Renaissance & Reformation PowerPoint

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  • 1.TheRenaissanceandReformation

2. The Italian Renaissance Renaissance rebirth Italian Renaissance rebirth of ancientGreek & Roman worlds Characteristics Secular Urban society (City-states) Age of Recovery New view of human ability & worth 3. Origins of the Renaissance European trade with Asia increased duringthe 1300s. 2. Italian merchants organized much of thistrade. 3. Trade cities in Italy grew wealthy. 4. They competed to create works thatwould increase the prestige of their cities.Genoa Milan Venice 4. Origins of the Renaissance (cont) 5. Florence became a center for banking,art, culture, and literature. 6. Cosimo de Medici wanted to makeFlorence the most beautiful city. 7. The Renaissance began in Italy andspread throughout Europe. 5. Important City-States of theRenaissance Palazzo Florence Contarini del Bovolo, Rome Venice Venice GenoaGenoa Towers, MilanFaade andbell tower, ComuneSanta Maria gi Milano,del Fiore,MilanFlorence 6. City State Populations 7. Italian City States Not yet the nation of ITALYEach Italiancity-state hadits own wealthyruler.Italian Trade Routes Notice the impact on Italy 8. Florence Centerof art, literature,and culture. Florence becamewealthy from themanufacturing of wool. Later Florence becamethe banking center ofItaly. The Medici family werethe greatest bankers inFlorence. 9. Florence The Renaissancestarted in Florenceand spreadthroughout Europe. Competition betweenthe Italian city-statesled to advances inliterature,architecture, art,music, science, andeducation. 10. Medici Family Ruled Florence, 13th 17th Centuries Aimed to make Florence the most beautifulcity in the world Became Patrons of theArts. Commissioned artist (incl. da Vinci,Raphael & Michelangelo) Lorenzo (The Magnificent) created peace among Italianstates, ended w/his death,2 years later FR invades 11. Rome Home of the CatholicChurch Popes commissionedfamous artists andarchitects to beautifyRome. Michelangelo,Raphael, and Botticelliall produced majorworks in Rome. 12. The popes employed the best artists Romeand architects of the Renaissance to build anddecorate the most opulent churches in in the world. Michelangelo designed the finest example ofRenaissance architecture in Rome, the Piazza delCampidoglio (bottom left). He also designed thedome of St. Peters Basilica (bottom right). 13. Venice Venicewas the wealthiest city-state of the Renaissance. It was a port city on theMediterranean. Venice maintained hundreds ofmerchant ships and warships,and thousands of sailors. 14. Genoa Genoais located on theMediterranean. Genoa was one of twomain port cities in Italyduring the Renaissance. Genoa was one of thewealthiest city-states ofthe Renaissance. Dominated trade in theMediterranean Genoa Harbor 15. Milan dominated the inlandtrade routes because it was the Milangateway to Italy from the north. Milan is the site of Santa Mariadelle Grazie, the cathedral whereLeonardo da Vinci painted TheLast Supper in the dining hall. 16. Niccolo Machiavelli ITphilosopher, diplomat, poet,musician, playwright.. Best known for The Prince realist politics Rulers should behave like a lion (aggressive and powerful) and at other times like a fox (cunning and practical) The Ends Justify the Means It was better to be feared than to be loved All this done to keep peace and stabilize power 1st to publicly suggest immoral behavior for govtstability 17. Renaissance Society Strict Class society Nobility most powerful, but smallest group Strict rules and expectations Born not made or earned Townspeople Widerange of wealth, from rich to poor Provide goods & services Peasants weakest, but largest group More freedoms as serfdom decreased Mainly lived in rural areas, so were least impacted byRenaissance 18. The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance 19. Italian Renaissance Humanism Stressedthat man was the center of the universeand had dignity and value Humanism intellectual movement based on theclassics Study grammar, rhetoric (debate), poetry, philosophy & history (the Humanities) Ren Educations based on humanism Goal create complete citizens Vernacular Literature written in common lang Dante, Chaucer, Pizan 20. Petrarch: Father of Humanism Petrarch was a scholar andpoet who was responsible forthe recovery of manuscriptsand works of Greek andRoman writers. He traveled throughout Europerecovering manuscripts ofCicero and other Romanauthors that had been lost inmonastery libraries. Petrarch, like other writers of Francescothe time, wrote in Latin.Petrarch 21. Dante Alighieri Fatherof the ItalianLanguage Wrote The Divine Comedy. The Divine Comedy isconsidered one of the greatestworks of Italian and worldliterature. Dante was first to write in thevernacular, the language usedin everyday life. Until his time,all European literature wasDantewritten in Latin. Alighieri 22. Insert scanned table 23. The Artistic Renaissance in Italy Rome became the center of Renaissance art in the1500s. Pope Alexander VI: most notorious of the Renaissances popes; spent huge sums on art patronage. 3 Masters of the High Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael Sculpture & Architecture are include in RenaissanceArt, both drew from Greek & Roman influenences 24. New Artistic Techniques Fresco watercolor onfresh plaster Law ofPerspective Study of humananatomy GOAL imitatenature From Michelangelos Sketch Book 25. Leonardo da Vinci Masterof realism &perspective Studied humananatomy (cadavers)to be as accurate aspossible Sculptor, painter,astronomer,inventor a trueRenaissance Man 26. Leonardo da VinciThe Last SupperA page from one of da Vincisnotebooks, he coded his workby writing backwards. He couldread it, but most other peoplewould need a mirror to read it. 27. Raphael Santi1of the top Renaissance painters Especially known for his Madonnas paintings of Mary the mother of Jesus A major artist in the Vatican Madonna of the Meadows Madonna del Granduca 28. Raphael SantiSchool ofAthens -fresco intheApostolicPalace inthe Vatican.Thought tobeRaphaelsmasterpiece. 29. Raphael SantiThe bracketed names are the contemporary characters from whom Raphael is thoughtto have drawn his likenesses. 6: Pythagoras? 7: Alexander the Great? 12: Socrates?13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 14: Plato holding the Timaeus (Leonardo da Vinci)15: Aristotle holding the Ethics? 16: Diogenes of Sinope? 17: 18: Euclid or Archimedeswith students 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael) 30. Michelangelo Buonarroti Painter,sculptor and architect Most famous for work in Vatican CityVatican CitySt. Peters Bascillica(large domed building) designed by Michelangelo(St. Peters Square designed by Bernini) 31. MichelangeloWell known for his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel.The ceiling illustrates the stories of the Book ofGenesisThe Creation of Adam The Last JudgementOn the Alter Wall of the Sistine Chapel. 32. Michelangelo, the sculptor The Pieta marble statue of a crucified Jesus being held by his mother Mary. In St. Peters Basilica. 33. Michelangelo, the sculptor David carved from one piece of marble from 1501 to 1504. Said to be proportionally perfect, though David is 17 feet tall 34. Northern Italian Renaissance Centered in Low Countries Belg, Lux, Neth Due to weather- few frescoes Stained glass, wooden panels, canvas Janvan Eyck Flemish, perfected use of oil paints Oils allow greater variety of color& detailPortrait of a Man in aTurban , probably aself-portrait, painted1433 35. Albrecht Durer German1of greatest NorthernRenaissance artists Revolutionized woodcuts Studied in Italy onseveral differentoccasions 36. Architecture Architectural design returnsto the classical styles ofRome and Greece. Public buildings, homes andvillas are designed usingGreek and Romanarchitectural styles. Renaissance buildingsfeature columns, domes, andvaulted ceilings. Brunelleschi designs the firstdomed building. Perspective becomesimportant in architecture. 37. BrunelleschiThe Basilica diSanta Mariadel Fiore,Florence, alsocalled theDuomo. 38. Donato BramanteSt. Peters Basilicain Vatican City.Started in 1506;Completed in 1626. 39. The Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg was aGerman goldsmith and printer. Gutenberg was the first todevelop movable type. Thisallowed for mass production ofbooks. Gutenbergs inventionrevolutionized book-making inEurope. Gutenberg was the key figurein spreading the Renaissance. His invention of movable typeis still considered the mostimportant invention in history. 40. IMPACT Much easier topublish books Increased literacy 1450-1500, 20 millionbooks printedcovering 35,000topics Vernacular Literature written in commonlanguage Dante, Chaucer,Shakespeare 41. Writers of the Renaissance With the printing press. books become moreaffordable and more people (mostly wealthy)learn to read Dante, Petrarch and Machiavelli were allimportant writers of the time But there were more 42. Miguel de Cervantes Cervantes was a Spanish novelist,poet, painter, and playwright.He was born in La Mancha, Spain. Cervantes wrote the novel Don Quixote, the mostinfluential work of literature to come out of theSpanish Golden Age. Cervantes was a man of adventure. It was saidthat he left Castile because of a duel. Cervantes got the idea for Don Quixote whileserving one of two prison terms for irregularities inhis bookkeeping as a tax collector and purchasingagent. 43. New Words AboundAlligator Laughingstock WorthlessCriticalLonelyZanyEquivocal LuggageEyeball ManagerEyesore PukeGloomyTortureBut where did they come from? 44. William Shakespeare Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer and dramatist of all time. Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet, Merchant of Venice, Julius Caesar, A Midsummers Night Dream, Henry IV, Henry V, Much Ado About Nothing, TwelfthAll the worlds a stage,Night, Hamlet and more.and all the men andwomen merely players Shakespearewrote 38 plays, 154there, they have their exitsand their entrances, and sonnets, two narrative poems,one man in his