UNIT 2 - BIOMOLECULES Compare the structure/function of the major biological molecules...
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Chemistry of Life
UNIT 2 - BIOMOLECULESCompare the structure/function of the major biological molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids) as related to the survival of living organisms.Explain how enzymes act as catalysts for biological reactions.Understand enzymes are necessary for all biochemical reactions and have a general understanding of how enzymes work in terms of the connection between shape and function.BIOMOLECULESORGANIC = ___________________________________all contain carbon as backboneCCCCNHCSOHCCCCSINGLEBONDDOUBLEBONDTRIPLEBONDRINGSTRUCTURECHHHH
BIOMOLECULESATOMSMOLECULESLARGERMOLECULESMONOMERPOLYMERsingle molecule,repeating unit of polymerlarger molecule,made of many repeating units (monomers)CARBOHYDRATELIPIDPROTEINNUCLEIC ACIDonepartmanypartsCARBOHYDRATESCONTAIN CARBON, HYDROGEN, & OXYGEN 1C:2H:1OMONOMER = MONOSACCHARIDEglucosefructosegalactosedeoxyribosePOLYMER = DISACCHARIDEPOLYSACCHARIDEsucroselactosestarchglycogencelluloseribosechitinKNOW FUNCTIONSOF EXAMPLES IN YELLOWLIPIDSN0N-POLARHYDROPHOBIC (does not mix with water)Triglycerides (fats & oils)WaxesSteroidsPhospholipidsprotection, prevent drying out / keep drymain component of cell membranechemical messengers, cholesterol, sex hormones (estrogen, testosterone)long-term energy storage, insulation, cushioning/protectionLIPIDSTriglycerides GLYCEROLFATTY ACIDFATTY ACIDFATTY ACID
saturatedunsaturateddoublebondFATS - solid, saturated fatty acid tails, animals (lard, butter)OILS - liquid, unsaturated fatty acid tails, plants (vegetable oils)What is the difference between a saturated fatty acid & an unsaturated fatty acid?PROTEINS
Monomer Polymer amino acid
joined together by peptide bondspolypeptideLarge 3-D molecule that undergoes folding and bending of the polypeptide. Shape is determined by the ____________ and ____________ of amino acids.numbersequenceExamples:structure hair, fingernails, horns, and hoofsmuscles immune system contract for movementpart of cell membrane; other molecules attach to themantibodies, fight infectionshormones hemoglobin insulin chemical messengersregulates blood glucose levelspart of red blood cells; carries oxygen to cellsreceptor sites
PROTEINSENZYMESregulate all biochemical reactions in an organismMETABOLISMBIOLOGICAL CATALYSTspeeds up chemical reactionby lowering activation energy
RE-USEDNOT PART OF CHEMICAL REACTIONKEEPS SHAPELOCK AND KEY MODELENZYMEPROTEINSENZYMES
NUCLEIC ACIDSDNA deoxyribonucleic acidRNA ribonucleic acidcarries genetic information;controls what occurs in cellsinvolved in making proteins
2 strandsdouble helix1 strandNUCLEIC ACIDS
monomer = nucleotide5-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)phosphate moleculenitrogenous base DNA A (adenine)C (cytosine)G (guanine)T (thymine) RNA A (adenine)C (cytosine)G (guanine)U (uracil)complementary base pairsA - TC - GEach nucleotide is composed of: PPFunctions of macromoleculesCarbohydrate energy, some structure/supportProteins structure, growth, repair, enzymes, hormones, carry oxygen, regulate glucoseLipids long term energy storage, cushioning, insulation; hormones; prevent drying out/getting wet; cell membranesNucleic Acids store genetic information as code; involved in making proteins
Benedicts solution is a test for monosaccharides. It starts blue and turns red if heated.Why did the sucrose remain blue after being heated?Food TestsIodine is a test for starch. It starts as a rust color and turns black or blue/black.
Food TestsLipids turn brown paper translucent.
Biurets turns purple when proteins are present.