Renaissance and Reformation Renaissance in Italy

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Transcript of Renaissance and Reformation Renaissance in Italy

  • Renaissance and ReformationRenaissance in Italy

  • Machiavelli1. A writer and a diplomat2.The Prince, his most famous worka. Described his type of govtb. Everything was OK as long as the state existed

  • Machiavelli

  • C. rulers were not under moral rules or lawsD. Deceit was OK3. Father of political science

  • II. ReformationA. Inquisition1. Set up to eliminate heresy and heretics2. Heavy penance for those who recant

  • 3. Condemned were turned over to civil governmenta. usually burned at the stake

  • B. Heresy1. Questioning of church doctrinea. Teachings of Church revealed through the Bible

  • John WycliffeA. Translated the Bible into EnglishI. everyone who could read English could read itB. Felt you didnt need a priest to be saved

  • C. after he died and was buried, his bones were dug up and burned in a public ceremony

  • Martin LutherA. 95 Theses1. Nailed to church door of Wittenberg Cathedral.A. protest against some practices of the churchB.particularly against indulgences

  • C. An invitation to debateD. Leo X--Pope

  • 2. IndulgencesA. Given for performance of a good workB. Now used(sold) to raise money for Church projectsC. Were pardons for sins

  • 3. SimonyA. buying and selling of Church positionsB. Person would recoup the money by charging fees for services

  • 4. Fake RelicsA. a relic is a piece of a very holy person or something that person has owned or touchedB. Many fake relics floating around Europenails from the cross, skulls from John the Baptist

  • 5. LandA. Much of land in Europe owned by the ChurchB. Church was rich and powerful, money orientedC. Was one of the largest landowners in Europe

  • B. Good Works1. Church taught that in order to get to Heaven an individual had to perform good works2. Luther believed thata. Belief in God would achieve salvation

  • B. Salvation could come by faith aloneC. Good deeds and ceremonies would not save youD. didnt need clergy to administer the sacramentsonly two sacraments--baptism and communion

  • E. Could not buy your way into Heaven

  • C. Result1. Luther excommunicated 2. He protest against the Church3. People who protested were called Protestants

  • 4. Began his own church--Lutheran Churcha. Had not intended to do this but the Catholic Church left him no choice

  • Y.T.T.W.Determine why the Catholic Church was so fearful of Martin Luther. Why did they eventually allow Martin Luther to set up his own church?

  • III. John CalvinA. Born and raised in France1. Saw little hope for reform of Church in France so left.B. Geneva1. Doctrine of predestination

  • A. God already determined who were to be saved because He knows the future. B. The chosen were called the electC. Only way to be sure was to lead a righteous life

  • 2. Ideas spread but was never a major religion3. Wrote Institute of Christian Religion:a. Beliefs

  • Y.T.T.W.Explain Calvins doctrine of predestination. Determine two common beliefs that Martin Luther and John Calvin shared.

  • IV. Reformation in EnglandA. Henry VIII1. Devoted Catholic2. Wanted a son--heir to thronea. Only had a daughter

  • 3. Wanted Pope to annul the marriagea. Pope stalled because Henrys wife was Spanish and he didnt want to upset the Spanishb. Henry married total of 6 times

  • 4. Henry excommunicateda. Made himself head of new churchChurch of England

  • 5. Break was political rather than religious6. This was the Tudor Dynasty

  • Divorced, Beheaded, Died, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived.Henry VIII died at the age of 55 from a combination of Syphilis and an infection from a leg wound that never healed.He is buried next to Jane Seymour at Windsor Castle.

  • Only son of Henry VIIIBorn to mother Jane SeymourBecame King at Age 10Very sick from birth.Died at age of 15Was Protestant like his step mother.

  • Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.Strict Catholic, killed thousands of Protestants during her reign.Married to Prince Phillip of Spain.Unable to have any children.Died of stomach cancer.

  • Considered to be the greatest monarch to ever rule England.Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.Hated by her half sister, Mary, loved by her people.Strict Protestant, was almost beheaded by her sister and was locked in the Tower of London.

  • Elizabeth never married, did not want to share her power with a man.Was very well educated and skilled as a ruler.Was opposed by her dead sisters husband, Phillip of Spain who did not approve of her Protestant Ways.Beheaded her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots who tried to oppose her rule.

  • One of Englands best rulers During her reign the Armada is sent to punish England by the Spanisha. 1588 defeated beginning the end of Spanish dominance

  • defeat because of weather, faster English ships and lack of supplies Result is England is the leading Protestant country and no longer is there one Christian Church in England.

  • Y.T.T.WExplain the changes the Church went through in England starting with Henry VII then Mary Tudor and finally Elizabeth.