Boko Haram : Geopolitical Analysis

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Boko Haramwww.rayanehocine.comGeopolitical Analysis

SummaryI. IntroductionII.Creation and OrganisationIII.Relation to the outside worldIV.Terrorist attacks V.Conclusion

I. IntroductionWestern education is forbidden

Jihadist conquest to ensure Northern political dominance through islamization of NigeriaJihad translates to war against Western cultural influence Western democracy, Western education and Christianity, modern governmental institutions and other symbols of Western influence Islamic fundamentalism as mobilizational toolThe Almajiri System abused and manipulated for narrow political ends 75 percent northern population poor; 60 percent live on less than 1 US dollar a day; 32 percent literacy rate in the north (68 % national rate) Their Mission

Historical Backdrop to Boko HaramPresident Babangidas foreign policy and Nigerias OIC membership -1986 Adoption of Sharia by 9 Northern states (plus partial adoption by 3) since 1999, posing a serious challenge to constitutional separation of state and religion December 1980 - rise of Maitatsine in the Northern commercial city of Kano 5000 lives lost in uprisingLeader Alhaji Mohammadu Marwa MaitatsineMaitatsine considered as a rebel among mainstream Muslim clericsUsed adulterated version of the Koran, with his name in place of that of Prophet MohammedPreached against use of modern technologies such as motorcycles, automobiles, bicycles, radio, television, wristwatch, etc. Killed in the Kano violence of 1980; his followers continued to spread his radical message among the urban poor across the northern region; 1985 last major Maitatsine uprising

II.Creation and OrganisationA. Background 1900 - British Colony1960 - Nigerian Independance1960 -Governed by military dictatorship1999 -Democracy

B.FoundationMohammed YusufFounded in 2002

C. Ideology

Sunny Islamic fundamentalist sectSharia lawInfluenced by Wahhabi movementSeeks to establish an Islamic state in Nigeria

D. Organisation

Hierachical structureClandestine cell systemGuerilla force300 500 fighters per unit

Abubakar Shekau

E. Symbols

III. Relations to the outside worldA. Response by the Nigerian government

Nigerian military has fallen apart

Boko Haram are better armed and are better motivated than our troops

- Kashim Shettima

B.Response by the USA

Designated as terrorist organisation in November 2013Supplied the Nigerian armyDiscontinued trainingWill continue to engage future requests of cooperation and training

C.Financing their operations

Kidnapping, Robbery and extortion- On average $1 million per kidnapping

Donations from islamist sympathisers - Local donors- Creating fake charity organisations

Drug trafficking and smuggling- Associated with cocaine trafficking

IV. Terrorist attacks

Chibok : 1415 April 2014

Gamboru and Ngala : 5-6 May 2014

Gwoza : 2 June 2014

Kano : 28 November 2014