Renaissance and Reformation

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Renaissance and Reformation. (1350-1600). Renaissance. The Renaissance Attitude: Individualism Secularism (Humanism)- not anti-Christian Revival of Classical values. Renaissance. Means rebirth Revival of Antiquity (Ancient Greece & Rome) Begins in Italy. Coliseum. Italy. Acropolis. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Renaissance and Reformation

  • Renaissance and Reformation

    (1350-1600)

  • RenaissanceThe Renaissance Attitude:IndividualismSecularism (Humanism)- not anti-ChristianRevival of Classical values

  • RenaissanceMeans rebirthRevival of Antiquity (Ancient Greece & Rome)Begins in Italy

    ColiseumAcropolisItaly

  • CharacteristicsUrban society = city statesRecovery from horror of 14th Century (plague (black death), church problems, political instability)Belief in human achievement & individualismLargely reserved for wealthy upper classMen can do all things if they will- Leon Batista Alberti

  • The Italian StatesDominant force in Italys economic, social, and political lifeMilan, Venice, and Florence = prosperous trading centers that help promote Renaissance spiritItaly= no kingHow did they get there?

    Duomo in MilanGondolas in VeniceUffizi Gallery in Florence

  • Medici Family13th - 17th Century FlorentinesAttained great wealth via banking & trade industriesWealth = political powerGreatest contribution to the Renaissance was in sponsorship of artists and architects

    Cosimo de MediciLorenzo de Medici

  • Renaissance SocietyMiddle Ages =society divided into 3 estates or social classes:1. Nobility2. Peasants or Townspeople3. ClergySimilar structure during Renaissance, however, important change taking place

  • NobilityOnly 3% of population but dominate European society:Hold important political postsAdvisors to monarchs, popes, princesLand & business ownersIntent on acquiring, holding, and keeping POWER

  • Nobility and BehaviorNoble or aristocrat expected to fulfill certain ideals or standardsOutlined by Castiglione (kahsteelyoh-nay) in The Book of Courtier (1528)A noble is born, not made; blood will outMilitary skill & classical educationCode of conduct

  • PowerMachiavelli The Prince, (1505)One of most influential books ever written on how to acquire and keep political powerA political realist = The end justifies the mean

  • Peasants & TownspeopleBy 1500:More and more peasants became legally free from the manorial systemArtisans & merchants constituted townspeople, diverse urban settingStill a rather miserable life

  • Family & MarriageArranged marriagesDowry (sum of $ paid by wifes family to husband upon marriage)Father is absolute head of householdAdulthood reached when children officially freed from fathers rule

  • HumanismRenaissance marked by secularism or focus on the individual = HumanismHumanism based on study of the classics (Greek & Roman literary works)Humanists studied subjects such as: grammar, poetry, philosophy, historyEmphasized interest in civic life serve mankind

  • Intellectual & Artistic ContributorsPetrarch (1304-1374)Often called father of RenaissanceGathered, recovered, and organized Latin manuscripts thus creating large collections or libraries for scholarly studyHumanists stressed using Latin

  • Intellectual & Artistic ContributorsDante (1265-1321)Famous work = Divine Comedy (souls journey to salvation)

  • Intellectual & Artistic ContributorsChaucer (1343-1400)Famous work = The Canterbury Tales (collection of stories 29 pilgrims journeying to the tomb of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury, England)

  • Intellectual & Artistic ContributorsChristine de Pizan (1365-1430)Famous work = The Book of the City of Ladies (denounced male scholars & writers that argued women, by nature, were unable to learn to level equal with men)

  • Intellectual & Artistic ContributorsMasaccio (1401-1428)Famous work = Known for fresco painting done on fresh, wet plaster with water-based paints

    Tribute Money

  • Intellectual & Artistic ContributorsBrunelleschi (1377-1446)Famous work = architect, best known for cathedrals, especially Santa Maria del Fiore

    Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore

  • Intellectual & Artistic ContributorsDonatello (1386-1466)Famous work = sculptor, best known for St. George and St. Mark statues in Florence

    St. MarkSt. George

  • The MastersLeonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)Renaissance ManFamous works = artist, painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist - best known for paintings Mona Lisa and The Last SupperThe Last SupperMona Lisa

  • The MastersMichelangelo (1475-1564)Famous works = painter, sculptor best known for Sistine Chapel & DavidSistine Chapel, RomeDavid

  • The MastersRaphael (1483-1520)Famous works = painter with countless achievements (Madonna paintings)School of AthensSistine ChapelMadonna

  • The Northern RenaissanceThe mingling of Renaissance ideas with Northern European culture created a unique Northern Renaissance

    ERASMUSSHAKESPEARE

  • The Northern Renaissance

    ALBRECHT DURER-SELF PORTRAITDURERS ADORATION OF THE MAGIAlbrecht Durer- often considered the greatest painter of the Northern Renaissance

  • The Northern Renaissance

    JAN VAN EYCKARNOLFINI PORTRAITJan Van Eyck- Flemish painter who used innovative oil painting techniques

  • The Northern Renaissance

    ERASMUS CENSORED WORKTHOMAS MOREChristian Humanists- used Renaissance ideals in an attempt to reform the Church and societyDesiderius Erasmus- wrote The Praise of Folly, which mocked society and a Christianity he believed had fled many of its core principles.Thomas More- wrote Utopia, a description of an ideal society

  • The Northern RenaissanceWilliam Shakespeare- Generally considered the greatest writer in the English language. Was inspired by Renaissance ideas and drew on the classics as inspiration.

  • The Northern RenaissanceJohann Gutenberg developed a new type of printing press using innovations from both Europe and ChinaOne of the most important inventions everThe printing press and vernacular literature combined to spread knowledge and human freedom in ways that seemed unimaginable prior to the Renaissance

  • The Protestant ReformationName given to religious reform that divided the western Christian Church into Catholic & Protestant groupsHumanism had an impact on movement that demanded reform of the Roman Catholic ChurchDesiderius Erasmus criticized the Church in his work The Praise of Folly for emphasizing practices (rites) over principles

  • Church AbusesMany moved to criticize Church for perceived abuses & corrupt practicesPopes more concerned with political instead of spiritual mattersChurch officials gained much wealth while most Christians sufferedSale of indulgences (release from all or part of the punishment for sin)Because literacy was spreading, people were forming their own opinions about theological matters

    Johann Tetzels sale of Indulgences:As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.

  • Martin LutherGerman monk and Professor at Wittenberg University on Oct. 31, 1517 presented list of Ninety-five Theses objecting to Church practicesBelieved man cannot do enough good works to earn salvation (original sin)Instead, man is saved by Gods grace by way of FAITH = Justification by FaithCatholic Church charged him with heresy & excommunicated him (1521) & declared him an outlaw via Edict of Worms

    95 Theses

  • Fun FactsEmperor Charles V- A singe friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong!41 of the 95 Theses were condemned by the Pope. Luther burned the Popes reply and said, it is an old custom to burn bad books. After the Edict of Worms, Luthers books were to be burned and he was to be arrested, but Prince Frederick of Saxony hid him.Luther created the modern Church service with Bible readings, preaching, and songs to replace the Catholic mass.Many politicians and noblemen supported Luther because they were tired of the Church meddling in their affairs.June 1524- German peasants revolt. Luther supports the nobles because he feels the State is necessary to maintain the peace necessary for the Gospel to spread.

  • Politics of ReformationGerman princes mobilized behind Luthers teachings as a way to oppose Monarch rule of Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor Hapsburgs)Charles V forced to settle peacefully = Peace of Augsburg (1555)German states allowed to choose between Catholicism or Lutheranism

  • Spread of ProtestantismUlrich Zwingli priest introduced reforms in Switzerland, could not agree to alliance with LutheranismKilled 1531 in war between Catholic & Protestant states in SwitzerlandLeadership in Switzerland passed on to John Calvin who held beliefs similar to Luther, however, he believed God had determined in advance who would be saved = predestinationBy mid-16th Century, Calvinism replaces Lutheranism as largest form of Protestantism

  • Spread of ProtestantismCalvin forms a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland. Society was governed by a strict moral code.Geneva becomes the most important Protestant city in Europe.Calvin completed his enormously influential commentary on the Bible called Institutes of the Christian Church.This work still forms the basis for the doctrine of many contemporary denominations.The main points of Calvins theology are often summed up in the modern acronym T.U.L.I.P.

  • Reformation in EnglandKing Henry VIII desired annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon (no male heir)He wants to marry Ann BoleynPope Clement VII would not grant Henry a divorce; why?In 1534 via Act of Supremacy England broke away from the Catholic Church formed Anglican Church or Church of EnglandHow different was the Church of England from Catholicism?

  • Additional Protestant GroupsSome protestants adopted practice of adult baptismBoth Catholics and other Protestants assigned them the name Anaba