Renaissance and Reformation Renaissance:1350-1500 Reformation:1500-1600

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    19-Jan-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    223
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

description

Section 1: Renaissance Renaissance means “rebirth” It was an age of recovery from the disasters of the Middle Ages such as the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power. Also, there was a high regard for human worth and a realization of what individuals could achieve.

Transcript of Renaissance and Reformation Renaissance:1350-1500 Reformation:1500-1600

Renaissance and ReformationPlague in which 1/3 of Europe’s population died
Section 1: Renaissance
Renaissance means “rebirth”
It was an age of recovery from the disasters of the Middle Ages such as the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power.
Also, there was a high regard for human worth and a realization of what individuals could achieve.
Italian City-states
The Renaissance began in Italy.
The major cities of influence were Rome, Milan, Venice, and Florence.
Each of these cities played crucial role in politics.
Niccolo Machiavelli’s book The Prince became one of the most influential works on political power.
He believed that a ruler should keep his power by whatever means necessary.
Renaissance Society
During the Middle Ages, society was divided into 3 categories. These categories continued with the Renaissance
Nobility: 2 – 3% of the population; held important political posts and were advisers to the king
Clergy: church officials
Peasants and Townspeople: most of the population were in this classification; urban poverty increased throughout Europe
Family and Marriage
Parents carefully arranged marriages to strengthen business or family ties
A father’s authority over his children was absolute until he died or formally freed them. Therefore, the age of adulthood varied from early teens to the late twenties.
Section 2: The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance
Italian Renaissance Humanism
Vernacular Literature
Writers began to write in the language spoken in their own regions (vernacular)
Dante and Geoffrey Chaucer helped make vernacular literature more popular
Education
Humanists wrote books on education and opened schools.
They stressed in importance of history, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, music, and physical education.
Humanist education was a preparation for life as well as creating great scholars and complete citizens.
Printing Press
Johnannes Gutenberg
The Arts
Perspective allowed painters to create the illusion of three dimensions
Masters of the High Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci
Section 3: The Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement that divided the western Church into Catholic and Protestant groups
Desiderius Erasmus criticized the abuses in the Church in his work, The Praise of Folly.
Prior to the Reformation, clergy were:
more concerned with politics and worldly interests
concerned with money and advanced their personal careers and wealth
failing to meet the needs of their followers
sold indulgences
Martin Luther
On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed a list of Ninety-five Theses to the church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Thousands of copies were printed and spread to all parts of Germany.
In January of 1521, the Church excommunicated him.
The Edict of Worms made him an outlaw within the empire.
Peace of Augsburg
formally accepted division of Christianity in Germany
German states could choose between Catholicism & Lutheranism
No choice for individuals, but German ruler could choose for his people
Spread of Lutheranism
While in hiding, Luther gained the support of German rulers who established state churches that followed Luther’s teachings.
Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith.
Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response
Division among the Protestants appeared throughout Europe.
In Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli pushed for religious reform:
Removal of relics and paintings
New sermons that replaced Catholic mass
After Zwingli died in battle, John Calvin took leadership of the reformation in Switzerland.
The thought of predestination became one of the major differences among the protestant faiths.
In England, King Henry VIII sought a divorce from his wife.
At his request, Parliament broke from the Catholic Church and established the Anglican Church.
The Anabaptists
*Many came as Pilgrims to United States
Catholic Reformation
The Catholic Church went through a period of reform that gave it new strength and allowed it to regain what it lost.
The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) took a vow of obedience to the Pope and helped spread the Catholic teachings.
The Papacy rededicated itself to the people
The Council of Trent reaffirmed the Catholic teachings
Faith and good works needed for salvation
Seven sacraments upheld
Clerical celibacy affirmed