FISHING Gear Class 1

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FISHING GEAR MATERIAL Two types : 1. Natural

2. SyntheticEfficiency of a fishing gear is dependent on materials used for its construction Natural fibers get decomposed by cellulose digesting bacteria so life is less Advantages of synthetic material Rot resistance Durability Stronger Do not absorb water No preservative required Better productivity Better catching efficiency Netting (as per ISO) Netting is a meshed structure of indefinite shape and size, composed of one yarn or one or more systems of yarns joined or interlaced. Fiber Basic material for construction of fishing gear. It is a unit of matter of hair like dimensions whose length is atleast 200 times greater than its width. Most popularly used synthetic materials Polyamide, Polyester, Polyethylene, Polypropylene

Based on the source from which the fibers are obtained they are classified as 1. Natural fibers 2. Synthetic fibersNATURAL FIBERS 1. Vegetable fibers (obtained from plants) - cellulose base & are prone to rotting in water as they are attacked by cellulose digesting micro-organisms. Seed fiber e.g. Cotton (cotton plant)

Bast fiber (soft fibers) e.g. Ramie (China grass), Hemp (Cannabis sativa), Linen Leaf fiber (hard fibers) e.g. Manila (Abaca plant), Sisal (Agava sisalana) Fruit fiber e.g. coir (husk of coconut plant)

2. Animal fibers (obtained from animals) protein base e.g. Wool, Hair and Silk. Out of these only silk is used in fishing gears.

SYNTHETIC FIBERS:These are man made fibers manufactured by chemical synthesis of simple substances like phenol, benzene, acetylene, prussic acid etc.

Poly-condensation Poly-meric compounds compounds (Water is eliminated) (water is not eliminated) Poly-vinyl Alcohol (PVAA)

Poly-additive compounds (Monomers) Poly-ethylene (PE)

Poly-amide (PA) Nylon Amilan Perlon Kapron Poly-ester (PES) Terylene Dacron

Mixed Polymer compounds (Mixed polymers are formed by co-polymerization of mixture of vinylidine and vinyl alcohol)

Poly-vinyl Chloride Poly-propylene Poly-vinylidine Chloride (PVC) (PP) (PVD) (First synthetic fiber used for fishing) Most popularly used synthetic materials Polyamide, Polyester, Polyethylene and Polypropylene

BASIC FIBER FORMS Synthetic fibers may be produced in one or more of basic forms 1. Continuous filament (e.g. PA, PES, PP) - Strongest - indefinite length & run the entire length of yarn - silky in texture - thinner than natural silk 2. Staple fibers (e.g. PA, PES) 3. Mono filaments (e.g. PE) 4. Split fibers (e.g. PP) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Water test Visual inspection Burning test Solubility test Melting point test - Made by cutting filaments - Short length (40 - 120 mm) - Less visible - larger diameter (0.1 1.0 mm or more) - made from longitudinally split plastic tapes

Tests carried out for testing the fiber yarnonly PE and PP will float by experience like colour, texture by gas production / reaction taking place / residue in different of chemicals especially to distinguish PE and PP

PROPERTIES OF FIBERSIt is essential to know the properties of different types of fibers prior to their selection for construction of fishing gears. Physical properties Density Breaking strength / load Tenacity Tensile strength Breaking length Elastic properties Extensibility Extension at break Elastic recovery Water absorption Shrinkage Abrasion resistance Weather resistance Sinking speed Visibility Melting point Flammability Towing resistance Chemical properties Effect of chemicals such as Acids Alkalis Oils Preservatives Chemical properties It is the property of a material to withstand the effect of chemicals such as acids, alkalis, oils and preservatives which may damage the materials. Natural fibres have a poor resistance to acids. Biological properties Damage caused by the organisms like Fungi Fouler Bacteria etc. Biological properties It is the quality of netting materials to withstand the damage caused by the organisms like Fungi, Fouler and Bacteria. Vegetable fibres are prone to quicker rotting whereas synthetic fibre have good resistance.

Density:Density is the mass per unit volume and is expressed as grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). Fibres of low densities (