey WF Reduced use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides; more effective application. Grey water footprint can go to zero through organic farming Zero grey water footprint no pollution - full recycling, recapturing heat from heated effluents and treatment of remaining return flows 57. Reducing humanity WF

    • Consumers
    • Reduction of the direct Water Fooprint
      • water saving toilet, shower-head, etc.
    • Reduction of the indirect Water Fooprint
      • substitution of a consumer product that has a large water footprint by a different type of product that has a smaller water footprint
      • substitution of a consumer product that has a large water footprint by the same product that is derived from another source withsmaller water footprint
    • Ask product transparency from businesses and regulationfrom governments

58. Reducing humanity WF

    • Companies
    • Shared terminology & calculation standards
    • Product transparency
      • water footprint reporting / disclosure
      • labelling of products
      • certification of businesses
    • Quantitative footprint reduction targets benchmarking
    • Reduction of the operational water footprint
      • water saving in own operations
    • Reduction of the supply-chain water footprint
      • influencing suppliers
      • changing to other suppliers
      • transform business model in order to incorporate or better controlsupply chains

59. Reducing humanity WF

    • Investors
    • Reduce risk of investments:
      • physical risk formed by water shortages or pollution
      • risk of damaged corporate image
      • regulatory risk
      • financial risk
    • Demand accounting and substantiated quantitative water footprintreduction targets from companies

60. Reducing humanity WF

    • Governments
    • Embed water footprint assessment in national water policy making
    • Promote coherence between water and other governmental policies
    • Reduce the own organizational water footprint
      • reduce the water footprint of public services
    • Promote product transparency
      • support or force businesses to make annual water footprint accounts and to implement water footprint reduction measures
      • e.g. through promoting a water label for water-intensive products
      • e.g. through water-certification of businesses

61. International cooperation

    • International protocol on water pricing
    • Minimum water rights
    • Tradable water footprint permits
    • Water - labelling of water-intensive products
    • Water-certification of industries and retailers
    • International nutrient housekeeping
    • Shared guidelines on water-neutrality for businesses

62. Initiatives 63.