Hybrid Electric Vehicle

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Hybrid Electric Vehicle A Dolcera Report December 2005

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Hybrid Electric Vehicle. A Dolcera Report December 2005. Rationale. Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

  • Hybrid Electric VehicleA Dolcera ReportDecember 2005

  • RationaleAutomobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, includinga significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions.On July 22, 2002 California Governor Gray Davis signed into law AB 1493 (commonly known as the "Pavley law") precedent-setting legislation to reduce global warming pollution from motor vehicles.

    This bill directs the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to develop and adopt regulations that achieve the maximum feasible and cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from passenger cars and light trucks sold in California.Source: http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/vehicles_health/californias-global-warming-vehicle-law.html)

  • Development IThe new millennium is bringing a millennial change to thefamily car. A few years back, the key concerns were:Pollution, Nagging worries about global warming, andOil shortages.These concerns led to the development of Electric Vehicle (EVs) powered by batteries. But current battery technology does not provide EV's with a range that isacceptable to consumers. Limitations of EVs:An average commute to work is around 40 miles. EV's have a range of 80-100 miles using advanced battery technology.While batteries need frequent recharging, they are not the only way to power an electric car.

  • Development IIHEV is just the first step in reducing the environmental impacts of automobile use with out loosing-off comforts,performance, storage room and extended driving range.

    Advantages of HEVs

    HEV contains parts of both gasoline and electric vehicles in an attempt to get the best of both worlds.

    HEV is able to operate nearly twice as efficiently as traditional internal combustion vehicles.

    Equivalent power, range, cost and safety of a conventional vehicle while reducing fuel costs and harmful emissions.

    The battery is continuously recharged by a motor/generator driven by the ICE or by regenerative braking.

  • Components of HEV Battery systemThe batteries in a HEV are the energy storage device for the electricmotor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power thegasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into thebatteries as well as draw energy from them.

    Battery:- Two or more electrochemical energy cells connected together to provide electrical energy.

    Generator:- The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power.

    Electric motor:- Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries.

    SOC:- The State of Charge of a battery is its available capacity expressed as a percentage of its rated capacity.

  • HEV layoutMotorTransmissionIC EngineGeneratorBatteryWheelWheelMotorTransmissionIC EngineGeneratorBatteryWheelWheelMotorTransmissionIC EngineGeneratorBatteryWheelWheelScenario 1: Low speed - Power is provided by electric motor using energy supplied by the DC batteryScenario 2: Braking Kinetic energy is converted to electric energy during regenerative braking by electric motor and supplied to battery.Scenario 3: High speed Power is provided by IC engine and electric motor via generator. Generator also charge battery during high speed.

  • HEV battery system design parametersFactors affecting battery performanceTemperature:- Battery performance is highly dependent on temperature. each type of battery works best within a limited range of temperatures.Battery age/Shelf life:- Corrosion is the main component behind decreasedperformance in lead acid type batteries by age.Depth of discharge:- Batteries are able to maintain their performance longerwhen they are not deeply discharged regularly.

    Design parameters:How much space is available for the batteries?How much can they weigh? What is the desired range? What is the weight of the vehicle? What is the targeted vehicle cost? How will the batteries be recharged and What kind of drive system requirements is needed?

    These are necessary questions because of the variety of battery typesavailable and the differences between them. The chart below lists thecharacteristics of the most common types of batteries.Source: http://www.atti-info.org/technology/ev_tech.html

  • Types of HEVs batteries and performanceThere are many types of batteries that are currently being used - or being developed foruse - in HEVs. The following table lists these types along with their commoncharacteristics. The types are listed in descending order of popularity for use in HEVs,with the most popular choices at the top of the table. Source: http://www.atti-info.org/technology/ev_tech.html

  • Comparison of top 3 batteries used in HEVsDuring recharging it is important to maintain the balance of battery. The balance of battery is maintained bycontrolling battery from Overcharging and Over discharging

    Controlling is achieved by defining State of Charge of battery Upper limit value overcharge and Lower limit value over discharge

    When overcharge is detected power generation is controlled/cut-off and when over discharge is detectedpower supply to electric motor is stopped. Detection is achieved by appropriate sensors.This report investigates various procedures available/adopted by various assignees in order to maintainbalanced battery pack by avoiding overcharge and/or over discharge.

  • HEV battery system concernsThe ultimate goal of HEV can only be achieved with the balance battery pack. Since the main source of energy in HEV is batteries and recharging is carried out on-board.

    Advantages of balance battery pack:Balancing of battery SOCs increases battery lifeAutomated balancing circuitry will decrease overcharging (and gassing) and decrease manual maintenance.

    This in turn providesEquivalent power range at low cost as conventional vehicle while reducing fuel costs and harmful emissions. Can travels twice the distance of a conventional vehicle on the same amount of energy.

  • ObjectiveThe present report attempts at finding out various aspects andapproached involved in maintaining balanced battery through patentand non-patent information. Few patents have been selected toidentify: IP activity over years Competitors Competitor and Market Landscape Technology map Based on patent technology focus Technology approach - Competitors

  • IP activity over yearsNo. of patentsPriority yearThe activity graph displays patenting activity over years in the area ofovercharging of HEV battery. The problem seem to be quiet old, thegraph indicates first attempt was made in 1978 to solve the problemSince then there has been continuous efforts with high and low activitythrough out. The graph indicates thick IP activity during 1995-1997S.

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    HEVB overcharging - Analysis

    Record #TitleDerwent titleAbstractPatent numberPriority datePriority countryForward citationBack word citationInventorIPCAssigneeAssignee symbolsHEV typeHEV type imagesBattery typeBattery imagesBattery charging systemPower generatorPower generator imagesCurrent converterCurrent control/Current cut-offState of charge detectorDolcera analysis

    1HYBRID TYPE VEHICLEn/aPURPOSE: To provide a hybrid type vehicle which can cope with a demand for large braking force without using a resistor to release overcharge or excessive electric power continuing to degradation of a battery when an electric motor or an engine is operateJP06055941JP3339589August 4, 1992JP2US6932737 2005-08-23 Grassl; Georg Siemens AktiengesellschaftUS5839533 1998-11-24 Mikami; Tsuyoshi Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaN/AYAMAGUCHI KOZO;NAKAJIMA MOTOHIRO;HISADA HIDEKI;B60K 6/00 (B60K 6/00; B60K 8/00; B60K 17/04; B60L 7/24)AQUEOUS RES:KKAISIN AW CO LTDParallelDC-battery is charged by the regenerative braking power.Motor functions as a generatorNot mentionedA braking control means will use regenerative braking and engine brake together by engaging an electric motor and an engine with a clutch. Thus restricting the overcharging of DC-battery.The DC-battery residue detecting element detects the electrical potential difference of a DC-battery a current, temperature, specific gravity, etc., and calculates a DC-battery residue from each of these data.The DC-battery (lead-acid/nickel-cadmium/sodium sulfur cell/lithium rechargeable battery/hydrogen rechargeable battery/redox type cell - 240V) is charged by the regenerative braking power by the generator. The DC-battery residue detecting element detects

    2HYBRID VEHICLEn/aPURPOSE: To dissipate the heat caused by excessive regenerated electric power efficiently by utilizing an existing radiator without providing a heat radiating resistor. CONSTITUTION: At the time of regenerative braking, an ECU 20 judges the charged stJP06319205April 30, 1993JPN/AN/AMOROTO SHUZO;KAWAMOTO MUTSUMI;YAMAGUCHI KOZO;TSUZUKI SHIGEO;MIYAISHI YOSHINORI;B60L 11/14 (B60L 11/14; B60L 7/14; F02B 61/00; F02D 29/02; F02N 17/06; )AQUEOUS RES:KKParalleln/aThe AC power generated in the drive motor at the time of regenerative braking is changed into DC power by the inverter and is stored in a DC-battery.MotorInverter converts AC power generated in the drive motor to DC.Electronic control uint judges the electrical potential difference of a DC-battery is under a predetermined electrical potential difference, regeneration power is supplied to charge DC-battery, if found more than a predetermined electrical potential diffeECU judges the charged state of a battery.The AC power generated in the drive motor at the time of regenerative braking is changed into DC power by the inverter and is stored in a DC-battery. ECU judges the charged state of a battery. Overcharging is prevented by EUC (electronic control unit) whi

    3HYBRID VEHICLEHybrid vehicle - includes generator controller which operates generator at number of revolution corresponding to number of revolutions of internal combustion engine set by engine rotation controllerPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To improve the power efficiency of a hybrid vehicle and to improve the drive efficiency of the engine. SOLUTION: The hybrid vehicle comprises an engine 11, a generator 16, and an output shaft 14 coupled via a planetary gear unitJP09117010JP3132372October 14, 1995JP1US6726592 2004-04-27 Kotani; Takeshi Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaN/AYAMAGUCHI KOZO;HISADA HIDEKI;B60L 11/14 (B60L 11/14; B60K 6/00; B60K 8/00; B60K 17/04; F02D 29/06)AQUEOUS RES:KKSeriesn/aThe charge to a DC-battery is provided by the generating power from a generator, and the regeneration power from the drive motor at the time of braking.Generator supply electric power to the batteryn/aThe generator control means controls the rotational frequency of generator according to the rotational frequency controlled by this engine revolving-speed-control means.The DC-battery sensor which is a charge capacity detection means to detect the charge residue SOC of a dc-battery.The DC-battery is charged by the generating power from a generator and the regeneration power from the drive motor at the time of braking. The DC-battery sensor which is charge capacity detection means detects the charge residue SOC of a dc-battery. The g

    4Method for maintaining the charge capacity of traction battery modules of a hybrid electric vehicleCharge capacity maintenance method for traction battery modules in hybrid electric vehicle - involves charging one of traction modules based on control of programmed processor in non-operating state of vehicle and discharging it partially, by operating veA hybrid electric vehicle includes a lead-acid traction battery made up of a plurality of series-connected modules. During operation of the vehicle, the traction battery is discharged for acceleration, and charged by an ancillary power source. The tractioEP0913288CA2252231DE69806885DES2181109JP11289605NO985046US5828201October 30, 1997US11US6907950 2001-03-30 Nissan Diesel Motor Co., Ltd., Saitama, Japan US6686724 2002-05-21 Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI US6478100 1999-08-05 Bae Systems Controls, inc., Johnson City, NY US6417577 2001-03-29 Bae Systems Controls, Johnson4US5666040 1996-08-27 None (Bourbeau, Frank; Santa Barbara, CA 93111)US5578915 1994-09-26 General Motors Corporation, Detroit, MI US5504415 1993-12-03 Electronic Power Technology, Inc., Norcross, GA US5206578 1991-10-15 Norvik Technologies IncHoffman, Jr., David William; Port Crane, NYGrewe, Timothy Michael; Endicott, NYB60K 6/04 (H01M 10/44; )Lockheed Martin CorporationSeriesThe traction battery includes modules of two series-connected 12-volt batteries (lead-sulfuric-acid)Energy controller controls the generation of electrical power by engine and generator and routes the power generated to the traction battery. The partial charging of selected moudule takes place in traction battery.GeneratorEnergy controller utilize dc-to-dc converter which is capable of converting the voltage of auxiliary battery into a voltage capable of charging the selected module.Recharging is controlled by programmed processor of fully charging one module of the traction battery, but not all modules of the traction battery simultaneously with the full charging of the selected module, and then intentionally partially discharging tn/aThe battery is made up of lead-sulfuric-acid of two series-connected 12V and partial charging of selected modules takes place from the power supplied by the engine and generator. Overcharging/recharging of battery modules is controlled by programmed proce

    5Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicleStarter/alternator system for hybrid electric vehicle, has controller which compares state of charge of battery to established threshold levels, for determining starter/alternator operation.A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (US6583599CA2360995DE10153509GB0123907GB2371688GB2371688November 3, 2000US3US6902018 Aisin AW 2001-08-10US6752226 Hitachi, Ltd. 1998-09-29US6744148 Ford Global Technologies, LLC 2002-03-132US6196344 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. 1999-09-10US6158541 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha 1997-02-14Phillips, Anthony Mark; Northville, MIBlankenship, John Richard; Dearborn, MIBailey, Kathleen Ellen; Dearborn, MIJankovic, Miroslava; Birmingham, MIH02J 7/00Ford Global Technologies, Inc.Seriesn/aThe charge on threshold allows the battery to be charged by the starter/alternator acting as a generator and also through regenerative breaking.Started/alternator acting as a generatorPower inverter coupled to the battery converts AC power to DC power in power generation mode.The regenerative braking off threshold prevents the battery from becoming overcharged.Vehicle system controller has a (SOC) manager that monitors the state of charge of energy storage device. Various thresholds levels are set for the different modes of operation.The battery is charge based on the charge on threshold which allows the battery to be charged by the starter/alternator acting as a generator and also through regenerative breaking. Power inverter coupled to the battery converts AC power to DC power in po

    6Method of improving fuel economyFuel control method for vehicle involves reducing nominal optimum charging voltage to minimum charging voltage value when state of charge of battery is higher than predetermined level and current is within predetermined rangeA fuel economy control method includes estimating a temperature of a battery, measuring a current of the battery, and measuring a voltage of the battery. A nominal optimum charging voltage is determined as a function of a state of charge (SOC) of the battUS6809501March 11, 2003USN/A3US6404163 2001-06-25 General Motors CorporationUS6336063 2000-10-31 Volvo Car CorporationUS5929609 1996-11-08 AlliedSignal Inc.Kapsokavathis, Nick S.; Shelby Township, MIZhao, Yaang; Shelby Township, MIWalters, David W.; Sterling Heights, MIH01M 10/44General Motors CorporationSeriesn/aWhen the automobile is idling in slow traffic with high electrical loads discharging the battery, the voltage regulator sets the generator output voltage near the upper end of the voltage range and recharge the battery.The generator delivers the optimum charge voltage to the battery to recharge the battery.n/aWhen the battery is fully recharged while the engine is running, the voltage regulator reduces the generator output voltage near the low end of the voltage range.The ADC (analog-to-digital converter) is used by the BCM (body control module) to periodically sense the voltage level of the battery via the JB (junction block) to enable the BCM (body control module) to estimate the SOC of the battery.When the automobile is idling in slow traffic with high electrical loads discharging the battery, the voltage regulator sets the generator output voltage near the upper end of the voltage range to deliver the optimum charge voltage to recharge the battery

    7Control apparatus for hybrid vehicleControl apparatus for hybrid vehicle, has power control device executing zero power control which balances input and output power of storage unit based on current value, when damping control device executes damping controlIn a control apparatus for a hybrid vehicle which is able to travel under the driving force from at least one of an internal-combustion engine E and a drive motor connected to the internal-combustion engine, when an FI/AT/MGECU and a MOTECU execute motorUS20050038576JP2005065409August 12, 2003JPN/AN/AHara, Kazuhiro; Kawachi-gun, JapanAsakawa, Masanobu; Utsunomiya-shi, JapanG06F 7/00Honda Motor Co., Ltd.ParallelNickel-hydrogen battery - 144VoltsAuxiliary battery - 12VoltsWhen a driving force is transmitted from the driving wheel to the motor at the time of deceleration of the hybrid vehicle, the motor functions as a generator to generate regenerative braking, and the kinetic energy of the vehicle body is recovered as elecA drive motor connected to the engine, instead of the power generation unit and the electrical drive unit.The power drive unit during the regenerative operation of the motor converts three-phase AC power output from the motor into the DC power and the battery is charged.The damping control device executes the damping control which generates the torque for suppressing the engine torque, in the drive motor, the power control device executes the zero power control which balances the input power and the output power in the bThe input and the output power of the battery are balanced by means of the zero power control for the battery terminal so that the state of charge SOC of the battery can be maintained at the constant value.Nickel-hydrogen battery (144V) is charged when a driving force is transmitted from the driving wheel to the motor at the time of deceleration of the hybrid vehicle. A drive motor connected to the engine, instead of the power generation unit and the electr

    8Hybrid car with electric and heat engineHybrid car with electric and heat engine - has battery charging power derived from electric motor acting as generator driven by rear wheels while in heat engine modeAn apparatus for economical travel and minimization of atmospheric degradation by internal combustion exhaust products. A car which has, in combination, a heat engine driving a set of front wheels, storage batteries and an electric motor driving a set ofUS4351405JP54126323EP0004194March 13, 1978US85 (From 1980-09-17 till 2003-10-03)US6919725 Midtronics, Inc. 2003-10-03US6913483 Midtronics, Inc. 2003-06-23US6933727 Midtronics, Inc. 2003-03-25US6891378 Midtronics, Inc. 2003-03-25US6888468 Midtronics, Inc. 2003-01-22US6781382 Midtr13US4180138 Dana Corporation 1977-09-30US4090577 1977-04-18US4042056 Automobile Corporation of America 1975-11-21US4025860 Agency of Industrial Science & Technology 1974-09-14US3837419 Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 1972-05-16USFields, Gerald M.; Brentwood, CAMetzner, Robert G.; Beverly Hills, CAB60K 41/00(B60K 41/00; B60K 7/00; )Hybricon Inc.ParallelMain battery: Lead-acid batteryThe battery charging configuration occurs in two circumstances only: when the vehicle is in heat engine drive, and when the vehicle is in electric drive with accelerator pedal undepressed (i.e. regenerative braking configuration). Battery charging occursElectric motors acting as generatorsn/aThe overdrive system controls current in the start field. Two zener diodes of differing breakdown voltages control two relays one of which causes insertion of a resistor in series with the start field reducing the current. The other relay causes a completOvercharge control system senses the charging voltage and grounds the summing junction when the charging voltage on main battery rises above defined volts.The high voltage lead-acid battery is charge when the vehicle is in heat engine drive and during electric drive (regenerative breaking configuration). Electric motor acting as a generator supply electric power to charge battery. Battery charging rate is s

    9POWER GENERATION CONTROL DEVICE FOR HYBRID VEHICLEPURPOSE: To increase a cruising distance at the time of charging a battery, to eliminate overdischarge and overcharge and to prevent the deterioration of a characteristic. CONSTITUTION: This device relates to a series hybrid vehicle having a generatorJP08289407US5786640February 13, 1995JP54US6956298 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. 2003-01-22US6853893 STMicroelectronics S.r.l. 2002-10-29US6949897 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. 2001-09-21US6588392 Delphi Technologies, Inc. 2001-08-17US6840341 JATCO Ltd 2001-08-07US6877576 Transportation Tec9US5550445 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha 1993-09-24US5469816 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. 1993-09-02US5428274 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha 1991-11-22US5406126 Lauzun Corporation 1991-02-06US5359228 Mitsubishi Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 1Sakai, Shoji; Nishio, JapanOnimaru, Sadahisa; Nishio, JapanInagaki, Mitsuo; Nishio, JapanAsa, Hironori; Nishio, JapanB60L 11/12NIPPON SOKEN INCSeries/parallel composite electric vehicle (SPHV)n/aThe electric motor having both motor and generator that has a function of generating electric power to charge the battery by utilizing a regenerative braking in a deceleration of a hybrid vehicle.Elecric motor having both motor and generator.The motor/generator is electrically connected to a high-voltage battery supplying curent through an inverter.The function switch signal and duty signal are supplied to inverter so that the state of charge of battery is maintained at a constant state.Generator output controller detects the state of charge (SOC) of battery together with its variation .DELTA.SOC every 30 seconds based on the signals sent from battery capacity sensor.The electric motor having both motor and generator has a function of generating electric power to charge the battery by utilizing a regenerative braking in a deceleration of a hybrid vehicle. Generator output controller detects the state of charge (SOC) o

    10CONTROLLER OF SERIES HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLEPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To reduce change of the number of rotations of an engine for output change of a generator and also surely prevent over charging by independently controlling the output of the power generator. SOLUTION: A controller of this seriesJP10084636JP3405084September 10, 1996JPN/AN/AASO TAKESHI;KITADA SHINICHIRO;KIKUCHI TOSHIO;HIRANO HIROYUKI;INADA EIJI;KANEKO YUTARO;H02J 7/00(H02J 7/00; B60L 3/00; B60L 11/02; B60L 11/12; B60L 11/14; H02J 7/14; H02P 9/04; )NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDSeriesn/aGenerator driven with the IC engine charges the DC-battery.GeneratorThe converter is installed in the output side of a generator, and AC/DC conversion of the output which a generator generates is carried out.The maximum power generation output of generator and the maximum number of rotations of engine is restricted depending on the battery condition by the generator output controller.The DC-battery is equipped with the DC-battery condition detecting element which detects the electrical potential difference, temperature, and remaining capacity.Generator driven with the IC engine charges the DC-battery. The DC-battery is equipped with the condition detecting element which detects the electrical potential difference, temperature and remaining capacity (SOC) of the battery. Overcharging is prevent

    11CONTROL APPARATUS FOR POWER GENERATION OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLEPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To ensure electric power according to a running drive force and to maintain the performance of the motive force of a vehicle by a method, wherein a power generation operation by a prime mover and that by a generator are controlled onJP10295045JP3536581US5945808April 16, 1997JP21US6937484 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. 2002-12-20US6909200 Azure Dynamics Inc. 2002-02-28US6907948 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 1999-09-22US6817432 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. 2001-05-16US6757598 Aisin AW Co., Ltd. 2001-08-01US6702052 Hond5US5708352 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. 1993-12-07US5650713 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. 1994-07-01US5608310 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha 1994-04-20US5550445 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha 1993-09-24US5543703 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. 1993-12-24Kikuchi, Toshio; Kanagawa, JapanKitada, Shinichiro; Tokyo, JapanHirano, Hiroyuki; Kanagawa, JapanInada, Eiji; Yokohama, JapanAso, Takeshi; Kanagawa, JapanIdoguchi, Ryuichi; Yokohama, JapanKaneko, Yutaro; Kanagawa, JapanH02J 7/00NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDSeriesGenerator driven by an engine to provide electric power for charging the battery pack and charging of the battery is also done by the regenerative electric power.GeneratorA converter converts three-phase AC electricity to DC electricity. The generator may take the form of a DC generator. In this case, the converter is not needed.The battery management provide an actuator command for control of electric power input upon charging the battery pack in response to the current value of BT (battery temperature).A controller finds the charging amount SOC of the battery on the basis of the terminal voltage VB and the temperature TB of the battery.Generator driven by an engine to provide electric power for charging the battery pack. Charging of the battery is also done by the regenerative electric power. The battery management determines a current value of battery temperature (BT) of the battery pa

    12POWER GENERATION CONTROLLER FOR HYBRID VEHICLEPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To control generated power of a engine-drive generator so that the power may always satisfy the required power performance of a vehicle, while preventing the overcharge and overdischarge of a battery. SOLUTION: A power generationJP11136808October 31, 1997JP3US6504327 2003-01-07 Suzuki Motor CorporationUS6469403 2002-10-22 Suzuki Motor CorporationUS6429613 2002-08-06 Mitsubishi Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaN/AINADA EIJI;KITADA SHINICHIRO;KIKUCHI TOSHIO;HIRANO HIROYUKI;ASO TAKESHI;IDOGUCHI RYUICHI;KANEKO YUTARO;B60L 11/12NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDSeriesn/aThe battery is charged from the power generated by the generator and regeneration power from a motor.Engine-drive generator generates the powerThe power generated by the engine driven generator is supplied to a dc-battery and/or a drive motor through a power converter.A controll unit with a microcomputer controls the charge/discharge of the DC-battery by controlling the generated power of the generator based on the discriminated results of the state of the DC-battery.DC-battery condition distinction means distinguish the condition of a DC-battery and a generated output decision means opt for the generated output by the engine driven generator based on the distinction result by the dc-battery condition distinction meanThe battery is charged from the power generated by the engine-drive generator and regeneration power from motor. DC-battery condition distinction means distinguish the condition of a DC-battery. A generated output decision means opt for the generated outp

    13CONTROLLER OF HYBRID VEHICLEControl device for hybrid vehicle uses engine and motor generator efficiently to propel vehicle or, with inverter, charge vehicle battery and supply electric loads during regenerative brakingPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain the controller of a hybrid vehicle, where its engine and its motor-generator having as a power source a high-voltage battery are provided, and when charging by its motor-generator in the case of its deceleration the high-voJP2001078306EP1080983US6452286September 2, 1999JP4US6870336 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 2001-09-10US6856866 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. 2000-12-04US6690140 International Truck Intellectual Property Company, LLC 2001-08-30US6541876 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 2000-13US6316842 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 1999-03-09US6020697 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 1997-11-14US5998884 Denso Corporation 1997-10-24US5986416 1997-12-09US5925938 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. 1997-03-05US5883496 ToyKubo, Asami; Yokohama, JapanTamura, Hideyuki; Yokohama, JapanMatsumoto, Mikio; Yokohama, JapanGoto, Kenichi; Yamato, JapanB60L 11/14NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDParallelHigh voltage battery: Lead-acid battery - 42VLow voltage battery: Lead-add battery - 14VWhen the vehicle is decelerating, the motor-generator generates electric power as a generator to recover the energy of inertia of the vehicle while it is running, charges the battery, and supplies current to other electric loads.An electric motor functions as a generator (motor-generator)Triphase AC generated by the motor-generator is converted to DC by an inverter and is supplied to the high voltage battery via a junction box.Control unit - MicroprocessorCharging current detecting unit detects the actual charging current of the motor-generator and actual charging current to the high voltage battery by a current sensor.The high voltage battery (lead-acid - 42V) is charged by an electric motor which functions as a generator during vehicle deceleration. The AC generated by the generator is converted to DC by an inverter. SOC of DC-battery is detected by a current sensor w

    14HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL DEVICEHybrid vehicle control device has controller to limit charging amount of battery, when overcharging condition of battery is detectedPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To prevent overcharging and to control deterioration of a battery by converting the surplus torque of an engine into electric power generated by an electric motor that functions as a generator to charge the battery when a hybrid vehiJP2001268707March 21, 2000JPN/AN/AGOTO KENICHI;KUBO ASAMI;B60L 11/14(B60L 11/14; B60K 6/02; B60L 3/00; B60L 11/18; F02D 17/00; F02D 29/02; F02D 41/04; F02D 41/06; F02D 45/00; H01M 10/44; H02J 7/00; H02J 7/10; )NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDParallelHigh voltage battery: Plumbic-acid battery - 42VLow voltage battery: Plumbic-acid battery - 14VElectric motor that functions as a generator to charge the battery when a hybrid vehicle is restarted after an idling stop released.Electirc motor function as a generatorTriphase AC generated by the motor-generator is converted to DC by an inverter and is supplied to the high voltage battery via a junction box.The charge of a DC-battery is restricted to a proper amount by restricting the IC engine output torque, if the charging level SOC is higher than a given value.When start conditions are met, the charging level SOC of the battery is detected by the current sensor.High voltage battery (plumbic-acid - 42V) is charged by an electric motor that functions as a generator when a hybrid vehicle is restarted after an idling stop released. The charging level of SOC is detected by current sensor and if the charging level SOC

    15POWER SUPPLY FOR HYBRID VEHICLEPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To start the engine of a vehicle with a low-cost system, when a driving battery is overcharged.SOLUTION: The power supply for a hybrid vehicle is provided with a battery system 1, comprising a drive battery 2 that drives a motor 3 fJP2001218306US6392380EP1122857CN1319514January 31, 2000JP2US6943525 Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. 2002-02-26US6806588 Hitachi, Ltd. 2000-03-012US6232743 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. 1997-09-09US5934396 Aisin AW Co., Ltd. 1995-12-08FURUKAWA TADASHI;TOYA SHOICHI;H02J 7/00;SANYO ELECTRIC CO LTDSeriesThe driving battery is charged by a generator. The generator is driven by the engine or by regenerative braking which uses inertial force to drive the generator when the automobile is stopping.This drive cell is charged with a generator.An inverter changes the output of a generator into a DC of the charge electrical potential difference of the drive cell, and charges the drive cell with the output of a generator.The cell control circuit controls the charge circuit, if the remaining capacity of the drive cell turns into capacity which can put an engine into operation, charge of the drive cell will be stopped.The DC-battery system detects the remaining capacity of the derive cell and the cell for the electrical as it is also in the cell control circuit. If drive cell capacity is less and cell for electrical is larger than the set point, it charges the cell driThe drive cell has connected many battery modules (nickel-cadmium battery or lithium-ion battery) in serial. The DC-battery system is equipped with the drive cell. The cell control circuit carries out charge and discharge of a drive cell which is built inA hybrid car runs by driving wheels with an engine and an electric motor. A driving battery is installed as the power source to drive the electric motor. This driving battery is charged by a generator. The generator is driven by the engine or by regenerat

    16Control apparatus for hybrid vehicleBattery controller of hybrid vehicle, sets upper and lower limit voltages during motor operation, depending on discharge rate of main batteries during shutdownA hybrid vehicle includes an engine and a motor disposed therein as a vehicle-propelling system, the motor being connected to an output shaft and having both driving and power-generating functions. The vehicle includes an engine control apparatus which coUS6504327DE10116314JP2001292506April 5, 2000JP1US6879888 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 2001-11-057US6397601 Suzuki Motor Corporation 2000-04-28US6366059 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 1999-07-30US6336063 Volvo Car Corporation 2000-10-31US6314346 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 1998-12-07US6209672 Paice Corporation 1998-09-14USOmata, Yoshiaki; Shizuoka-ken, JapanMorimoto, Kazuhiko; Shizuoka-ken, JapanH02P 7/622(H02P 7/622; B60K 6/04; )Suzuki Motor CorporationParallelMain battery: Lead storage battery - 192VSub-battery: Conventional 12V vehicle battery.In the traveling mode in an idling power-generating control state, the motor control means assumes control over the motor so as to permit the motor to generate power and thus charge the main battery.Electric motorn/aThe main battery open-circuit voltage limits control charge and discharge of the main battery.Motor control means detects the open-circuit voltage of the main battery, and both upper and lower limit-determining voltage values for motor driving are set for the main battery according to the main battery open-circuit voltage.The battery (lead storage - 192V) is charged by generated electric power from the electric motor which is having both driving and power-generating functions. The motor control means has a function to detect an open-circuit voltage of a main battery when m

    17Generator controller and controlling method for hybrid vehicleController for generator mounted on hybrid vehicle - compares battery voltage with predetermined value and when battery voltage is lower than predetermined value state of charge of battery is discriminated preventing overcharging of batteryEP0645278US5550445DE69415754JP3094745JP7095703September 24, 1993JP35US6837320 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 2001-11-30US6757598 Aisin AW Co., Ltd. 2001-08-01US6362602 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. 2001-05-03US6624529 Denso Corporation 2000-12-28US6441574 Ford Motor Company 2000-10-27US6429613 Mi9US5264764 Ford Motor Company 1992-12-21US5301764 1992-04-13US5280232 Robert Bosch GmbH 1990-11-30US5081365 1990-06-06US5212431 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. 1990-05-23US4459489 General Motors Corporation 1982-09-30US4413698 198Nii, Yoshihide; Fuji, JapanB60L 11/02(H02D 5/20; B60K 1/00)TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHASeriesLead batteryThe generator is a three-phase AC generator driven by an engine, output of the generator is used for charging the battery.Generator supply electric power to the batteryThree-phase AC generator driven by an engine out put of which is rectified by a rectifier and the obtained DC current is input to the inverter and then in to the battery.When the heavy load state is detected, the generator output is controlled to be increased and the output of the motor is restricted. When the heavy load state is not detected, the increase control of the generator output and the output limit of the motorVoltage sensor and an SOC sensor detect a voltage and an SOC of the battery and feed the detected results to the controller.Battery (Lead type) is charged by the output of the generator driven by engine. Voltage sensor and SOC sensor detect a voltage and SOC of the battery and feed the detected results to the controller. Overcharge of battery is prevented when the voltage incr

    18CONTROLLER OF SERIES/PARALLEL COMPOSITE ELECTRIC VEHICLEPURPOSE: To avoid the overcharge or overdischarge of a battery by a method wherein, when the charged state of the battery is out of a first control target range, the series hybrid running is forcibly executed. CONSTITUTION: An ECU 32 opens the mechaniJP08098321JP2970427September 29, 1994JPUS6344732 2002-02-05 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaYAMAOKA MASAAKI;B60L 11/14(B60L 11/14; B60K 17/04; B60L 11/12; F02B 61/00)TOYOTA MOTOR CORPSeries/parallel composite electric vehicle (SPHV)n/aA cell receives supply of charge power from the rotating machine (a generator and/or motor) which functions as a generator through an inverter.GeneratorThe power generated by the generator/motor is supplied to the battery through inverter.When the charged state of a battery is out of a first control target range, the ECU makes the SPHV forcibly run as the SHV. With this constitution, even if the PHV running is continued for a long time, the charged state of the battery is controlled with aThe SOC sensor detects SOC of a cell and the voltage sensor detects the electrical potential difference of a cell for the rotational frequency of a motor.The power generated by the generator/motor is supplied to charge the cell through an inverter. The SOC sensor detects SOC of a cell and the voltage sensor detects the electrical potential difference of a cell for the rotational frequency of a motor. In a

    19HYBRID ELECTRIC MOTORCARPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To prevent overcharging by reducing the generation output in the stage where the accumulated voltage of a battery gets over the generation output decrease start voltage computed based on the rise rate of charging voltage, and stoppinJP09200907January 19, 1996JPN/AN/AKAWASHIMA YOSHIHIRO;B60L 11/14(B60L 11/14; B60L 11/12; B60L 11/18; F02D 29/06; H02J 7/00)TOYOTA MOTOR CORPSeriesn/aDC-battery is charged during regenerative braking where kinetic energy is converted into electric energy by generator though inverter.Generator supply electric power to the batteryInverter converts AC power generated in the drive motor to DC.The generation-of-electrical-energy output of a generator is suspended by the time it reaches the electrical-potential-difference upper limit limiting value of the DC-battery.SOC is controlled within proper limits from a viewpoint which aims at reservation of the acceptance nature of regeneration power, and prolongs the life of the DC-battery for transit. If SOC falls from a lower limit, a generator will be operated by the maxDC-battery is charged during regenerative braking where kinetic energy is converted into electric energy by generator though inverter. SOC is controlled within proper limits. If SOC falls from a lower limit, a generator will be operated by the maximum out

    Sheet1

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    August 4, 1992199219781978199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003

    April 30, 1993199319921121323013002

    October 14, 199519951993

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    NISSAN MOTOR1978199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003

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    Assignee

    AQUEOUS RES:KKNISSAN MOTOR5

    AQUEOUS RES:KKAQUEOUS3

    AQUEOUS RES:KKTOYOTA MOTOR3

    BAE SYSTEMS Controls, Inc.LOCKHEAD MARTIN1

    Ford Global Technologies, Inc.FORD MOTOR1

    General Motors CorporationGENERAL MOTOR1

    Honda Motor Co., Ltd.HONDA MOTOR1

    Hybricon Inc.HYBRICON1

    NIPPON SOKEN INCNIPPON1

    NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDSANYO ELECTRIC1

    NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDSUZUKI MOTOR1

    NISSAN MOTOR CO LTD19

    NISSAN MOTOR CO LTD

    NISSAN MOTOR CO LTD

    SANYO ELECTRIC CO LTD

    Suzuki Motor Corporation

    TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA

    TOYOTA MOTOR CORP

    TOYOTA MOTOR CORP

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    JP

    NO

    US

    H02J 7/00CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY

    H02J 7/00Do

    B60L 11/12X

    B60L 11/14X

    B60L 11/14X

    B60K 6/02

    B60L 11/02Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle

    B60L 11/12 (97)

    B60L 11/14 (99 & 02)

    B60L 11/18

    B60L 3/00Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes; Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration, power consumption

    F02D 17/00Controlling engines by cutting-out individual cylinders; Rendering engines inoperative or idling

    F02D 29/02Controlling engines, such controlling being peculiar to the devices driven thereby, the devices being other than parts or accessories essential to engine operation, e.g. controlling of engines by signals external thereto

    F02D 41/04Electrical control of supply of combustible mixture or its constituents

    F02D 41/06

    F02D 45/00

    H01M 10/44 (2000)Methods for charging or discharging (circuits for charging

    H02J 7/00 (96 & 97)Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries

    H02J 7/10using semiconductor devices only

    H02J 7/14 (97)for charging batteries from dynamo-electric generators driven at varying speed, e.g. on vehicle

    H02P 9/04Arrangements for controlling electric generators for the purpose of obtaining a desired output

  • Assignee wise IP activityCompanies with most HEV battery patents are arranged in decreasing order in below graph. Top three players are Nissan motors with (5) patent records to its credit, followed by Toyota with (4) and Acqueous (3). No. of patentsAssignees

    Chart1

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    HEVB overcharging - Analysis

    Record #TitleDerwent titleAbstractPatent numberPriority dateIPCAssigneeAssignee symbolsHEV typeHEV type imagesBattery typeBattery imagesBattery charging systemPower generatorPower generator imagesCurrent converterCurrent control/Current cut-offState of charge detectorDolcera analysisProblemsEffectSolutions

    1HYBRID TYPE VEHICLEN/APURPOSE: To provide a hybrid type vehicle which can cope with a demand for large braking force without using a resistor to release overcharge or excessive electric power continuing to degradation of a battery when an electric motor or an engine is operateJP06055941JP3339589August 4, 1992B60K 6/00AQUEOUS RES:KKAISIN AW CO LTDParallelDC-battery is charged by the regenerative braking power.Motor functions as a generatorNot mentionedA braking control means will use regenerative braking and engine brake together by engaging an electric motor and an engine with a clutch. Thus restricting the overcharging of DC-battery.The DC-battery residue detecting element detects the electrical potential difference of a DC-battery a current, temperature, specific gravity, etc., and calculates a DC-battery residue from each of these data.The DC-battery (lead-acid/nickel-cadmium/sodium sulfur cell/lithium rechargeable battery/hydrogen rechargeable battery/redox type cell - 240V) is charged by the regenerative braking power by the generator. The DC-battery residue detecting element detectsPURPOSE: To provide a hybrid type vehicle which can cope with a demand for large braking force without using a resistor to release overcharge or excessive electric power continuing to degradation of a battery when an electric motor or an engine is operatePower generation - regenerative brakingOvercharging

    2HYBRID VEHICLEN/APURPOSE: To dissipate the heat caused by excessive regenerated electric power efficiently by utilizing an existing radiator without providing a heat radiating resistor. CONSTITUTION: At the time of regenerative braking, an ECU 20 judges the charged stJP06319205April 30, 1993B60L 11/14AQUEOUS RES:KKParallelN/AN/AThe AC power generated in the drive motor at the time of regenerative braking is changed into DC power by the inverter and is stored in a DC-battery.MotorInverter converts AC power generated in the drive motor to DC.Electronic control uint judges the electrical potential difference of a DC-battery is under a predetermined electrical potential difference, regeneration power is supplied to charge DC-battery, if found more than a predetermined electrical potential diffeECU judges the charged state of a battery.The AC power generated in the drive motor at the time of regenerative braking is changed into DC power by the inverter and is stored in a DC-battery. ECU judges the charged state of a battery. Overcharging is prevented by EUC (electronic control unit) whiPURPOSE: To dissipate the heat caused by excessive regenerated electric power efficiently by utilizing an existing radiator without providing a heat radiating resistor.CONSTITUTION: At the time of regenerative braking, an ECU 20 judges the charged statePower generations - regenerative brakingOvercharging

    3HYBRID VEHICLEHybrid vehicle - includes generator controller which operates generator at number of revolution corresponding to number of revolutions of internal combustion engine set by engine rotation controllerPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To improve the power efficiency of a hybrid vehicle and to improve the drive efficiency of the engine. SOLUTION: The hybrid vehicle comprises an engine 11, a generator 16, and an output shaft 14 coupled via a planetary gear unitJP09117010JP3132372October 14, 1995B60L 11/14AQUEOUS RES:KKSeriesN/AN/AThe charge to a DC-battery is provided by the generating power from a generator, and the regeneration power from the drive motor at the time of braking.Generator supply electric power to the batteryn/aThe generator control means controls the rotational frequency of generator according to the rotational frequency controlled by this engine revolving-speed-control means.The DC-battery sensor which is a charge capacity detection means to detect the charge residue SOC of a dc-battery.The DC-battery is charged by the generating power from a generator and the regeneration power from the drive motor at the time of braking. The DC-battery sensor which is charge capacity detection means detects the charge residue SOC of a dc-battery. The gPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To improve the power efficiency of a hybrid vehicle and to improve the drive efficiency of the engine. SOLUTION: The hybrid vehicle comprises an engine 11, a generator 16, and an output shaft 14 coupled via a planetary gear unitPower management - Generator controlOver charging or over discharging

    4Method for maintaining the charge capacity of traction battery modules of a hybrid electric vehicleCharge capacity maintenance method for traction battery modules in hybrid electric vehicle - involves charging one of traction modules based on control of programmed processor in non-operating state of vehicle and discharging it partially, by operating veA hybrid electric vehicle includes a lead-acid traction battery made up of a plurality of series-connected modules. During operation of the vehicle, the traction battery is discharged for acceleration, and charged by an ancillary power source. The tractioEP0913288CA2252231DE69806885DES2181109JP11289605NO985046US5828201October 30, 1997B60K 6/04Lockheed Martin CorporationSeriesThe traction battery includes modules of two series-connected 12-volt batteries (lead-sulfuric-acid)Energy controller controls the generation of electrical power by engine and generator and routes the power generated to the traction battery. The partial charging of selected moudule takes place in traction battery.GeneratorEnergy controller utilize dc-to-dc converter which is capable of converting the voltage of auxiliary battery into a voltage capable of charging the selected module.Recharging is controlled by programmed processor of fully charging one module of the traction battery, but not all modules of the traction battery simultaneously with the full charging of the selected module, and then intentionally partially discharging tn/aThe battery is made up of lead-sulfuric-acid of two series-connected 12V and partial charging of selected modules takes place from the power supplied by the engine and generator. Overcharging/recharging of battery modules is controlled by programmed procePROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a further improved method for maintaining battery of a hybrid electric vehicle. SOLUTION: A hybrid electric vehicle 10 includes a lead acid traction battery made up of series connected modules. During the operation of theThis invention relates to methods for maintaining the charge state of the traction battery of a hybrid electric vehicle.Power management - Maintaining the charge capacity of traction battery modulesDischarging

    5Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicleStarter/alternator system for hybrid electric vehicle, has controller which compares state of charge of battery to established threshold levels, for determining starter/alternator operation.A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (US6583599CA2360995DE10153509GB0123907GB2371688GB2371688November 3, 2000H02J 7/00Ford Global Technologies, Inc.SeriesN/AN/AThe charge on threshold allows the battery to be charged by the starter/alternator acting as a generator and also through regenerative breaking.Started/alternator acting as a generatorPower inverter coupled to the battery converts AC power to DC power in power generation mode.The regenerative braking off threshold prevents the battery from becoming overcharged.Vehicle system controller has a (SOC) manager that monitors the state of charge of energy storage device. Various thresholds levels are set for the different modes of operation.The battery is charge based on the charge on threshold which allows the battery to be charged by the starter/alternator acting as a generator and also through regenerative breaking. Power inverter coupled to the battery converts AC power to DC power in poIn a further aspect of the invention, a system for an automotive vehicle having an internal combustion engine, an energy storage device and a starter/alternator coupled to the engine includes a controller coupled to the starter/alternator and to the energIt is therefore one object of the invention to create calibrateable state-of-charge boundary parameters for this state-of-charge management algorithm for the primary purpose of operating the hybrid electric vehicle in the desired hybrid operating mode, whFluctuating hybrid operating modeOvercharging

    6Method of improving fuel economyFuel control method for vehicle involves reducing nominal optimum charging voltage to minimum charging voltage value when state of charge of battery is higher than predetermined level and current is within predetermined rangeA fuel economy control method includes estimating a temperature of a battery, measuring a current of the battery, and measuring a voltage of the battery. A nominal optimum charging voltage is determined as a function of a state of charge (SOC) of the battUS6809501March 11, 2003H01M 10/44General Motors CorporationSeriesN/AN/AWhen the automobile is idling in slow traffic with high electrical loads discharging the battery, the voltage regulator sets the generator output voltage near the upper end of the voltage range and recharge the battery.The generator delivers the optimum charge voltage to the battery to recharge the battery.n/aWhen the battery is fully recharged while the engine is running, the voltage regulator reduces the generator output voltage near the low end of the voltage range.The ADC (analog-to-digital converter) is used by the BCM (body control module) to periodically sense the voltage level of the battery via the JB (junction block) to enable the BCM (body control module) to estimate the SOC of the battery.When the automobile is idling in slow traffic with high electrical loads discharging the battery, the voltage regulator sets the generator output voltage near the upper end of the voltage range to deliver the optimum charge voltage to recharge the batteryThe present invention provides a fuel economy control method that measures current supplied by a battery. A state of charge (SOC) of the battery is determined. A nominal optimum charging voltage of the battery is determined. The nominal optimum charging vPower generation - Idling in slow traffic with high electrical loadsOverchargingRegulating o/p voltage of generator based on BT and SOC of battery.

    7Control apparatus for hybrid vehicleControl apparatus for hybrid vehicle, has power control device executing zero power control which balances input and output power of storage unit based on current value, when damping control device executes damping controlIn a control apparatus for a hybrid vehicle which is able to travel under the driving force from at least one of an internal-combustion engine E and a drive motor connected to the internal-combustion engine, when an FI/AT/MGECU and a MOTECU execute motorUS20050038576JP2005065409August 12, 2003G06F 7/00Honda Motor Co., Ltd.ParallelNickel-hydrogen battery - 144VoltsAuxiliary battery - 12VoltsWhen a driving force is transmitted from the driving wheel to the motor at the time of deceleration of the hybrid vehicle, the motor functions as a generator to generate regenerative braking, and the kinetic energy of the vehicle body is recovered as elecA drive motor connected to the engine, instead of the power generation unit and the electrical drive unit.The power drive unit during the regenerative operation of the motor converts three-phase AC power output from the motor into the DC power and the battery is charged.The damping control device executes the damping control which generates the torque for suppressing the engine torque, in the drive motor, the power control device executes the zero power control which balances the input power and the output power in the bThe input and the output power of the battery are balanced by means of the zero power control for the battery terminal so that the state of charge SOC of the battery can be maintained at the constant value.Nickel-hydrogen battery (144V) is charged when a driving force is transmitted from the driving wheel to the motor at the time of deceleration of the hybrid vehicle. A drive motor connected to the engine, instead of the power generation unit and the electrTo provide a controller of hybrid vehicle capable of suppressing torque oscillation of an engine while protecting an energy storage device. SOLUTION: In the controller of a hybrid vehicle travelable with at least one power from an internal combustion engIn the control apparatus for a hybrid vehicle comprising the above construction, when the damping control device executes the damping control which generates the torque for suppressing the engine torque, in the drive motor, the power control device executPower management - Suppressing the engine torque vibration while protecting the power storage unit.Overcharge or over discharge

    8Hybrid car with electric and heat engineHybrid car with electric and heat engine - has battery charging power derived from electric motor acting as generator driven by rear wheels while in heat engine modeAn apparatus for economical travel and minimization of atmospheric degradation by internal combustion exhaust products. A car which has, in combination, a heat engine driving a set of front wheels, storage batteries and an electric motor driving a set ofUS4351405JP54126323EP0004194March 13, 1978B60K 41/00Hybricon Inc.ParallelMain battery: Lead-acid batteryThe battery charging configuration occurs in two circumstances only: when the vehicle is in heat engine drive, and when the vehicle is in electric drive with accelerator pedal undepressed (i.e. regenerative braking configuration). Battery charging occursElectric motors acting as generatorsn/aThe overdrive system controls current in the start field. Two zener diodes of differing breakdown voltages control two relays one of which causes insertion of a resistor in series with the start field reducing the current. The other relay causes a completOvercharge control system senses the charging voltage and grounds the summing junction when the charging voltage on main battery rises above volts.The high voltage lead-acid battery is charge when the vehicle is in heat engine drive and during electric drive (regenerative breaking configuration). Electric motor acting as a generator supply electric power to charge battery. Battery charging rate is sAn apparatus for economical travel and minimization of atmospheric degradation by internal combustion exhaust products. A car which has, in combination, a heat engine driving a set of front wheels, storage batteries and an electric motor driving a set ofHigh speedAs the main battery 12 recharges, its voltage rises. To prevent overcharging and damage to the battery, an overcharge control system 156 senses the charging voltage and grounds the summing junction 149 when the charging voltage on main batteryPower generation - High speed and long distance travelOvercharging

    9POWER GENERATION CONTROL DEVICE FOR HYBRID VEHICLEElectric generator controller for hybrid vehicle - controls generated output power of generator, based on charging and discharging state of battery which is charged by generatorPURPOSE: To increase a cruising distance at the time of charging a battery, to eliminate overdischarge and overcharge and to prevent the deterioration of a characteristic.CONSTITUTION: This device relates to a series hybrid vehicle having a generator 30JP08289407US5786640February 13, 1995B60L 11/12NIPPON SOKEN INCSeries/parallel composite electric vehicle (SPHV)N/AN/AThe electric motor having both motor and generator that has a function of generating electric power to charge the battery by utilizing a regenerative braking in a deceleration of a hybrid vehicle.Elecric motor having both motor and generator.The motor/generator is electrically connected to a high-voltage battery supplying curent through an inverter.The function switch signal and duty signal are supplied to inverter so that the state of charge of battery is maintained at a constant state.Generator output controller detects the state of charge (SOC) of battery together with its variation .DELTA.SOC every 30 seconds based on the signals sent from battery capacity sensor.The electric motor having both motor and generator has a function of generating electric power to charge the battery by utilizing a regenerative braking in a deceleration of a hybrid vehicle. Generator output controller detects the state of charge (SOC) oPURPOSE: To increase a cruising distance at the time of charging a battery, to eliminate overdischarge and overcharge and to prevent the deterioration of a characteristic. CONSTITUTION: This device relates to a series hybrid vehicle having a generatorThe invention relates to a generator control system for hybrid vehicles capable of providing an extended cruising distance without losing the benefits of an electric car, suppressing harmful emission during the rapid acceleration, and optimizing energy loPower generation - High speedOver charging or over discharging

    10CONTROLLER OF SERIES HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLESpeed controller of hybrid vehicle - has IC engine control unit that regulates number of rotations of IC engine such that its speed is below computed maximum IC engine speedPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To reduce change of the number of rotations of an engine for output change of a generator and also surely prevent over charging by independently controlling the output of the power generator.SOLUTION: A controller of this series hybJP10084636JP3405084September 10, 1996H02J 7/00NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDSeriesN/AN/AGenerator driven with the IC engine charges the DC-battery.GeneratorThe converter is installed in the output side of a generator, and AC/DC conversion of the output which a generator generates is carried out.The maximum power generation output of generator and the maximum number of rotations of engine is restricted depending on the battery condition by the generator output controller.The DC-battery is equipped with the DC-battery condition detecting element which detects the electrical potential difference, temperature, and remaining capacity.Generator driven with the IC engine charges the DC-battery. The DC-battery is equipped with the condition detecting element which detects the electrical potential difference, temperature and remaining capacity (SOC) of the battery. Overcharging is preventPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To reduce change of the number of rotations of an engine for output change of a generator and also surely prevent over charging by independently controlling the output of the power generator.SOLUTION: A controller of this series hybPower management -Overcharging

    11CONTROL APPARATUS FOR POWER GENERATION OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLEPower generation controller for hybrid electric vehicle - regulates operation of engine and generator based on output signals of sensors and maximum power generation characteristicsPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To ensure electric power according to a running drive force and to maintain the performance of the motive force of a vehicle by a method, wherein a power generation operation by a prime mover and that by a generator are controlled onJP10295045JP3536581US5945808April 16, 1997H02J 7/00NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDSeriesGenerator driven by an engine to provide electric power for charging the battery pack and charging of the battery is also done by the regenerative electric power.GeneratorA converter converts three-phase AC electricity to DC electricity. The generator may take the form of a DC generator. In this case, the converter is not needed.The battery management provide an actuator command for control of electric power input upon charging the battery pack in response to the current value of BT (battery temperature).A controller finds the charging amount SOC of the battery on the basis of the terminal voltage VB and the temperature TB of the battery.Generator driven by an engine to provide electric power for charging the battery pack. Charging of the battery is also done by the regenerative electric power. The battery management determines a current value of battery temperature (BT) of the battery paPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To ensure electric power according to a running drive force and to maintain the performance of the motive force of a vehicle by a method, wherein a power generation operation by a prime mover and that by a generator are controlled onThe present invention relates to a hybrid electric vehicle and more particularly to a battery management for controlling electric power in charging a battery pack.

    An object of the present invention is to provide a battery management for a hybrid electrPower generations - power generation operation by a prime moverOvercharging

    12POWER GENERATION CONTROLLER FOR HYBRID VEHICLEElectricity generation controller for hybrid vehicles - judges whether maximum generated output from engine drive generator is received by battery or whether maximum regeneration of electric power is performed during charging and discharging respectivelyPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To control generated power of a engine-drive generator so that the power may always satisfy the required power performance of a vehicle, while preventing the overcharge and overdischarge of a battery. SOLUTION: A power generationJP11136808October 31, 1997B60L 11/12NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDSeriesN/AN/AThe battery is charged from the power generated by the generator and regeneration power from a motor.Engine-drive generator generates the powerThe power generated by the engine driven generator is supplied to a dc-battery and/or a drive motor through a power converter.A controll unit with a microcomputer controls the charge/discharge of the DC-battery by controlling the generated power of the generator based on the discriminated results of the state of the DC-battery.DC-battery condition distinction means distinguish the condition of a DC-battery and a generated output decision means opt for the generated output by the engine driven generator based on the distinction result by the dc-battery condition distinction meanThe battery is charged from the power generated by the engine-drive generator and regeneration power from motor. DC-battery condition distinction means distinguish the condition of a DC-battery. A generated output decision means opt for the generated outpPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To control generated power of a engine-drive generator so that the power may always satisfy the required power performance of a vehicle, while preventing the overcharge and overdischarge of a battery. SOLUTION: A power generationPower management - (Electric current generation)Overcharging and/or over discharging

    13CONTROLLER OF HYBRID VEHICLEControl device for hybrid vehicle uses engine and motor generator efficiently to propel vehicle or, with inverter, charge vehicle battery and supply electric loads during regenerative brakingPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain the controller of a hybrid vehicle, where its engine and its motor-generator having as a power source a high-voltage battery are provided, and when charging by its motor-generator in the case of its deceleration the high-voJP2001078306EP1080983US6452286September 2, 1999B60L 11/14NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDParallelHigh voltage battery: Lead-acid battery - 42VLow voltage battery: Lead-add battery - 14VWhen the vehicle is decelerating, the motor-generator generates electric power as a generator to recover the energy of inertia of the vehicle while it is running, charges the battery, and supplies current to other electric loads.An electric motor functions as a generator (motor-generator)Triphase AC generated by the motor-generator is converted to DC by an inverter and is supplied to the high voltage battery via a junction box.Control unit - MicroprocessorCharging current detecting unit detects the actual charging current of the motor-generator and actual charging current to the high voltage battery by a current sensor.The high voltage battery (lead-acid - 42V) is charged by an electric motor which functions as a generator during vehicle deceleration. The AC generated by the generator is converted to DC by an inverter. SOC of DC-battery is detected by a current sensor wPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain the controller of a hybrid vehicle, where its engine and its motor-generator having as a power source a high-voltage battery are provided, and when charging by its motor-generator in the case of its deceleration the high-voIt is therefore an object of this invention to prevent overcharging of the battery, prevent deterioration of the battery due to overcharge% and to prevent the deceleration from becoming too large during energy recovery when the vehicle is decelerating.

    IPower generation - regenerative brakingOvercharging

    14HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL DEVICEHybrid vehicle control device has controller to limit charging amount of battery, when overcharging condition of battery is detectedPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To prevent overcharging and to control deterioration of a battery by converting the surplus torque of an engine into electric power generated by an electric motor that functions as a generator to charge the battery when a hybrid vehiJP2001268707March 21, 2000B60L 11/14NISSAN MOTOR CO LTDParallelHigh voltage battery: Plumbic-acid battery - 42VLow voltage battery: Plumbic-acid battery - 14VElectric motor that functions as a generator to charge the battery when a hybrid vehicle is restarted after an idling stop released.Electirc motor function as a generatorTriphase AC generated by the motor-generator is converted to DC by an inverter and is supplied to the high voltage battery via a junction box.The charge of a DC-battery is restricted to a proper amount by restricting the IC engine output torque, if the charging level SOC is higher than a given value.When start conditions are met, the charging level SOC of the battery is detected by the current sensor.High voltage battery (plumbic-acid - 42V) is charged by an electric motor that functions as a generator when a hybrid vehicle is restarted after an idling stop released. The charging level of SOC is detected by current sensor and if the charging level SOCPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To prevent overcharging and to control deterioration of a battery by converting the surplus torque of an engine into electric power generated by an electric motor that functions as a generator to charge the battery when a hybrid vehiPower generations - Restarted after an idiling stop releasedOverchargingConverting surplus torque of an engine into electric power to charge battery (i.e. Restarted after an idiling stop released)Detecting SOC of battery and controlling the output torque of the engine if the charge level SOC is higher than the given value

    15POWER SUPPLY FOR HYBRID VEHICLEHybrid car power supply apparatus comprises charging circuit which charges driving battery with automotive battery when remaining driving battery capacity becomes lowPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To start the engine of a vehicle with a low-cost system, when a driving battery is overcharged.SOLUTION: The power supply for a hybrid vehicle is provided with a battery system 1, comprising a drive battery 2 that drives a motor 3 fJP2001218306US6392380EP1122857CN1319514January 31, 2000H02J 7/00;SANYO ELECTRIC CO LTDSeriesThe DC-battery system is equipped with the drive cell, the cell control circuit carries out charge and discharge of a drive cell which is built in a DC-battery system.This drive cell is charged with a generator.An inverter changes the output of a generator into a DC of the charge electrical potential difference of the drive cell, and charges the drive cell with the output of a generator.The cell control circuit controls the charge circuit, if the remaining capacity of the drive cell turns into capacity which can put an engine into operation, charge of the drive cell will be stopped.The DC-battery system detects the remaining capacity of the derive cell and the cell for the electrical as it is also in the cell control circuit. If drive cell capacity is less and cell for electrical is larger than the set point, it charges the cell driThe drive cell has connected many battery modules (nickel-cadmium battery or lithium-ion battery) in serial. The DC-battery system is equipped with the drive cell. The cell control circuit carries out charge and discharge of a drive cell which is built inPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To start the engine of a vehicle with a low-cost system, when a driving battery is overcharged.SOLUTION: The power supply for a hybrid vehicle is provided with a battery system 1, comprising a drive battery 2 that drives a motor 3 fThe present invention was developed to resolve these types of problems. Thus it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a hybrid car power supply apparatus which can charge the driving battery with an automotive electrical system battery aPower supply - Starting the engine when the driving battery has been over-discharged.OverchargingStarting the engine when the driving battery has been over-discharged.

    16Control apparatus for hybrid vehicleBattery controller of hybrid vehicle, sets upper and lower limit voltages during motor operation, depending on discharge rate of main batteries during shutdownA hybrid vehicle includes an engine and a motor disposed therein as a vehicle-propelling system, the motor being connected to an output shaft and having both driving and power-generating functions. The vehicle includes an engine control apparatus which coUS6504327DE10116314JP2001292506April 5, 2000H02P 7/622Suzuki Motor CorporationParallelMain battery: Lead storage battery - 192VSub-battery: Conventional 12V vehicle battery.In the traveling mode in an idling power-generating control state, the motor control means assumes control over the motor so as to permit the motor to generate power and thus charge the main battery.Electric motorn/aThe main battery open-circuit voltage limits control charge and discharge of the main battery.Motor control means detects the open-circuit voltage of the main battery, and both upper and lower limit-determining voltage values for motor driving are set for the main battery according to the main battery open-circuit voltage.The battery (lead storage - 192V) is charged by generated electric power from the electric motor which is having both driving and power-generating functions. The motor control means has a function to detect an open-circuit voltage of a main battery when mPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To achieve a hybrid vehicle control device, that is capable of preventing overcharging and overdischarging of a main battery and that enables extension of service life of the battery, so that reliability of the entire system can be iThis invention relates to a control apparatus of a hybrid vehicle, and particularly to a control apparatus that sets both upper and lower limit-determining voltages according to a main battery open-circuit voltage, which can increase battery life by preveMotor driving stop or off - Fluctuating hybrid operating modeOvercharging and/or over dischargingDetecting the open-circuit voltage of a main battery, when the motor operation is stopped and setting the upper limit and lower limit voltage when the motor is operated according to the open-circuit voltage of the main battery

    17Generator controller and controlling method for hybrid vehicleController for generator mounted on hybrid vehicle - compares battery voltage with predetermined value and when battery voltage is lower than predetermined value state of charge of battery is discriminated preventing overcharging of batteryA generator controller and controlling method of a hybrid vehicle. A battery voltage is compared with a predetermined value and when the battery voltage is lower than the predetermined value as a result of the comparison, an state of charge of the batteryEP0645278US5550445DE69415754JP3094745JP7095703September 24, 1993B60L 11/02TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHASeriesLead batteryThe generator is a three-phase AC generator driven by an engine, output of the generator is used for charging the battery.Generator supply electric power to the batteryThree-phase AC generator driven by an engine out put of which is rectified by a rectifier and the obtained DC current is input to the inverter and then in to the battery.When the heavy load state is detected, the generator output is controlled to be increased and the output of the motor is restricted. When the heavy load state is not detected, the increase control of the generator output and the output limit of the motorVoltage sensor and an SOC sensor detect a voltage and an SOC of the battery and feed the detected results to the controller.Battery (Lead type) is charged by the output of the generator driven by engine. Voltage sensor and SOC sensor detect a voltage and SOC of the battery and feed the detected results to the controller. Overcharge of battery is prevented when the voltage incrPURPOSE:To obtain a charging state (SOV) of a battery and to prevent the overcharge of the battery. CONSTITUTION:A battery voltage VB is compared with a predetermined value Vmax, in the step 100. When a voltage VB is low as a result of the comparison, ana) a step for detecting a heavy load state in which a battery charge state is reduced to less than a predetermined value;

    b) a step for carrying out an increase control of an output of the generator and an output limitation of the motor so that, when thePower Consumed - High speedOvercharging

    18CONTROLLER OF SERIES/PARALLEL COMPOSITE ELECTRIC VEHICLEController for series parallel hybrid electric vehicle - operates vehicle in series hybrid mode, when charging state of battery exceeds first control rangePURPOSE: To avoid the overcharge or overdischarge of a battery by a method wherein, when the charged state of the battery is out of a first control target range, the series hybrid running is forcibly executed. CONSTITUTION: An ECU 32 opens the mechaniJP08098321JP2970427September 29, 1994B60L 11/14TOYOTA MOTOR CORPSeries/parallel composite electric vehicle (SPHV)N/AN/AA cell receives supply of charge power from the rotating machine (a generator and/or motor) which functions as a generator through an inverter.GeneratorThe power generated by the generator/motor is supplied to the battery through inverter.When the charged state of a battery is out of a first control target range, the ECU makes the SPHV forcibly run as the SHV. With this constitution, even if the PHV running is continued for a long time, the charged state of the battery is controlled with aThe SOC sensor detects SOC of a cell and the voltage sensor detects the electrical potential difference of a cell for the rotational frequency of a motor.The power generated by the generator/motor is supplied to charge the cell through an inverter. The SOC sensor detects SOC of a cell and the voltage sensor detects the electrical potential difference of a cell for the rotational frequency of a motor. In aPURPOSE: To avoid the overcharge or overdischarge of a battery by a method wherein, when the charged state of the battery is out of a first control target range, the series hybrid running is forcibly executed. CONSTITUTION: An ECU 32 opens the mechaniFluctuating hybrid operating modeOver charging or over discharging

    19HYBRID ELECTRIC MOTORCARHybrid type electric vehicle using generator, DC battery - has control unit that stops generator from generating electricity when generator output reaches upper voltage limit valuePROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To prevent overcharging by reducing the generation output in the stage where the accumulated voltage of a battery gets over the generation output decrease start voltage computed based on the rise rate of charging voltage, and stoppinJP09200907January 19, 1996B60L 11/14TOYOTA MOTOR CORPSeriesN/AN/ADC-battery is charged during regenerative braking where kinetic energy is converted into electric energy by generator though inverter.Generator supply electric power to the batteryInverter converts AC power generated in the drive motor to DC.The generation-of-electrical-energy output of a generator is suspended by the time it reaches the electrical-potential-difference upper limit limiting value of the DC-battery.SOC is controlled within proper limits from a viewpoint which aims at reservation of the acceptance nature of regeneration power, and prolongs the life of the DC-battery for transit. If SOC falls from a lower limit, a generator will be operated by the maxDC-battery is charged during regenerative braking where kinetic energy is converted into electric energy by generator though inverter. SOC is controlled within proper limits. If SOC falls from a lower limit, a generator will be operated by the maximum outPROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To prevent overcharging by reducing the generation output in the stage where the accumulated voltage of a battery gets over the generation output decrease start voltage computed based on the rise rate of charging voltage, and stoppinPower management - Control unitOvercharging

    20POWER SYSTEM AND VEHICLE WITH ITPower output apparatus for hybrid motor vehicle, controls motors and internal combustion engine, based on charging state of battery, for supplying reverse rotation power to sun gear and rear axle .At a time of backward movement, a ring gear shaft, and thus a front axle, is disconnected from a planetary gear by a clutch, and a carrier and a ring gear, and thus, a crank shaft and a sun gear shaft, are connected to each other by the clutch, whereby aJP2002078106US6691809August 29, 2000B60L 11/14; B60K 1/04; B60K 6/02; B60K 41/00; B60K 41/02; F02D 29/00; F02D 29/06; F16H 48/10;TOYOTA MOTOR CORPSeriesN/An/a

    21Hybrid vehicle and its control methodControlling hybrid vehicle powered either by ic engine or electricity - detecting change of state of battery, switching modes automatically as required and controlling generated power levelA hybrid vehicle having as a control mode at least a continuous-type parallel series hybrid vehicle (PHV) mode and a series hybrid vehicle (SHV) mode, and a control method thereof. A torque distributing mechanism is provided to distribute the output torquUS5722502May 24, 1995B60L 11/12; B60L 11/14;Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaSHPVN/AWhen the SOC is lower, the mode is forcedly or automatically switched to the SHV mode.An SOC sensor is used to detect the state of charge (SOC), of the battery, and when the SOC is lowered, the control mode is forcedly or automatically switched to the SHV mode.

    Lakshmikant Goenka:Toyota highlander patent

    Visualizing pat.

    Patent numberProcedurePriority yearAssignee

    16US4351405 (1978)The overdrive system controls current in the start field. Two zener diodes of differing breakdown voltages control two relays one of which causes insertion of a resistor in series with the start field reducing the current. The other relay causes a complet1978HYBRICON

    6JP06055941 (1992)A braking control means will use regenerative braking and engine brake together by engaging an electric motor and an engine with a clutch. Thus restricting the overcharging of DC-battery.1992AQUEOUS

    7JP06319205 (1993)Electronic control unit judges the electrical potential difference of a DC-battery to a predetermined value and supply regeneration power to charge DC-battery, if found more than a predetermined value it stop charge supply.1993AQUEOUS

    9US5550445 (1993)During heavy load state, generator output is controlled to be increased and motor output is restricted. When heavy load is not detected, generator and motor output is stopped or avoided thus preventing battery overcharging.1993TOYOTA

    10JP08098321 (1994)When the charged state of a battery is out of a first control target range, the ECU makes the SPHV forcibly run as the SHV. With this constitution, even if the PHV running is continued for a long time, the charged state of the battery is controlled with a1994TOYOTA

    8JP09117010 (1995)The generator control means controls the rotational frequency of generator according to the rotational frequency controlled by the engine revolving-speed-control means.1995AQUEOUS

    17US5786640 (1995)The function switch signal and duty signal are supplied to inverter so that the state of charge of battery is maintained at a constant state.1995NIPPON SOKEN INC

    1JP10084636 (1996)Output of generator is restricted depending on the battery condition by the generator output controller.1996Nissan

    11JP09200907 (1996)The generation-of-electrical-energy output of a generator is suspended by the time it reaches the electrical-potential-difference upper limit limiting value of the DC-battery.1996TOYOTA

    2JP10295045 (1997)The battery management provides an actuator command for control of electric power input upon charging the battery pack in response to the current value of BT (battery temperature).1997Nissan

    3JP11136808 (1997)A control unit with a microcomputer controls the charge/discharge of the DC-battery by controlling the generated power of the generator based on the discriminated results of the state of the DC-battery.1997Nissan

    12US5828201 (1997)Recharging is controlled by programmed processor of fully charging one module of the traction battery, but not all modules of the traction battery simultaneously with the full charging of the selected module, and then intentionally partially discharging t1997LOCKHEAD MARTIN

    4US6452286 (1999)Control unit - Microprocessor1999Nissan

    5JP2001268707 (2000)The charge of a DC-battery is restricted to a proper amount by restricting the IC engine output torque, if the charging level SOC is higher than a given value.2000Nissan

    13US6583599 (2000)The regenerative braking off threshold prevents the battery from becoming overcharged. The charge off threshold is also set below the regenerative braking threshold so that the battery will not be charged or try to be charge over regenerative braking thre2000FORD MOTOR

    18US6392380 (2000)The cell control circuit controls the charge circuit, if the remaining capacity of the driving battery turns into capacity which can put an engine into operation, charge of the driving battery will be stopped.2000SANYO ELECTRIC

    19US6504327 (2000)Motor control means detects the ope