Marine Pollution Presentation

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SEMINAR TOPIC:MARINE POLLUTION GUIDES :Dr S.N.GHOSH Dr S.P.MOHANTY PRESENTED BY: SHREYA MUKHERJEE

MARINE POLLUTION

WHAT IS MARINE POLLUTION FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR MARINE POLLUTION EFFECTS OF MARINE POLLUTION STEPS TAKEN TO COMBAT MARINE POLLUTION ORGANISATIONS DEALING WITH MARINE POLLUTION LAWS REGARDING MARINE POLLUTION STATISTICAL DATA REGARDING MARINE POLLUTION CONCLUSION

What is marine pollution? The introduction of harmful or potentially harmful substances into the marine environment that interfere with the functioning of the marine ecosystem and render the marine environment unfit for sustaining life.

Pathways of marine pollution:

Pollution is often classified as point source or nonpoint source pollution There are three main types of inputs of pollution into t ocean: direct discharge of waste into the oceans, runof into the waters due to rain, and pollutants that are released from the atmosphere.

Major Causes of marine pollution

OIL SPILLS ALGAL BLOOMS PLASTIC POLLUTION INVASIVE SPECIES ACIDIFICATION EUTROPHICATION GLOBAL WARMING TOXINS NOISE NUCLEAR ACTIVITY

OIL SPILLS

Oil spills happen when people make mistakes or are careless and cause an oil tanker to leak oil into the ocean. There are a few more ways an oil spill can occur. Equipment breaking down may cause an oil spill. If the equipment breaks down, the tanker may get stuck on shallow land. When they start to drive the tanker again, they can put a hole in the tanker causing it to leak oil. When countries are at war, one country may decide to dump gallons of oil into the other country s oceans. Terrorists may cause an oil spill because they will dump oil into a country s ocean. Many terrorists will do this because they are trying to get the country s attention, or they are trying to make a point to a country. Illegal dumpers are people that will dump crude oil into the oceans because they do not want to spend money on decomposing their waste oil. Because they won t spend money on breaking up the oil (decomposing it) they will dump oil into the oceans, which is illegal. Natural disasters (like hurricanes) may cause an oil spill, too. If a hurricane was a couple of miles away, the winds from the hurricane could cause the oil tanker to flip over, pouring oil out.

SOURCES OF OIL SPILLS.

EFFECTS OF OIL SPILLSThe oil penetrates and opens up the structure of the plumage of birds, reducing its insulating ability, and so making the birds more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways as seabirds. Oil coats the fur of Sea otters and seals, reducing its insulation abilities and leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia. Ingestion of the oil causes dehydration and impaired digestions. Oil spills are one of the many ways killer whales have become endangered. The oil may be eaten or enter the whale s blowhole.

OIL COATED WHALE

2)ALGAL BLOOMS Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which are algal bloom events involving toxic or otherwise harmful phytoplankton such as dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium and Karenia. ALSO KNOWN AS RED TIDES

WHAT CAUSES ALGAL BLOOMS? The frequency and severity of HABs in some parts of the world have been linked to increased nutrient loading from human activities. In other areas, HABs are a predictable seasonal occurrence resulting from coastal upwelling, a natural result of the movement of certain ocean currents. Coastal water pollution produced by humans and systematic increase in sea water temperature have also been suggested as possible contributing factor ]. Other factors such as iron-rich dust influx from large desert areas such as the Saharan desert are thought to play a role in causing HABs

EFFECTS OF ALGAL BLOOMS: People may experience respiratory irritation (coughing, sneezing, and tearing) when the phytoplankton Karenia brevis is present along a coast and winds blow its toxic aerosol onshore. skin irritation and burning is possible in areas of high concentration Dead zones are often caused by the decay of algae during algal blooms. These occur near inhabited coastlines, where aquatic life is most concentrated.

RED TIDE

3)PLASTIC POLLUTION: Marine debris is mainly discarded human rubbish which floats on, or is suspended in the ocean Eighty percent of marine debris is plastic - a component that has been rapidly accumulating since the end of World War II Discarded plastic bags, six pack rings and other forms of plastic waste which finish up in the ocean present dangers to wildlife and fisheries Known as ghost nets, these entangle fish, dolphins, sea turtles, sharks, dugongs, crocodiles, seabirds, crabs, and other creatures, restricting movement, causing starvation, laceration and infection, and, in those that need to return to the surface to breathe, suffocation Toxic additives used in the manufacture of plastic materials can leach out into their surroundings when exposed to water.

PLASTIC JELLYFISH

PLASTIC OR JELLY?

EFFECTS OF PLASTIC POLLUTION Many animals that live on or in the sea consume flotsam by mistake, as it often looks similar to their natural prey. Plastic debris, when bulky or tangled, is difficult to pass, and may become permanently lodged in the digestive tracts of these animals, blocking the passage of food and causing death through starvation or infection.[43][44] When floating plastic particles photodegrade down to zooplankton sizes, jellyfish attempt to consume them, and in this way the plastic enters the ocean food chain Many of these long-lasting pieces end up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals,[48] including sea turtles, and black-footed albatross

4)Invasive species

What are invasive species? A particular species of flora or fauna that suddenly and unfavourably introduced in an environment and disrupts the normal functioning of that ecosystem.

How are invasive species transported? Ballast water taken up at sea and released in port is a major source of unwanted exotic marine life. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carriers By ocean currents

Effects of invasion of alien species? Cause diseases Cause genetic pollution alter underwater seascapes jeopardize the ability of native species to obtain food by offering unnecessary competetion.

Case study a seemingly harmless jellyfish. Mnemiopsis leidyi, a species of comb jellyfish that spread so it now inhabits estuaries in many parts of the world. It was first introduced in 1982, and thought to have been transported to the Black Sea in a ship s ballast water. The population of the jellyfish shot up exponentially and, by 1988, it was wreaking havoc upon the local fishing industry in many countries.

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5)Eutrophication Eutrophication is an increase in chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus, in an ecosystem

Causes of eutrophication: The biggest culprit are rivers that empty into the ocean, and with it the many chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture as well as waste from livestock and humans In addition to land runoff, atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen can enter the open ocean. A study in 2008 found that this could account for around one third of the ocean s external (non-recycled) nitrogen supply and up to three per cent of the annual new marine biological production.[33]

Effects of eutrophication: It can result in an increase in the ecosystem's primary productivity (excessive plant growth and decay), and further effects including lack of oxygen and severe reductions in water quality, fish, and other animal populations. An excess of oxygen depleting chemicals in the water can lead to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone.[30] [33] It has been suggested that accumulating reactive nitrogen in the environment may have consequences as serious as putting carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.[34]

Acidification The oceans are normally a natural carbon sink, absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Because the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are increasing, the oceans are becoming more acidic

Causes of acidification: Human activities such as land-use changes, the combustion of fossil fuels, and the production of cement have led to a new flux of CO2 into the atmosphere the oceans absorb more anthropogenic CO2

Effects of ocean acidification: One of the most important repercussions of increasing ocean acidity relates to the production of shells and plates out of Changes in ocean chemistry can have extensive direct and indirect calcium carbonate CaCO3. There are concerns that structures made of calcium carbonate may become vulnerable to dissolution, affecting corals and the ability of shellfish to form shells.

SEA PH CHANGE

GLOBAL WARMING:

THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION: The term thermohaline circulation (THC) refers to the part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. The adjective thermohaline derives from thermo- referring to temperature and -haline referring to salt content, factors which together determine the density of sea water.

EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION: There is some speculation that global warming could, via a shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation, trigger localized cooling in the North Atlantic and lead to cooling, or lesser warming, in that region. This would affect in particular areas like Scandinavia and Britain that are warmed by the North Atlantic drift. warming reduces the ocean's ability to absorb CO2.As well as having effects on ecosystems (e.g. by melting sea ice, affecting algae that grow on its underside),