Week8 Gis Rdbms

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    Understanding RDBMSUnderstanding RDBMSUnderstanding RDBMSUnderstanding RDBMS

    Keith T. Weber

    GIS DirectorISU-GIS Training and Research Center

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    RDBMSRDBMSRDBMSRDBMS Relational Database Management

    System

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    DatabasesDatabasesDatabasesDatabases

    The I in GIS

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    Database software...Database software...Database software...Database software... Light Duty

    Medium Duty

    Heavy Duty

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    Database software...Database software...Database software...Database software... Light Duty

    Medium Duty

    Heavy Duty

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    IBM DB2 UDBIBM DB2 UDBIBM DB2 UDBIBM DB2 UDB

    The GIS Centers

    heavy hitter- IBM

    DB2, UniversalDatabase

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    Spreadsheets vs. DatabasesSpreadsheets vs. DatabasesSpreadsheets vs. DatabasesSpreadsheets vs. Databases

    Integrity! Structure

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    RDBMS Concepts andRDBMS Concepts and

    TermsTerms

    RDBMS Concepts andRDBMS Concepts and

    TermsTerms

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    IndependenceIndependenceIndependenceIndependence

    Physical

    Logical

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    IntegrityIntegrityIntegrityIntegrity

    Important for consistency and transaction

    management.

    Types: Domain

    Redundancy

    Constraint

    Entity

    Referential

    Cascading or non-cascading

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    K

    ey FieldsK

    ey FieldsK

    ey FieldsK

    ey Fields

    Unique Identifiers

    (?) Primary key

    Foreign key

    AKA- Relate fields.

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    RDBMS StructureRDBMS StructureRDBMS StructureRDBMS Structure

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    Database TablesDatabase TablesDatabase TablesDatabase Tables

    Database

    Table1 Table2 Table3

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    Table StructureTable StructureTable StructureTable Structure

    Column 1

    (Field 1)

    Column 2

    (Field 2)

    Row 1

    (Record 1)

    Value

    Row 2(Record 2)

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    Data Value TypesData Value TypesData Value TypesData Value Types

    Type Name Storage Occupied/ data value Valid Domain Range

    Short Integer 2 bytes -35768 to 32767

    Long Integer 4 bytes -2147483648 to 2147483647

    Float 4 bytes Any numberfrom n-45 ton38

    Double 8 bytes Any numberfrom n-324 ton308

    Text (stri

    ng) 10 + max. length

    = bytes Any alph

    anumeric

    ch

    ara

    cte

    rs

    Date 8 bytes Jan 1, 100 to Dec. 31 9999

    LOB (variant) 22 + max. length = bytes Any alphanumericcharacters

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    Basic Steps in DatabaseBasic Steps in Database

    DesignDesign

    Basic Steps in DatabaseBasic Steps in Database

    DesignDesign Understand and document thebusiness needs. Problem statement

    Business object types

    Business relationships Business constraints

    Create an ERM

    Data and process inventory

    Develop tuple types

    Tuple types to tables

    Integrity

    Populate the database

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    A Scenario...A Scenario...A Scenario...A Scenario...

    Develop a GIS-

    Based Tourism

    database forSoutheast Idaho.

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    Document the businessDocument the business

    needsneeds

    Document the businessDocument the business

    needsneeds What problem or issue is this database

    going to address?

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    DINING

    The Preliminary ERMThe Preliminary ERMThe Preliminary ERMThe Preliminary ERM

    Symbolized.

    Standard Representation

    Attribute Representation

    Entity Instance Representation

    DINING

    K Restaurant Number

    Name

    Type of food

    DINING

    K Restaurant Number: 126

    Name: Burger King

    Type of food: Fast

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    RelationshipsRelationshipsRelationshipsRelationships

    Determine the relationships between

    your entity types.

    Add these to the ERM

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    Define the ListDefine the ListDefine the ListDefine the List

    Database Dictionary

    Restaurant_Name

    Food_Type

    Cost_Mean

    The name ofthe restaurant

    Categories offood (e.g., 1 =Continental, 2= Fast food,etc.)

    The averagecost of allregular menuitems.

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    Develop Tuple TypesDevelop Tuple TypesDevelop Tuple TypesDevelop Tuple Types

    Use your ERM with relationships

    Perform a Walk-through exercise

    Simulate information is being added/used

    in your database.

    Symbolize using Attribute

    Representation

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    Tuple Types to TablesTuple Types to TablesTuple Types to TablesTuple Types to Tables

    ENTITY TYPES

    RELATIONSHIP TYPES

    TUPLE TYPES

    TABLES

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    NormalizationNormalizationNormalizationNormalization

    First-Fifth Form Normal (1FN,

    2FN,5FN)

    Academic

    Applied

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    1FN1FN1FN1FN

    All values are atomic

    Single cell contains single data value

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    2FN2FN2FN2FN

    Satisfy 1FN and

    Redundant data must be eliminated

    How?

    Example: Puppy_ID, Trick_ID, Trick_Name

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    3FN3FN3FN3FN

    Satisfy 1NF and 2FN and

    No non-key attributes are dependent on

    other non-key attributes.

    Example: Appointment_ID, Name, Date,

    Time, Species

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    AfterNormalizationAfterNormalizationAfterNormalizationAfterNormalization

    New tuple types will be created.

    New tables will be planned.

    Many-many relationships will behandled using associative tables (bridge

    tables).

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    DeDe--NormalizationNormalizationDeDe--NormalizationNormalization

    What? Is this heresy?

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    Designing the ActualDesigning the Actual

    RDBMSRDBMS

    Designing the ActualDesigning the Actual

    RDBMSRDBMS Visual modeling based upon your ERM

    and Tuple type model.

    Implementation of integrity rules basedupon your business constraints.

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    Coming Up NextComing Up NextComing Up NextComing Up Next

    RDBMS Design

    Hands-on exercise

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    Populate...Populate...Populate...Populate...

    Questions and concerns to revisit

    Null data

    Reporting discrepancies and variations

    Measuring or estimating methods

    Client utility/efficiency

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    The Last Step?The Last Step?The Last Step?The Last Step?

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    Questions?Questions?Questions?Questions?

    Your assignment

    Read the handout to familiarize yourself

    with RDBMSs

    Complete the On-line SQL course

    Complete the Exercise