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Business and Computing Deanery 3D Modelling Week 2 Software and 3D Modelling
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### Transcript of Business and Computing Deanery 3D Modelling Week 2 Software and 3D Modelling.

• Slide 1
• Business and Computing Deanery 3D Modelling Week 2 Software and 3D Modelling
• Slide 2
• 3D Modelling 2 Aims of today Revisit the fundamentals of 3D parametric modelling Software Hardware Modelling concepts 3D parametric modelling Primitives 2D to 3D Transformations Aligning Cloning Modifying primitives Boolean
• Slide 3
• 3D Modelling 3 Last week Introduced the module Presentation, discuss next week Portfolio Introduced parametric modelling VRML or X3D 3D space Coordinates Axes Transformations 3D primitives
• Slide 4
• 3D Modelling 4 3D space Rectangular coordinate system Known as Cartesian coordinates World or global coordinate system Each object can have its own local coordinate system Axes
• Slide 5
• 3D Modelling 5 Primitive parametric modelling Numerical description of the object What are the parameters of: Box (or cuboid)? Size, 3 dimensions Cylinder? Height and radius Sphere? Radius
• Slide 6
• 3D Modelling 6 Transformations Geometric transformation Mathematical operation What are the three possible methods of transformation in VRML/X3D? Position Rotate Scale
• Slide 7
• 3D Modelling 7 Perspective transformations Perspective projection Happens automatically in virtually all 3D software A perspective view is created by projecting each point of the object onto a picture plane Parallel lines converge in the distance Creates a 2D image on the monitor/paper Axonometric projection
• Slide 8
• 3D Modelling 8 Navigation transformations Motions or transformations that place the viewpoint or camera in different parts of the scene Position Point of interest Camera lens
• Slide 9
• 3D Modelling 9 Display in a webpage A web browser A free plug-ins Cosmo VRML http://ovrt.nist.gov/cosmo/ Cortona VRML http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/corton a/ http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/corton a/ Flux VRML and X3D http://www.mediamachines.com/flux/ BS Contact VRML and X3D http://www.bitmanagement.de/
• Slide 10
• 3D Modelling 10 3d modelling software Ranges from the free to the very expensive Why might it be so expensive? What might you expect your 3d software to do?
• Slide 11
• 3D Modelling 11 Typical scenario Your client asked you to make a 3D rendering of the steps involved in the self-assembly of a piece of furniture What are your software options? What are the cost implications of the various pieces of software? What file type would be generated? What are the hardware implications?
• Slide 12
• 3D Modelling 12 Activity In pairs Find 2 examples of free 3d software Find 3 examples of professional 3d software http://dir.yahoo.com/Business_and_Economy/Bus iness_to_Business/Computers/Software/Graphics/ 3D/ http://www.google.co.uk/
• Slide 13
• 3D Modelling 13 Activity Of the professional software options What is the cost of one licence? Can you to make an interactive web model? What is the recommended hardware for this software?
• Slide 14
• 3D Modelling 14 Modeller concepts Four types of modelling systems: Parametric Polygon Spline Patch Many piece of software combine two or more of these basic techniques Giambruno M, (2002)
• Slide 15
• 3D Modelling 15 Parametric modellers Retain their base geometric information Default shape Current size Segments This information can be accessed and altered Can be spline or polygon based Deformations can be applied
• Slide 16
• 3D Modelling 16 Polygon modellers Objects constructed with polygons Made up of tiny, flat surfaces More polygons mean More detail Bigger file sizes Low polygon Used in real-time games Small file sizes Quick to render 3ds max v7
• Slide 17
• 3D Modelling 17 Spline modellers A line defined as points, usually curved Resolution independent No faces Useful for creating organic shapes Different types B-spline Bezier NURBS Non-uniform rational b-splines
• Slide 18
• 3D Modelling 18 Spline types B-spline Bezier NURBS Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines More information at http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~dfg/AndysSplineTutori al 3D Graphics and animation
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• 3D Modelling 19 Patch modellers Use a network of control points Lattice of splines or polygons Stretch or tug on the shape Useful for organic forms 3ds max v7
• Slide 20
• 3D Modelling 20 Working in the 3D world Most programs have a common features Viewports Mouse-selected features Use right click for context sensitive menus Type-in commands and parameters
• Slide 21
• 3D Modelling 21 3ds max v7
• Slide 22
• 3D Modelling 22 Wireframe modelling Wireframe modelling requires less computing power than any form of rendering Default 3 viewports wireframe 1 viewport rendered Will use either OpenGL or DirectX But not proper rendering with lighting and shadows Takes even more processing power
• Slide 23
• 3D Modelling 23 3ds max v7
• Slide 24
• 3D Modelling 24 Different viewports 3ds max allows lots of different viewport arrangements 3ds max v7
• Slide 25
• 3D Modelling 25 Viewports Customisable viewports Top Left or right Perspective Camera Pan Slide around Zoom in or out Zoom all
• Slide 26
• 3D Modelling 26 Common 3D primitives Can you name them? Cone Sphere GeoSphere Teapot Box Tube Cylinder Taurus 3ds max v7
• Slide 27
• 3D Modelling 27 Activity Start up 3ds max Draw a primitive shape Experiment with panning, zooming Change the viewpoints Experiment with right clicking
• Slide 28
• 3D Modelling 28 Units and scale English Feet an inches Metric Meters and centimetres Generic Decimal numbers
• Slide 29
• 3D Modelling 29 Activity Using 3ds max help Help>User reference Find out how to alter the units system Make sure that the software is set to Metres
• Slide 30
• 3D Modelling 30 Self assessment What are the four types of modelling concepts used by modelling software? What is the most useful for gaming? Why is this used for gaming? Why does it not work well for Rendered views? Organic shapes? Discuss the four methods of converting 2D shapes to 3D Give an example of each for constructing everyday objects
• Slide 31
• 3D Modelling 31 File formats for modelling Portable or universal file format DXF.dxf Drawing Interchange Format Widely used in CAD (Computer Aided Design) OBJ.obj Computer animation an visual effects 3ds.3ds Mesh Native May be converted 3ds max.max
• Slide 32
• 3D Modelling 32 Exporting/importing files File conversion 3D Studio (3DS) Adobe Illustrator (AI) ASC Scene Export (ASE) AutoCAD (DWG) AutoCAD (DXF) Shockwave 3D FiLMBOX (FBX) Initial Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) Lightscape Material (ATR) Lightscape Blocks (BLK) Lightscape Parameter (DF) Lightscape Layers (LAY) Lightscape View (VW) Lightscape Preparation File (LP) Stereolithography (STL) VRML97 (WRL)
• Slide 33
• 3D Modelling 33 Activity Import your VRML model from Portfolio 1
• Slide 34
• 3D Modelling 34 Transforms using software Move Numerical Using your mouse Rotate Revolve around a selected axis Pivot point Scale In one direction? Mirror Reverses an object Or Copies a reversed version of it along a selected axis Useful for what?
• Slide 35
• 3D Modelling 35 Transform tips Work in plan and side view Use gizmos Viewport icons that let you quickly choose one or two axes when transforming a selection with the mouse. 3ds max v7
• Slide 36
• 3D Modelling 36 Align Bring object surfaces flush with each other Center Left Right Face Edge Vertex
• Slide 37
• 3D Modelling 37 Copying and instancing Copy Creates a completely separate clone from the original. Modifying one has no effect on the other Instance Creates a completely interchangeable clone of the original. Modifying an instanced object is the same as modifying the original Reference method Creates a clone dependent on the original up to the point when the object is cloned. Changing parameters for modifiers that were applied to the object before the object was referenced, will change both objects. However, a new modifier can be applied to one of the reference objects, and it will affect only the object to which it is applied. 3ds max v7
• Slide 38
• 3D Modelling 38 Array Series of clones Linear Select object Define axis Define distance Define number Radial Select axis Specify number 3ds max v7
• Slide 39
• 3D Modelling 39 Activity Today build a table with objects on top Give every object a name Experiment with Align Scale Mirror Copy
• Slide 40
• 3D Modelling 40 Deforms or modifiers Modifiers provide a way for you to sculpt and edit objects change the geometry of an object An unlimited number of modifiers can be applied to an object Modifiers can be deleted Modifiers can be copied to other objects The order or sequence in which you add modifiers is important. Each modifier affects those that come after it.
• Slide 41
• 3D Modelling 41 Selection of modifiers Bend Bevel Lathe Edit mesh Patch deformer Surface modifier Optimize Edit spline Taper Smooth Twist Skin modifier Mirror Extrude Refer to 3ds max 7 help
• Slide 42
• 3D Modelling 42 Bend modifier Parameters Angle Direction Axis Limits 3ds max v7
• Slide 43
• 3D Modelling 43 Taper modifier Parameters Amount Curve Axis Limits 3ds max v7
• Slide 44
• 3D Modelling 44 Twist modifier Parameters Angle Bias Axis Limits 3ds max v7
• Slide 45
• 3D Modelling 45 Squash modifier Parameters Axial bulge Amount Curve Radial squeeze Amount Curve Limits Effect balance 3ds max v7
• Slide 46
• 3D Modelling 46 Object data flow The software evaluates changes affecting the object for display The object data flow is the order in which they are evaluated 3ds max v7
• Slide 47
• 3D Modelling 47 The Modifier Stack Using the Modifier Stack Find a particular modifier and adjust its parameters View and manipulate the sequence of modifiers Copy, cut, and paste modifiers between objects, or sets of objects Deactivate the effect of a modifier in the stack, the viewport display, or both Select a modifiers components, such as gizmo or centre Delete modifiers. 3ds max 7 help
• Slide 48
• 3D Modelling 48 Activity Add a teapot, a cylinder, a sphere to your table Bend them Taper Twist them Squash them
• Slide 49
• 3D Modelling 49 3D Booleans Powerful sculpting tools Multiple objects Usually destructive 3ds max v7
• Slide 50
• 3D Modelling 50 Union Boolean Union or addition The intersecting or overlapping portion of the geometry is removed. 3ds max v7
• Slide 51
• 3D Modelling 51 Intersection Boolean Intersection Where they overlap 3ds max v7
• Slide 52
• 3D Modelling 52 Subtraction Subtraction (or difference) The Boolean object contains the volume of one original object with the intersection volume subtracted from it a - b b - a 3ds max v7
• Slide 53
• 3D Modelling 53 Activity Make a fruit bowl on your table using Boolean Make a fruit bowl using lath Are there any more ways?
• Slide 54
• 3D Modelling 54 Organising yourself Save frequently Organise your work How? Save different versions of your work with new file names Folders for tutorial work Folders for portfolio work
• Slide 55
• 3D Modelling 55 Covered today Software Hardware Modelling concepts 3D parametric modelling Primitives 2D to 3D Transformation s Aligning Cloning Modifying primitives Boolean
• Slide 56
• 3D Modelling 56 Self assessment In building a model to display furniture Compare the use of different types of cloning of shapes in the modelling of a furniture display Give two instances of how array might be used in a furniture display and how the parameters would be set Describe the how 3D primitives could be added/subtracted together to model a piece of furniture
• Slide 57
• 3D Modelling 57 Next week Get to know the software Work on 3ds max tutorials Next portfolio Directed reading By now you should have read chapters 1- 5 of 3D Graphics & Animation For next week read chapters 7 & 8 Next week we will discuss your presentation YOU need to think about it and ask are you approaching it in the correct way
• Slide 58
• 3D Modelling 58 References Giambruno M, (2002) 3D Graphics & Animation, 2nd Edition, New Riders, ISBN: 0-7357-1243-3 Kerlow I. V., (2003) The Art of 3-D Computer Animation and Effects, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc; ISBN: 0471430366 3ds max 7 User Reference and Tutorials