Boko Haram

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Boko Haram. Overview. Background of Boko Haram 2009 Uprising Leadership Areas of Operation & Factions Malian Conflict & State of Emergency Foreign Terrorist Organization Designation Tactics Abductions Al Qaeda Links? Future Implications. Boko Haram: Background. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Boko HaramOverviewBackground of Boko Haram2009 UprisingLeadershipAreas of Operation & FactionsMalian Conflict & State of EmergencyForeign Terrorist Organization DesignationTacticsAbductionsAl Qaeda Links?Future ImplicationsBoko Haram: BackgroundFormed in 2002 in Maiduguri, Borno stateMuslim cleric Mohammed YusufOfficial Arabic NameJamaatu Ahlis Sunna Liddaawati wal-JihadPeople Committed to the Propagation of the Prophets Teachings and JihadInitially focused on opposing Western educationBoko Haram, Western Education is Forbidden

Image Credit: BBCBoko Haram: BackgroundEstablished a religious complexMosque, Islamic schoolPoor Muslim familiesEventually became focused on establishing an Islamic state in NigeriaSchool became recruiting groundAgainst any Western political or social activityVoting in elections, wearing shirts and trousers, receiving secular educationFighters currently numbering in the hundreds to thousands2009 UprisingBoko Haram carried out spate of attacks Targeted government buildings and police stations in Maiduguri and Bauchi statePrompted shoot-outs on the streets in July 2009Hundreds of Boko Haram supporters killedResidents fled MaiduguriSecurity forces seized Boko Harams headquartersCaptured Boko Haram fighters and killed YusufFighters regrouped under new leadershipAbubakar Shekau, current leader

Abubakar ShekauBorn in Shekau village in Yobe stateLate 30s to mid-40sBelieved responsible for making Boko Haram more violentNot seen in public since the death of YusufEmerges in videos and pictures onlineMet Yusuf through Mamman NurNur masterminded August 2011 bombing of United Nations complex in Abuja

Image Credit: AFPAbubakar ShekauFluent in Kanuri, Hausa and ArabicNow adds English to his videosDoes not communicate directly with foot soldiersCommunicates with select cell leadersAlso serves as Boko Harams spiritual leaderWell-versed in theologyU.S. offering $7 million for information about his location

Image Credit: NY PostAreas of Operation & FactionsFirst confrontations with Nigerian security forces occurred in 2003 and 20042003: Compound located two miles from Niger2004: Near Gwoza in the Mandara Mountains along Cameroon borderBoko Haram suffered lossesSent members to the Sahel, Sudan, Pakistan and Afghanistan to receive funds2009 death of YusufBoko Haram members fled to Nigerias border region, the Sahel, Somalia, Chad and Sudan

Areas of Operation & Factions2010 to 2012Boko Haram based in Maiduguri and northeastern region of NigeriaOther members received training from al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and al-Shabaab and established cells in northwestern NigeriaFormation of Ansaru (northwestern cells)Led by AQIM militant Khalid al-BarnawiSpecialized in sophisticated bombings, hallmarks of al QaedaBoko Haram claimed all attacks until al-Barnawi led a cell that kidnapped an Italian and British engineer in March 2012Claimed the attack under al Qaeda in the Lands Beyond the SahelJanuary 2012: Al-Barnawi formed Boko Haram off-shoot, AnsaruBroke off from Boko Haram to protest killing of 186 Muslim civilians in Kano

Areas of Operation & FactionsKano remained under influence of Mamman Nur (UN headquarters attack mastermind)Second-in-command to ShekauReceived training from AQIM and al-ShabaabAttacked un-Islamic targetsUN headquartersPlot on the U.S. ambassador in AbujaBombed motor parks in Kano and AbujaMore transnational than Shekau

Image Credit: Nairaland.com2011 Attack on United Nations HeadquartersAugust 26, 2011Car bombing killed at least 21 people, 60 injuredHeadquarters for 400 UN employeesUnclear how many were in the building at the timeOnly attack against the West

Image Credit: ReutersMalian Conflict, Influence on Boko HaramMain Boko Haram shifted toward Borno state in 2013French military intervention in Mali in January 2013 believed to have revitalized Boko HaramMarch to May 2013Members of Boko Haram, Ansaru and others who learned from militants in Mali launched attacks along Bornos border with Niger and CameroonMounted weapons on 4x4 vehicles, kidnapped government officials and relatives in exchange for ransoms of $10,000 to $300,000First time in Nigeria

State of Emergency in 3 Northeastern StatesIn response to violence in early 2013, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan issued state of emergency in MayBorno, Yobe and Adamawa statesBoko Haram members left Maiduguri and retreated from northeastern Borno and Lake Chad to mountainous rural areas near Gwoza (southern Borno)Gwoza is located about 15 miles from Chibok where the schoolgirls were abductedGwoza considered to be a Boko Haram stronghold now

Foreign Terrorist Organization DesignationBoko Haram and Ansaru designated foreign terrorist organizations by the U.S. Department of State November 2013Boko HaramLinks to AQIM, responsible for killing thousands, targeted the UN headquartersAnsaruKidnapped and executed seven international construction workers Prohibits providing or attempting to provide material support

TacticsArmed militants storming cities/towns/villages on motorbikesKill police, politicians, anyone criticizing the insurgencyArmed with heavy machine guns, rocket-propelled grenades, night-vision goggles, satellite phonesBombings (planted/car/suicide)Churches, bus stations, military barracks, restaurantsDisguisesOften wear official military uniforms to trick their victimsSnap road blocksIncrease in attacks on villagers and travelers since August 2013Abductions

AbductionsApril 14250+ schoolgirls taken from a school in Chibok, Borno stateReports that Boko Haram may have transferred girls to Cameroon, Chad and Central African Republic

Image Credit: BBCAbductionsMay 5Boko Haram releases a video of Shekau Announcing the girls would be sold as slaves in the market

May 12Demanded the release of Boko Haram militants held in Borno, Yobe, Kano, Kaduna, Enugu, Lagos and Abuja in exchange for the girls

Image Credit: NBC

Image Credit: The GuardianInternational Response to AbductionsU.S.Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support16 troops from Africa Command at U.S. embassy in Abuja working with FBI and intelligence teams to advise Nigerias security forces80 U.S. troops in ChadU.S., UK, FranceAdvisory team using aerial surveillance, satellite interceptsChinaVowed to help in the searchIsraelIntelligence experts sent to NigeriaInternational Response to AbductionsThursday, June 12International meeting in LondonNigerias Foreign Minister Aminu Bashi WaliEnvoys from Benin, Chad, Cameroon, NigerUK, U.S., France, Canada, European UnionConsider further measures to improve regional coordination

Recent AttacksOver 3,300 killed by Boko Haram so far this yearApril 14, AbujaBomb buried underground explodes at bus station in Nyanya suburb; 71 killed, 124 injuredMay 1, AbujaCar bomb kills 19, injures 60 at bus station in Nyanya suburbMay 6, Jos (central Nigeria)Two bombings kill more than 120 peopleMay 30, Gwoza (Borno state)Emir of Gwoza killedJune 2, Gwoza (Borno state)Three villages raided, at least 200 people killed

Links to al Qaeda?Known links to AQIM and al-Shabaab in the pastRemain locally focusedNo signs of global focusConsidered too extreme for al Qaeda brandKilling of Muslim civiliansKidnapping of young girlsAbubakar Shekau stated Boko Harams aspirations of joining al QaedaNo public response from al Qaeda leadership

Image Credit: NPRImplicationsNo signs of violence abatingAttacks nearly a daily occurrence since abductionsKidnappings likely to continueAnother 20 women and three men abducted from Garkin Fulani settlement last Thursday Abductions could aid Boko Haram recruitment effortsRaised the groups international profileIncreased international pressure Boko Haram may seek to target Western interests in southern Nigeria or abroadBoko Haram has the ability to destabilize Nigeria for years to comeQuestions?

MSA [email protected] ext. 250