BOKO HARAM CONFLICT RESEARCH/ANAYSIS & MANAGEMENT PREVENTIVE COUNTERTERRORISM AND SUSTAINABLE...

download BOKO HARAM CONFLICT RESEARCH/ANAYSIS & MANAGEMENT PREVENTIVE COUNTERTERRORISM AND SUSTAINABLE PEACEBUILDING: NIGERIA AND BOKO HARAM CASE STUDY. Maiwa’azi

of 24

  • date post

    28-Dec-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    215
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of BOKO HARAM CONFLICT RESEARCH/ANAYSIS & MANAGEMENT PREVENTIVE COUNTERTERRORISM AND SUSTAINABLE...

5.10.0. SUMMARY OF KEY RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Establish an Accountability Board to identify harms and actions from the Boko Haram insurgency/terrorism and use Restorative Justice for transparent prosecution and reconciliation. 2. Reassess and redesign security operatives emergency crisis response framework; approach to road blocks and check points to reduce on dishonor of dignity and corruption. 3. Establish an Almajiri peace club mentoring program and streamline the Almajiri recitation centers with regular education system. 4. Conduct an ethnic groups needs assessment and address trauma healing issues. Rebuild Churches and Mosques and other worship symbols destroyed by the conflict; locate, list and position IDPs (internally displaced persons) to regain some level of normalcy and sanity. 5. Start a basic welfare benefit package for youths over 21 years and for the guaranteed unemployed. Address issues of social justice, dignity, injustices, inequalities, negative humiliation, abuse of power and the ever widening gap between the haves and the have not. I am not advocating socialism but an increase in wealth making opportunity for all and not necessarily equal pieces of the pie. 6. Hold an ethnic nationalities stakeholders dialogue. 7. Establish an Interior Strategic Security Centre (ISSEC). 8. Design and implement a counterterrorism/violence policy to augment the anti-terrorism law.

BOKO HARAM CONFLICT RESEARCH/ANAYSIS & MANAGEMENTPREVENTIVE COUNTERTERRORISM AND SUSTAINABLEPEACEBUILDING: NIGERIA AND BOKO HARAM CASE STUDY.Maiwaazi Dandaura Samu

Center for Justice and PeacebuildingEastern Mennonite University, USA2012

David Blackwell1The current study will focus on the following research questions:1 a. What are the theories behind the mushrooming Boko Haram terrorism/insurgency?b. What are the contextual characteristics of Boko Haram perpetrators and how can these help us to better appreciate the causes, challenges and dynamics behind the attacks considered at Jos COCIN Church and Rayfield St Finbars Roman Catholic Church.c. How are people recruited into Boko Haram groups; how are they transformed from passive to active members and inspired or convinced to use violence for the Boko Haram cause?2 a. What place does identity, shame, loss of dignity and respect play in these processes?b. What are the perceptions of justice by both victims and perpetrators of the Boko Haram attacks?3 a. Why does sectarian violence persist in the Northern states of Nigeria?b. How does the nation heal affected communities?

The aim of this research is toprovide data and information for formulating helpful policies, design credible intervention measures to target critical points in the Boko Haram recruitment and integration chain, thereby preempt and prevent violence.The ultimate purpose is to enhance the knowledge/experience of the Nigerian government and public to help in the prevention and deterrence of violent conflicts/terrorism.contribute to the development of a counterterrorism program that is centered on the protection of human life and the freedom families enjoy in their nations world over.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A mixed method of written surveys, interviews, and observation activities was used for data collection from the selected population and sites of attacks. This mixed-method employed both quantitative and qualitative information. On the quantitative side, it relied on surveys, using a quasi-experimental design to contrast perceptions and comparison of the feelings in communities and individuals. The qualitative side of this research was informed by focus groups and key informant interviews in the cities where the chosen cases of study were located and the other surveyed communities of the different regions of the country. Semistructured interview methodology, direct person-person or phone contacts were used to facilitate interviews.

All questions were created from existing theoretical frameworks on terrorism and counterterrorism ensuring existence of baseline data against which current results could be compared. Such pre-existing models have the benefit of being previously vetted and field tested, saving considerable time in the survey design process. Such data thereby helped the researcher generate facts to support suggested preventive counterterrorism approaches for application. With the consent of the respondent or participants, some interviews were voice recorded or written for accuracy of transcription.POPULATION SELECTION PROCESS & LOCATIONS OF STUDYOffices, homes, professionals and average Nigerians were targeted at random. The sampling for this study was made by an intentional selection of subjects from the northern zone which is the focal point of the Boko Haram conflict and this case study. A sampling was done in the south-south region to serve as a standard of the appropriateness of the views from the north to counterbalance the possibility of northerners being unduly influenced by the pervasiveness of the Boko Haram conflict. The selection of the population was done based on an equal ratio distributed between Christians and Muslims, 40% of the selected population between the ages of 21-44; 60% between the ages of 45-and above. Males and females were randomly selected without assigning a ratio

This research on the Boko Haram insurgency/terrorism seeks to provide background knowledge based on almost 200 interviews and written surveys with people from all walks of life, many were conducted in the local Hausa language where necessary. The surveys and interview questions explain the context of the conflicts, and tried to examine the strategies which stakeholders, including Boko Haram, the Christian and Muslim communities, Nigerian government and security agencies have sought to use in managing the conflict and the limited results they have so far achieved and concludes by giving room for individual recommendations for preventive strategies on the conflict.

1.7.4 Data analysis and findingsThe written survey questionnaire and semi-structured interview were used for gathering both quantitative and qualitative data. 100 written surveys with one open question and 40 face to face interviews were conducted by the researcher. Respondents data were disaggregated by separating groups along the aspects of age, religion, and region of the country to produce a simpler more accurate way of presenting the information on what the data is saying about the research findings. Data analysis consisted of indexing, managing, and interpreting the pieces of collected information.

9 Ages 21-44Ages 45 & AboveSUBJECTCode #TOTALNumber of MuslimsReoccur Times MuslimNumber of Christians Reoccur Times ChristiansTotal: 40Total: 601. Social Justice, Equal rights, dignity SoJuEqDig100 5040503030402. Bad governance, corruption, need for transparency and a listening governmentBagCoTra100 5048504530453. Poverty, jobs, unemployment, youth engagement & EmpowermentPoJoUnEmp100 5056504034534. Poor control of illegal immigrantsPoCoImm100 5010504525205. Ethno-religious Dialogue in all known & latent conflict flash pointsEtreDia100 5040504030506. Civic/National orientation/revival of values/Nigerians see themselves as a family/de-emphasize statism & indegeneship, from ethnicity to common nationalismCiNaNig100 505504010357. Religions extremism & radicalization, need to discourage rumors, inciting preachings, official & media reporters offensive languageReExRaNePre100 5020505025458. Immediate arrest and punishment of perpetrators of violence openlyImArPuPe100 505504020259. Demonetize Politics, encourage merit not zoning or favoritismDemPoEnc100 5055045252510. Retrain security operatives in modern security, Intelligence & counterterrorism techniques and arm them with appropriate technologyReSeOpIntCo100 50405045404511. Media literacy; intensify media campaign against violenceMeIntMed100 5055030102512. Redesign security operatives approach to relationship with the societyReSeOps100 50305040264413. Arrest all who are fingered as Sponsors of violence no matter their statusArrSpoVio100 5095040301914. Employ more people into the security forces especially Police and ArmyEmMoSecFo100 502501021015. Intensify prayer against violence by all religionsInPraRel100 503050382048FREQUENCY OF REOCCURING THEMES IN THE SURVEY OPEN QUESTION Participants were asked to give their own suggested ways of ending and preventing events like the Boko Haram insurgency/terrorism. 10Out of 100 subjects SoJuEqDig scored 40 Muslim and 30 Christian mentions out of which 30 are between 21 and 44 and 40 are 45 years plus. This is a 70% favorable score, which by any standard means SoJuEqDig is a theme that is a strong yearning for all ages (Boko Haram perpetrators and other Nigerians alike), therefore valid for preventive action, so requires attention by authorities.BagCoTra even has a higher mention of 48 times by Muslims and 45 times by Christians, with a total of 75 people out of 100 or 75% mentioning it.PoJoUnEmp was equally a concern for both the young and older subjects alike. PoCoImm shows a varied interest between Christians and Muslims. Muslims mentioned this only 10 times out of 50 people whereas Christians mentioned it 45 times out of 50 people. it is a very sensitive issue for Christians since most of the immigrants are said to be Muslims. Christians and Muslims are however at very strong agreement as to the need for EtreDia. SUBJECT & CODETOTAL# of Inter-views# of ReoccurringPositiveAffirmation# of ReoccurringNegativeAffirmationNo Mention of subject# of Victim& professionals# ofDetainees# of Security Ops# of Ex-SympathizersAges 21-44commentedAges 45 & Abovecommented1. Almajiri training and indoctrination (Almindoc)40 2500546871692. Attraction of tertiary and unemployed youths and a very strong in-group spiri