Types of Synovial Joints
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Types of Synovial Joints
Types of Synovial JointsSelected Synovial Joints:The KneeThis is considered the most complex joint in the human body. It is actually considered three joints working together.
The KneeThese are:An intermediate joint between the patella and distal end of the femur (femoropatellar joint). This is a plane joint.
The KneeThese are:An intermediate joint between the patella and distal end of the femur (femoropatellar joint). This is a plane joint.A lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints between the femoral condyles and the menisci below.
(a) Sagittal section through the right knee jointFemurTendon ofquadricepsfemorisSuprapatellarbursaPatellaSubcutaneousprepatellar bursaSynovial cavityLateral meniscusPosteriorcruciateligamentInfrapatellarfat pad Deep infrapatellarbursaPatellar ligamentArticularcapsuleLateralmeniscusAnteriorcruciateligamentTibiaFigure 8.8a The knee joint.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The KneeThe menisci help prevent lateral motion and attach to the outer margins of the joint capsule on the tibia. They are easily torn. Figure 8.8b The knee joint.
(b) Superior view of the right tibia in the knee joint, showing the menisci and cruciate ligamentsMedialmeniscusArticularcartilageon medialtibialcondyleAnteriorAnteriorcruciateligamentArticularcartilage onlateral tibialcondyleLateralmeniscusPosteriorcruciateligamentCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The knee is unique in that it is not completely enclosed by a capsule. The knee is unique in that it is not completely enclosed by a capsule. The articular capsule is found only on the lateral and posterior surfaces. The knee is unique in that it is not completely enclosed by a capsule. The articular capsule is found only on the lateral and posterior surfaces. The anterior surface is covered by three ligaments going from the patella to the tibia.These ligaments are:The patella ligament
These ligaments are:The patella ligament &The medial and lateral patellar retinacula ligaments. They merge with the articular capsule on each side.
The intracapsular ligaments are the cruciate ligaments. The intracapsular ligaments are the cruciate ligaments. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments cross each other forming an X in the notch between the femoral condyles.
The intracapsular ligaments are the cruciate ligaments. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments cross each other forming an X in the notch between the femoral condyles. They prevent anterior and posterior displacement.
Two additional ligaments, the Fibular and Tibial Collateral Ligaments prevent lateral or medial rotation when the knee is extended.Figure 8.8c The knee joint.
Quadricepsfemoris muscleTendon ofquadricepsfemoris musclePatellaLateral patellarretinaculumMedial patellarretinaculumTibial collateralligamentTibiaFibularcollateralligamentFibula(c) Anterior view of right kneePatellar ligamentCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 8.8f The knee joint.
Medial femoral condyleAnterior cruciateligamentMedial meniscus onmedial tibial condyle Patella(f) Photograph of an opened knee joint; view similar to (e)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.The synovial cavity of the knee has a complicated shape and over one dozen associated bursae. Some are easily injured such as the subcutaneous prepatellar bursa which lies just over the patella (house maids knee).
House Maids Knee
Knee InjuriesCommon knee injuries involve the 3 Cs: Collateral ligaments,
Knee InjuriesCommon knee injuries involve the 3 Cs: Collateral ligaments, Cruciate ligaments and
Knee InjuriesCommon knee injuries involve the 3 Cs: Collateral ligaments, Cruciate ligaments and Cartilage (menisci).
Knee InjuriesLateral blows are the most dangerous, tearing the tibial collateral ligament and the medial meniscus and the anterior cruciate ligament.
Figure 8.9 A common knee injury.
LateralMedialPatella(outline)Tibial collateralligament(torn)Medialmeniscus (torn)Anteriorcruciateligament (torn)Hockey puckCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Arthroscopic Knee Surgery Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure in which a joint (arthro-) is viewed (-scopy) using a small camera. Arthroscopic Knee Surgery Arthroscopy gives doctors a clear view of the inside of the knee. This helps them diagnose and treat knee problems.Arthroscopic Knee SurgeryThe orthopaedic surgeon will make a few small incisions in your knee. A sterile solution will be used to fill the knee joint and rinse away any cloudy fluid. This helps your orthopaedic surgeon see your knee clearly and in great detail.Arthroscopic Knee Surgery
Knee Replacement People with degenerative arthritis, chronic injuries often lose that smooth articular cartilage.The result is bone on bone. The knee joints must be replaced.
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) JointThe large head of the humerus fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula.
The cavity is extended by a fibrocartilage ring called the glenoid labrum.Connective tissue support comes from three groups of ligaments.
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) JointA) Coracohumeral ligament provides the only strong support of the upper limb. It runs from the coracoid process to the greater tubercle of the humerus.
Figure 8.10c The shoulder joint.
AcromionCoracoacromialligamentSubacromialbursaCoracohumeralligamentGreatertubercleof humerusTransversehumeralligamentTendon sheathTendon of longhead of bicepsbrachii muscleArticularcapsulereinforced byglenohumeralligamentsSubscapularbursaTendon of thesubscapularismuscleScapulaCoracoidprocess(c) Anterior view of right shoulder joint capsuleCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Shoulder (Glenohumeral) JointB) Three Glenohumeral ligaments strengthen the front of the capsule. These ligaments are weak.
Figure 8.10d The shoulder joint.
AcromionCoracoid processArticular capsuleGlenoid cavityGlenoid labrumTendon of long headof biceps brachii muscle Glenohumeral ligamentsTendon of thesubscapularis muscle ScapulaPosteriorAnterior(d) Lateral view of socket of right shoulder joint,humerus removedCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Shoulder (Glenohumeral) JointC) The Rotator Cuff is formed from four tendons and muscles that encircle the joint. The muscles include the Subscapularis, Supraspinatus Infraspinatus and Teres minor.
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint
Shoulder InjuriesRotator CuffBecause of its mobility, the stability of the shoulder joint has been sacrificed.
Anterior dislocations are the most common along with damage to the rotator cuff muscles due to severe circumduction.
Shoulder Dislocationand Reduction
Shoulder InjuriesRotator CuffSupraspinatus and Infraspinatus are the most commonly injured rotator cuff muscles. Due to the function of these muscles, sports which involve a lot of shoulder rotation for example, pitching in baseball, swimming, often put the rotator cuff muscles under a lot of stress.
Shoulder InjuriesRotator CuffProblems with the rotator cuff muscles can be classed into two categories Tears of the tendons/muscles, and inflammation of the tendons (often called tendinopathy or tendonitis).Shoulder InjuriesRotator CuffSurgery to repair a torn rotator cuff tendon usually involves:Removing loose fragments of tendon, bursa, and other debris from the space in the shoulder where the rotator cuff moves (debridment).
Shoulder InjuriesRotator CuffSurgery to repair a torn rotator cuff tendon usually involves:Removing loose fragments of tendon, bursa, and other debris from the space in the shoulder where the rotator cuff moves (debridement). Making more room for the rotator cuff tendon so it is not pinched or irritated. Shoulder InjuriesRotator CuffSurgery to repair a torn rotator cuff tendon usually involves:Removing loose fragments of tendon, bursa, and other debris from the space in the shoulder where the rotator cuff moves (debridement). Making more room for the rotator cuff tendon so it is not pinched or irritated. Sewing the torn edges of the supraspinatus tendon together and to the top of the upper arm bone (humerus).
Shoulder InjuriesRotator Cuff
Shoulder InjuriesRotator Cuff
Elbow JointThis is a hinge joint where the radius and ulna articulate with the condyles of the humerus. The ulnas trochlear notch forms a tight hinge with the trochlear of the humerus. This articulation allows for flexion and extension only.Elbow JointSide to side movement is prevented by the ulnar collateral ligament (triangular) and radial collateral ligament.
Figure 8.11d The elbow joint.
ArticularcapsuleAnularligamentCoronoidprocess(d) Medial view of right elbowRadiusHumerusMedialepicondyleUlnarcollateralligamentUlnaCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 8.11c The elbow joint.
AnularligamentHumerusMedialepicondyleUlnarcollateralligamentUlnaArticularcapsuleRadiusCoronoidprocess(c) Cadaver photo of medial view of right elbowCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Figure 8.11b The elbow joint.
HumerusLateralepicondyleArticularcapsuleRadialcollateralligamentOlecranonprocessAnularligamentRadiusUlna(b) Lateral view of right elbow jointCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Elbow Joint Injuries
Tommy John SurgeryThis procedure, more formally known as UCL (Ulnar Collateral Ligament) reconstruction, is designed to repair a torn elbow ligamentan injury typically caused by strong, repetitive overhead throwing motions of the arm. Tommy John SurgeryIt was first performed in 1974 on baseball pitcher Tommy John. The procedure typically lasts about an hour and a half, and patients usually leave the hospital the same day.
Hip (Coxal Joint)
This is a ball and socket joint whose movement is limited by strong ligaments. It is formed from the spherical head of the femur and the deeply cupped acetabulum in the pelvis.Figure 8.12b The hip joint.
AcetabularlabrumSynovialmembraneLigamentof the headof the femur(ligamentumteres)Headof femurArticularcapsule (cut)(b) Photo of the interior of the hip joint, lateral viewCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Hip (Coxal Joint)
There is a thick articular capsule with several strong ligaments reinforcing the capsule. These include the:Iliofemoral ligamentPubofemoral ligament &Ischiofemoral ligament
Figure 8.12c The hip joint.
IschiumIliofemoralligamentIschiofemoralligamentGreatertrochanterof femur(c) Posterior view of right hip joint, capsule in placeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Hip (Coxal Joint)
The ligamentum teres attaches the femur to the acetabulum.Figure 8.12a The hip joint.
Articular cartilageCoxal (hip) boneLigament ofthe head of the femur (ligamentum teres)Synovial cavityArticular capsuleAcetabularlabrum Femur(a) Frontal section through the right hip jointCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Hip InjuriesCommon injuries to the hip joint include fractures and dislocations. Hip fractures typically involve the neck of the femur and are the result of underlying disease such as osteoporosis.
Hip ReplacementHip replacement surgery, also called total hip arthroplasty, involves removing a diseased hip joint and replacing it with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis. Hip ReplacementHip replacement is typically used for people with hip joint damage from arthritis or an injury. Followed by rehabilitation, hip replacement can relieve pain and restore range of motion and function of your hip joint
Lets do a hip replacement!
Two distinct movements can occur with the jaw, a hinge like movement and the second is a lateral movement. Temporomandibular Joint
Figure 8.13c The temporomandibular (jaw) joint.
Lateral excursion: lateral (side-to-side) movements of the mandibleOutline ofthe mandibularfossaSuperior viewCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Temporomandibular Joint
A lateral ligament attaches the ramus of the mandible to the zygomatic arch of the temporal bone. Figure 8.13a The temporomandibular (jaw) joint.
Zygomatic processMandibular fossaArticular tubercleInfratemporal fossaExternalacousticmeatusArticularcapsuleRamus ofmandible Lateralligament (a) Location of the joint in the skullCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Injuries to the JawInjuries to the jaw include fractures and dislocations.
Injuries to the JawInjuries to the jaw include fractures and dislocations.
A broken jaw is a break in the jaw bone. A dislocated jaw means the lower part of the jaw has moved out of its normal position at one or both joints .
Dislocation of the JawSymptoms of a dislocated jaw include pain in or around the jaw, the misalignment of teeth, and forward movement of the jaw beyond its regular position. Other symptoms include difficulty opening and closing the mouth.
Dislocation of the JawA dislocated jaw can be caused by forceful yawning or by some sort of trauma or impact with the face. Common causes of jaw dislocation include a punch to the face, sports injuries, and car accidents.
Dislocation of the Jaw
Fractures of the Jaw
A broken jaw) is a common facial injury. Fractures (these are breaks in the bone) are generally the result of a direct force to the jaw.
Diseases of the jointsBesides trauma, inflammation from over use or repetitive motions are the most common diseases seen in the joints.BursitisInflammation of a bursal sac usually as the result of chronic irritation
ArthritisArthritis is a common term for over 100 conditions which describe degenerative processes found in the joints. Major examples include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
Figure 8.15 X ray of a hand deformed by rheumatoid arthritis.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.OsgoodSchlatter diseaseIs also known as tibial tubercle apophyseal traction injury is a rupture of the growth plate at the tibial tuberosity.OsgoodSchlatter diseaseThe condition occurs in active boys and girls aged 916 coinciding with periods of growth spurts. It occurs more frequently in boys than in girls.OsgoodSchlatter diseaseThe condition is usually self-limiting and is caused by stress on the patellar tendon that attaches the quadriceps muscle at the the tibial tuberosity.Treatment is conservative with rest, RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation),
Shin SplintsShin splints is a general medical term denoting medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), a slow healing and painful condition in the shins, usually caused by exercise such as running, jumping, swimming, cycling, dancing or other sports.The onset of shin splints is most common after exercise, caused by high impact training, excessive training, poor technique Knuckle Cracking When one cracks a knuckle, the stretching of the capsule lowers the pressure inside the joint and creates a vacuum which is filled by the gas previously dissolved in the synovial fluid. This creates a bubble which then bursts producing the characteristic popping or cracking sound.Knuckle CrackingThere is no evidence that cracking knuckles causes any damage such as arthritis in the joints.