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Transcript of Product Design - sjbae.pbworks.comsjbae.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/76233650/4월 8 10 15일.pdf ·...

  • Product Design

    Sung Joo Bae

    Assistant Professor

    Operations and Technology Management

    School of BusinessYonsei University

  • Fuzzy Front End of Innovation

    ConceptDevelopment

    System-level

    Design

    Detail

    Design

    Testing &

    Refinement

    Production

    Ramp-up

    How do we develop new ideas for products?

  • IDEO

    Worlds largest and most successful design firm

    Worked with many Korean firms as well (Samsung, LG, etc.)

    Well known for their system of innovation

  • Case Study: IDEO Product Development

  • How would you characterize the following elements at IDEO?

    Process Management Organization Culture

  • VIDEO: Deep Dive

  • Process at IDEO

    Prototyping

    3R: Rough, Rapid, & Right

    Intense brainstorming

    Stay focused on the topic

    Encourage wild ideas

    Defer judgment to avoid interrupting the flow of ideas

    Build on ideas of others

    Only one conversation at a time (esp. for introverts)

    Be vidual

  • Process at IDEO

    Structure/Methodology Phase 0: Understand & Observe

    Understand clients business and find the needs

    Phase 1: Visualize & Realize

    Build models with overall product concept

    Phase 2: Evaluate & Refining

    Enhance the prototype

    Focus shifting from human factors to engineering issues

    Shift from functional model to real model

    Phase 3: Detailed Engineering

    Fully functional model

    Phase 4: Manufacturing Liaison

  • Organization at IDEO

    Small units (team-oriented)

    Flat hierarchy

    Peer pressure

    Low turnover

    Diversity in teams

  • Management at IDEO

    Low key

    Create the stage upon which designers can play the leading role

    Lead by example

    Connecting role with customers

    Knowledge management (Tech Box)

  • Culture at IDEO

    Failure & trust

    Child-like playfulness

    Attracts creative people

    Sharing & respect

    Comfortable with confusion, incomplete information, and paradox/ambiguity

    Simple rules

    Fail often to succeed sooner

    Stay focused

    Enlightened trail and error

  • http://www.styleture.com/files/2010/01/basic1.jpghttp://www.styleture.com/files/2010/01/basic4.jpghttp://archinspire.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/minimalist-ring-tissue-place-design.jpg

  • Creative Design? Choices from 2010

  • Creative Design? Choices from 2010?

  • Creative Design? Choices from 2009

    http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3126/3163429822_151162f4d4_o.jpghttp://www.philipphauer.de/galerie/franz-marc/werke-gr/im-regen.jpghttp://www.metanamorph.com/displayimage-album,4,pos,0,pid,1111111203,fullsize,1,The Crevasse.html

  • Creative Design? Choices from 2011 Fall (MBA)

  • What aspect of product is valued in your selection?

    Which product (svc/biz model etc. ) did you choose?

    Could you describe why you chose that specific product?

    Aesthetic appeal: color, shape

    Ease of use

    Functionality

    Uniqueness

    Environmentally friendly

    Longevity

    Symbolic status

    .

  • Recent Changes in Korea

    Development Focus

    Engineering oriented Design Oriented Integrated Thinking

    Product Focus

    Function Aesthetics (Form) Concepts (e.g. eco-)

    Product Strategy

    Single product Product groups Platform (ecosystem)

  • Design

    Function

    Form

    UserUse Environment

  • Freshman Zack Anderson can check

    the weather at the monitor by the sink

    in his fully automated dorm room.

    Credits - Photo / Donna Coveney

    Multifunction In-Dorm

    Automation System"

    (MIDAS)

    Freshman R.J. Ryan hits the

    'emergency' button in his

    automatic dorm room on

    East Campus. The button

    activates 'party mode.

    (relax mode, sleep mode

    also possible)

  • VIDEO: MIDAS at workhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsPQWz9CWuA

    &feature=player_embedded

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsPQWz9CWuA&feature=player_embeddedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsPQWz9CWuA&feature=player_embedded

  • a. Assimilation of scientific results into technology

    b. Recognized need for a device, technique, or scientific understanding

    c. Technology adoption for use

    d. Technological need for understanding of physical phenomena and

    responses

    The Relationship between Science & Technology

  • Attributes of Five Development Projects

    Stanley Tools Jobmaster Screwdriver

    Rollerblade In-line Skate

    HP Deskjet Printer

    Volkswagen New Beetle Automobile

    Boeing 777 Airplane

    Annual production volume (units/year)

    100,000 100,000 4 million 100,000 50

    Sales lifetime (years) 40 3 2 6 30

    Price (US$/unit) 3 200 300 17,000 130M

    Part numbers (parts) 3 35 200 10,000 130,000

    Development time (years)

    1 2 1.5 3.5 4.5

    Internal development team (peak size)

    3 5 100 800 6,800

    External development team (peak size)

    3 10 75 800 10,000

    Development cost (US$)

    150,000 750,000 50M 400M 3B

    Production investment

    150,000 1M 25M 500M 3B

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • New Product Success Factors

    Developing a superior, differentiated product with unique benefits and superior value to the customers

    Having a strong market orientation throughout the development process

    Getting sharp, early product definition before development begins

    Quality execution (completeness, consistency, and proficiency) of activities in the development process

    Having the correct organizational structure (multifunctional, empowered teams)

    Providing the sharp project selection decisions

    Top management: specifying new product strategy and providing needed resources

    Speed to market

    (Cooper, 1996)

  • New Product Development Process

    Design Activities:

    Consider product platform and architecture

    Assess new technologies

    Investigate feasibility of product concepts

    Develop industrial design concepts

    Build and test experimental prototypes

    Generate alternative product architectures

    Define major subsystems and interfaces

    Refine industrial design

    Define part geometry

    Choose materials

    Assign tolerances

    Complete industrial control documentation

    Reliability testing

    Life testing

    Performance testing

    Obtain regulatory approvals

    Implement design changes

    Evaluate early production output

    PlanningConcept

    Development

    System-level

    Design

    Detail

    Design

    Testing &

    Refinement

    Production

    Ramp-up

  • New Product Development Process

    PlanningConcept

    Development

    System-level

    Design

    Detail

    Design

    Testing &

    Refinement

    Production

    Ramp-up

    Marketing Activities:

    Articulate market opportunity

    Define market segments

    Collect customer needs

    Identify lead users

    Identify competitive products

    Develop plan for product options and extended product family

    Set target sales price points

    Develop marketing plan

    Develop promotion and launch materials

    Facilitate field testing

    Place early production with key customers

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • New Product Development Process

    PlanningConcept

    Development

    System-level

    Design

    Detail

    Design

    Testing &

    Refinement

    Production

    Ramp-up

    Manufacturing Activities:

    Identify production constraints

    Estimate manufacturing cost

    Assess production feasibility

    Perform make-buy analysis

    Define final assembly scheme

    Set target costs

    Define piece-part production processes

    Design tooling

    Define quality assurance processes

    Facilitate supplier ramp-up

    Train workforce

    Refine assembly processes

    Begin operation of production system

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • New Product Development Process

    PlanningConcept

    Development

    System-level

    Design

    Detail

    Design

    Testing &

    Refinement

    Production

    Ramp-up

    Product planning is an activity that considers the portfolio of projects that an organization might pursue and determines what subset of these projects will be pursued over what time period

    Which product development projects will be undertaken? How do the various projects relate to each other as a portfolio Timing and sequence of the projects?

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • New Product Development Process

    PlanningConcept

    Development

    System-level

    Design

    Detail

    Design

    Testing &

    Refinement

    Production

    Ramp-up

    1. Define the scope2. Gather raw data from customers (interviews, focus groups, observation)3. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs4. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary, secondary, and tertiary needs5. Establish the relative importance of the needs6. Reflect on the results and the process

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

    Identify

    Customer

    Needs

    Establish

    Target

    Specification

    Generate

    Product

    Concepts

    Select

    Product

    Concepts

    Test

    Product

    Concepts

    Set

    Final

    Specification

    Plan

    Downstream

    Development

    Benchmark Competitive Products

    Perform Economic Analysis

    Build and Test Models and Prototypes

  • Defining the scope (Mission Statement)

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

    Mission Statement: Screwdriver Project

    Product Description A hand-held, power assisted device for installing threaded fasteners

    Key Business Goals Product introduced in fourth quarter of 2006

    50% gross margin

    10% share of cordless screwdriver market by 2008

    Primary Markets Do-it-yourself consumer

    Secondary Markets Casual consumer

    Light-duty professional

    Assumptions Hand-held

    Power-assisted

    Rechargeable battery

    Stakeholders User, retailer, sales force, service center, production, legal department

  • Raw Data from the Customers

    (Source: MITs Product Design and Development Course Material)

  • Number of Analysts

    (Source: MITs Product Design and Development Course Material)

  • Customer Data into Interpreted Needs

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Some Guidelines for Need Interpretation

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Exercises: Need Translation

    (Source: MITs Product Design and Development Course Material)

  • Exercises: Need Translation

    (Source: MITs Product Design and Development Course Material)

  • Hierarchical List of Needs

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • New Product Development Process

    PlanningConcept

    Development

    System-level

    Design

    Detail

    Design

    Testing &

    Refinement

    Production

    Ramp-up

    Identify

    Customer

    Needs

    Establish

    Target

    Specification

    Generate

    Product

    Concepts

    Select

    Product

    Concepts

    Test

    Product

    Concepts

    Set

    Final

    Specification

    Plan

    Downstream

    Development

    What are specifications?- Customer needs are expressed in the language of the customers.- Specifications are the language of the manufacturer/service provider- Measurable detail of what the product has to do- Product requirements

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Target Specification

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

    For your class projects, measurable metric may not exist. In this case, just describe the specification of the final product/service/business model in terms of feature requirements

  • New Product Development Process

    PlanningConcept

    Development

    System-level

    Design

    Detail

    Design

    Testing &

    Refinement

    Production

    Ramp-up

    Identify

    Customer

    Needs

    Establish

    Target

    Specification

    Generate

    Product

    Concepts

    Select

    Product

    Concepts

    Test

    Product

    Concepts

    Set

    Final

    Specification

    Plan

    Downstream

    Development

    What are specifications?- Customer needs are expressed in the language of the customers.- Specifications are the language of the manufacturer/service provider- Measurable detail of what the product has to do- Product requirements

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Five-step Concept Generation Method

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Example of Problem Decomposition

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Five-step Concept Generation Method

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Solutions to Sub-Problems

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Concept Classification Tree

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

    Division of the entire space of solutions into several distinct classes

    Identification of independent approaches to the problem

    Pruning of less promising branches

    Refinement of the problem decomposition for a particular branch

  • Concept Combination Table

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

    Concept Combination Table:A way to consider combinations of solution fragments systematically

    < Concept combination table for the hand-held nailer & one possible combination >

  • Selection of Product Concepts

    The goal of concept selection is NOT to select the best concept

    The goal of the concept selection is to DEVELOP the best concept

    Combine and refine the concepts to develop better ones

    Selection Methods External decision Intuition Multivoting

    Pros and cons Prototype and test Decision matrices

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Concept Generation, Selection, & Testing

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

  • Concept Screening & Scoring

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)

    Concept Screening

    + Better than

    0 Same as - Worse than

    Concept Scoring

  • Key Points

    Capture what not how

    Try to meet customers in user environment

    Collect visual, verbal, or textual data

    Props will stimulate customer responses

    Interviews are more efficient than focus groups

    Interview stakeholders and lead users, not just average users if possible

    Look for latent needs

    (Source: Ulrich & Eppinger)