3D Modelling

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Business and Computing Deanery 3D Modelling Week 2 Software and 3D Modelling

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3D Modelling. Week 2 Software and 3D Modelling. Aims of today. Revisit the fundamentals of 3D parametric modelling Software Hardware Modelling concepts 3D parametric modelling Primitives 2D to 3D Transformations Aligning Cloning Modifying primitives Boolean. Last week. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of 3D Modelling

  • Aims of todayRevisit the fundamentals of 3D parametric modellingSoftwareHardwareModelling concepts3D parametric modellingPrimitives2D to 3DTransformationsAligningCloningModifying primitivesBoolean

  • Last weekIntroduced the modulePresentation, discuss next weekPortfolioIntroduced parametric modelling VRML or X3D3D spaceCoordinatesAxesTransformations3D primitives

  • 3D spaceRectangular coordinate systemKnown as Cartesian coordinatesWorld or global coordinate systemEach object can have its own local coordinate systemAxes

  • Primitive parametric modellingNumerical description of the objectWhat are the parameters of:Box (or cuboid)?Size, 3 dimensionsCylinder?Height and radiusSphere?Radius

  • TransformationsGeometric transformationMathematical operationWhat are the three possible methods of transformation in VRML/X3D?Position Rotate Scale

  • Perspective transformationsPerspective projectionHappens automatically in virtually all 3D softwareA perspective view is created by projecting each point of the object onto a picture planeParallel lines converge in the distanceCreates a 2D image on the monitor/paperAxonometric projection

  • Navigation transformationsMotions or transformations that place the viewpoint or camera in different parts of the scenePositionPoint of interestCamera lens

  • Display in a webpageA web browserA free plug-insCosmo VRMLhttp://ovrt.nist.gov/cosmo/ Cortona VRMLhttp://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/ Flux VRML and X3Dhttp://www.mediamachines.com/flux/BS Contact VRML and X3Dhttp://www.bitmanagement.de/

  • 3d modelling softwareRanges from the free to the very expensiveWhy might it be so expensive?What might you expect your 3d software to do?

  • Typical scenarioYour client asked you to make a 3D rendering of the steps involved in the self-assembly of a piece of furnitureWhat are your software options?What are the cost implications of the various pieces of software?What file type would be generated?What are the hardware implications?

  • ActivityIn pairsFind 2 examples of free 3d softwareFind 3 examples of professional 3d software


  • ActivityOf the professional software optionsWhat is the cost of one licence?Can you to make an interactive web model?What is the recommended hardware for this software?

  • Modeller conceptsFour types of modelling systems:ParametricPolygonSplinePatchMany piece of software combine two or more of these basic techniques

    Giambruno M, (2002)

  • Parametric modellersRetain their base geometric informationDefault shapeCurrent sizeSegmentsThis information can be accessed and alteredCan be spline or polygon basedDeformations can be applied

  • Polygon modellersObjects constructed with polygonsMade up of tiny, flat surfacesMore polygons mean More detailBigger file sizesLow polygonUsed in real-time gamesSmall file sizesQuick to render3ds max v7

  • Spline modellersA line defined as points, usually curvedResolution independentNo facesUseful for creating organic shapesDifferent typesB-splineBezierNURBSNon-uniform rational b-splines

  • Spline typesB-splineBezierNURBSNon-Uniform Rational B-Splines

    More information at http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~dfg/AndysSplineTutorial3D Graphics and animation

  • Patch modellersUse a network of control points Lattice of splines or polygonsStretch or tug on the shapeUseful for organic forms3ds max v7

  • Working in the 3D worldMost programs have a common featuresViewportsMouse-selected featuresUse right click for context sensitive menusType-in commands and parameters

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  • Wireframe modellingWireframe modelling requires less computing power than any form of renderingDefault 3 viewports wireframe1 viewport renderedWill use either OpenGL or DirectXBut not proper rendering with lighting and shadowsTakes even more processing power

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  • Different viewports3ds max allows lots of different viewport arrangements3ds max v7

  • ViewportsCustomisable viewportsTopLeft or rightPerspectiveCameraPanSlide aroundZoom in or outZoom all

  • Common 3D primitivesCan you name them?ConeSphereGeoSphereTeapotBoxTubeCylinderTaurus3ds max v7

  • ActivityStart up 3ds maxDraw a primitive shapeExperiment with panning, zoomingChange the viewpointsExperiment with right clicking

  • Units and scaleEnglishFeet an inchesMetricMeters and centimetresGenericDecimal numbers

  • ActivityUsing 3ds max helpHelp>User referenceFind out how to alter the units systemMake sure that the software is set to Metres

  • Self assessment What are the four types of modelling concepts used by modelling software?What is the most useful for gaming?Why is this used for gaming?Why does it not work well forRendered views?Organic shapes?Discuss the four methods of converting 2D shapes to 3DGive an example of each for constructing everyday objects

  • File formats for modellingPortable or universal file formatDXF.dxfDrawing Interchange FormatWidely used in CAD (Computer Aided Design)OBJ .objComputer animation an visual effects3ds.3dsMesh NativeMay be converted3ds max .max

  • Exporting/importing filesFile conversion3D Studio (3DS)Adobe Illustrator (AI)ASC Scene Export (ASE)AutoCAD (DWG)AutoCAD (DXF)Shockwave 3DFiLMBOX (FBX)Initial Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES)Lightscape Material (ATR)Lightscape Blocks (BLK)Lightscape Parameter (DF)Lightscape Layers (LAY)Lightscape View (VW)Lightscape Preparation File (LP) Stereolithography (STL)VRML97 (WRL)

  • ActivityImport your VRML model from Portfolio 1

  • Transforms using softwareMoveNumericalUsing your mouseRotateRevolve around a selected axisPivot point

    ScaleIn one direction?

    MirrorReverses an objectOrCopies a reversed version of it along a selected axisUseful for what?

  • Transform tipsWork in plan and side viewUse gizmosViewport icons that let you quickly choose one or two axes when transforming a selection with the mouse. 3ds max v7

  • AlignBring object surfaces flush with each otherCenterLeftRightFaceEdgeVertex

  • Copying and instancingCopyCreates a completely separate clone from the original. Modifying one has no effect on the otherInstanceCreates a completely interchangeable clone of the original. Modifying an instanced object is the same as modifying the originalReference methodCreates a clone dependent on the original up to the point when the object is cloned. Changing parameters for modifiers that were applied to the object before the object was referenced, will change both objects. However, a new modifier can be applied to one of the reference objects, and it will affect only the object to which it is applied.

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  • ArraySeries of clonesLinearSelect objectDefine axisDefine distanceDefine numberRadialSelect axisSpecify number

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  • ActivityToday build a table with objects on topGive every object a nameExperiment withAlignScaleMirrorCopy

  • Deforms or modifiersModifiers provide a way for you to sculpt and edit objectschange the geometry of an objectAn unlimited number of modifiers can be applied to an objectModifiers can be deletedModifiers can be copied to other objects The order or sequence in which you add modifiers is important.Each modifier affects those that come after it.

  • Selection of modifiersBendBevelLatheEdit meshPatch deformerSurface modifierOptimizeEdit splineTaperSmoothTwistSkin modifierMirrorExtrudeRefer to 3ds max 7 help

  • Bend modifierParametersAngleDirectionAxisLimits3ds max v7

  • Taper modifierParametersAmountCurveAxisLimits3ds max v7

  • Twist modifierParametersAngleBiasAxisLimits3ds max v7

  • Squash modifierParametersAxial bulge AmountCurveRadial squeezeAmountCurveLimitsEffect balance

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  • Object data flowThe software evaluates changes affecting the object for display The object data flow is the order in which they are evaluated3ds max v7

  • The Modifier StackUsing the Modifier Stack Find a particular modifier and adjust its parametersView and manipulate the sequence of modifiersCopy, cut, and paste modifiers between objects, or sets of objectsDeactivate the effect of a modifier in the stack, the viewport display, or bothSelect a modifiers components, such as gizmo or centreDelete modifiers. 3ds max 7 help

  • ActivityAdd a teapot, a cylinder, a sphere to your tableBend themTaperTwist themSquash them

  • 3D BooleansPowerful sculpting toolsMultiple objectsUsually destructive3ds max v7

  • Union BooleanUnion or additionThe intersecting or overlapping portion of the geometry is removed.

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  • Intersection BooleanIntersectionWhere they overlap

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  • SubtractionSubtraction (or difference)The Boolean object contains the volume of one original object with the intersection volume subtracted from ita - bb - a3ds max v7

  • ActivityMake a fruit bowl on your table using Boolean Make a fruit bowl using lathAre there any more ways?

  • Organising yourselfSave frequentlyOrganise your workHow?Save different versions of your work with new file namesFolders for tutorial workFolders for portfolio work

  • Covered todaySoftwareHardwareModelling concepts3D parametric modellingPrimitives2D to 3DTransformation sAligningCloningModifying primitivesBoolean

  • Self assessmentIn building a model to display furnitureCompare the use of different types of cloning of shapes in the modelling of a furniture displayGive two instances of how array might be used in a furniture display and how the parameters would be setDescribe the how 3D primitives could be added/subtracted together to model a piece of furniture

  • Next week Get to know the softwareWork on 3ds max tutorialsNext portfolioDirected readingBy now you should have read chapters 1- 5 of 3D Graphics & AnimationFor next week read chapters 7 & 8Next week we will discuss your presentationYOU need to think about it and ask are you approaching it in the correct way

  • ReferencesGiambruno M, (2002) 3D Graphics & Animation, 2nd Edition, New Riders, ISBN: 0-7357-1243-3Kerlow I. V., (2003) The Art of 3-D Computer Animation and Effects , 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc; ISBN: 0471430366 3ds max 7 User Reference and Tutorials

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