Biomolecules Macromolecules. Compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules...

download Biomolecules Macromolecules. Compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

of 49

  • date post

    18-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    232
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Biomolecules Macromolecules. Compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules...

  • BiomoleculesMacromolecules

  • Bio 9.ACompare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. (READINESS STANDARD)

  • Poly Many

    Mono - One

    Hydro - Water

    Synthesis - to make or form

    Lysis - loosen or break apart

    Lipos fat

    Bio life

    Macro very large in scalePrefixes, Suffixes, and Roots

  • Life as we know it is carbon based. 95% of all carbon compounds are organic.

    A carbon atom can form chemical bonds with other carbon atoms in long chains or rings.

    Carbon Compounds in living things include: Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins (these are called macromolecules).Carbon Compounds

  • Macromolecule Analogy

  • Many individual small molecules are known as monomersTogether, these same molecules can combine to form a polymer

  • Polymers and Monomers

    POLYMERMONOMERCarbohydrates (Polysaccharides)Monosaccharides (simple sugars)Lipids (e.g. fats)Glycerol and Fatty AcidsProteinAmino AcidsNucleic AcidsNucleotides

  • The chemical process of joining monomers to form polymers. At the end of each monomer is a (H) hydrogen atom and a (-OH) group. Every time a monomer is added a molecule of water is given off.

    Dehydration Synthesis

  • The chemical breakdown of polymers into monomers through the addition of water; essentially the opposite of dehydration synthesisHydrolysis

  • Carbohydrates are energy-rich compounds made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

    Cells use carbohydrates to get and store energy.

    Carbohydrates are also called sugars or starches.Carbohydrates

  • Plant cells store energy as starch.

    Rice, potatoes, and wheat are plant starches.Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates

    FUNCTIONQuick and short term energyFOUND INBreads, Pastas, Potatoes, CornSTUCTUREContain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO) Unique because they always have a 1:2:1 ratioMONOSACCHARIDE EXAMPLESGlucose (C6H12O6)

    DISACCHARIDE EXAMPLESLactose (milk sugar) Maltose (malt sugar-in grain), Sucrose (made of fructose & maltose combined-in sugar cane) (C12H22O11)

    POLYSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES100 to 1000 monosaccharides joined

    Starch-how carbohydrates are stored in plantsGlycogen-how carbohydrates are stored in animalsCellulose-found in plant cell walls; animals cannot digest (Fiber)

  • Carbohydrates

  • Dehydration SynthesisHydrolysisCarbohydrates

  • Lipids are made by cells to store energy for long periods of time.

    Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes. Can you think of examples of lipids in plants or animals?Lipids

  • Lipids

    FUNCTIONLong term energy storageInsulate against heat lossProtective cushion around organsFOUND INFatty foods, butter, margarine, cooking oilsSTUCTUREContain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (on occasion other elements) Glycerol (backbone 3 Carbons with -OH groups) and fatty acid tail/sDont dissolve in waterFATS and OILS (Triglycerides)One glycerol with 3 fatty acid tailPHOSPHOLIPIDSMake up cell membranes contain C,H, O and phosphorus (2 fatty acid tails)WAXESOnly 1 fatty acid tail with alcohol attached; protective coating on fruits etc.STEROIDSIncludes cholesterol, female and male sex hormone

  • 1 Glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid tails.GLYCEROL BACKBONELipids

  • Dehydration Synthesis of Fats:

  • Fats are also known as triglycerides!!Made of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids all attached by dehydration synthesis.

    How many water molecules are made?

  • Saturated Fats:Contain no double bonds between carbons!

    Carbons are saturated with hydrogen.

    SOLID at room temperature!!!

    Ex: Butter, lard, shortening, bacon

  • No DOUBLE bonds!!! (saturated with hydrogen)

  • Nice and smooth and straight so they pack tightly to form a solid!

  • Unsaturated fats!Have double bonds between carbons!

    Liquid at room temperature!

    Ex: Oils

  • Double bonds make them crinkle and not pack as tightly!

  • Saturated vs. Unsaturated

  • Dehydration SynthesisHydrolysisLipids

  • Proteins are very large molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.Protein molecules are made of smaller molecules called amino acids.

    Proteins

  • Proteins

    FUNCTIONBuilding blocks of living materials; compose structural parts such as keratin in hair and nails, antibodies, cartilage, bones, ligaments and enzymes (compounds that speed up reactions)FOUND INMeat, Eggs and CheeseSTUCTUREMuch larger, more complex than carbohydrates and lipids . Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen.BUILDING BLOCKSAmino Acids (There are 20 different amino acids)

    PEPTIDE BONDSHold amino acids together (dipeptides, tripeptides, polypeptides)

    DENATURATIONWhen proteins are exposed to extreme changes in pH, temperature etc. they lose their shape and can no longer function.

  • Dehydration SynthesisHydrolysisProteins

  • Proteins - Amino AcidsR group makes each amino acid differentThere are 20 different amino acids.

  • Polymers.Amino acids:joined by peptide bonds (dehydration synthesis again!!)Dipeptide (two amino acids)Polypeptide (many amino acids)

    What is made each time A.A. are joined?____Order of A.A. determines shape of proteinShape determines FUNCTION!

  • Denaturing of a proteinDenatured = misshapen

    Causes: temperature, pH, salt concentration, and other environmental factors

    THINK about what happens when you grill a steak!! Or chicken! Or Fry an Egg! (or boil Egg)

  • Nucleic acids are compounds made of long, repeating chains called nucleotides. DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the information cells need to make all of their proteins.Nucleic Acid

  • Nucleic Acid

    FUNCTIONImportant for growth & reproduction of cells, contains the genetic code (what genes are made from)FOUND INGenes 2 types DNA and RNASTUCTURESugar (deoxyribose or ribose), phosphate, nitrogen basesBUILDING BLOCKSNucleotides

    ATPA nucleic acid that is made in the cells mitochondria. Glucose is converted into ATP.

    SHAPEDNA is known for its twisted ladder shape

  • Nucleic AcidThis is a polymer

  • Nucleotide of a polymerThis is a monomer

  • Some scientists refer to DNA as the blueprints for life.What is a blueprint and why might scientists use this analogy?Nucleic Acid - DNA

  • WHAT DO YOU KNOW?

  • NOTICE: C,H,O and the 2:1 ratio of H to O

  • NOTICE: the twisted shape of DNA

  • NOTICE: The Glycerol back bone and fatty acid tails

  • NOTICE: The amino acid monomers

  • CHROMOSOME

  • NOTICE: The phospate, sugar and base

  • NOTICE: The nitrogen and R-group

    **Remind students that carbohydrates contain the elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO) The ratio is always 2 hydrogens for every one oxygen just like water H2O

    *Point out that while lipids are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that the hydrogen and oxygen are not in a 2:1 ratio like carbohydrates.*Remind students that when lipids have 3 tails they are considered to be a fat or an oil; 2 tails they are a phospholipid ; 1 tail they are a wax. Students have probably heard of saturated and unsaturated fats. This refers to how many H or hydrogens are on the tail.*Remind students that carbohydrates contain the elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO) The ratio is always 2 hydrogens for every one oxygen just like water H2O

    *