Thirty years war

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2. The thirty years war was initially a religious war fought in Europe(primarily modern day Germany)which grew to engulf most of Europe.Europe before the Thirty Years War, 1600 AD 3. Causes for the Thirty Years War These are some of the main causes that ignited the thirty years war.1. The Peace of Augsburg (1555) is violated through secularizations and the spread of Calvinism.2. Bavaria suppresses Protestantism in the 1570s, then Austria does in the 1590s.3. 1607/08: Bavaria imposes Catholicism on Free City of Donauwrth; Protestants withdraw from Reichstag.4. 1610: The Calvinist Frederick V becomes Elector of the Palatinate, seeks to unite all Protestants from England to Bohemia in a grand alliance against the Habsburgs.5. 1618: Ferdinand of Austria, recently crowned King of Bohemia, withdraws its Edict of Toleration.6. All the Powers of Europe anticipate renewed war between Spain and the Netherlands in 1621. More on Thirty years war causes: 4. In 1617 Emperor Mathias wanted his heir (Cousin) Ferdinand II to be his successor, in order to make sure that a Catholic would be the Emperor.Emperor MatthiasFerdinand II 5. Ferdinand II as a strong Catholic made it even more clear he would not accept Protestantism as a practiced religion, by withdrawing the Edict of Toleration. Ferdinand's representatives were thrown out of a 3rd story window 50 feet to the ground. They survived because they landed into a pile of manure.More on the Second Defenestration of Prague: 6. Frederick V, grandson of William I of Orange, son in law of King James I of England is shown here depicted as king of Bohemia 7. Ferdinand II then continued to close down protestant churches, and Protestants as you can imagine were very unhappy. This marked the first part of the war called the Bohemian revolt. 8. The Battle of White Mountain, Nov. 8, 1620When the Protestant Union declared neutrality, Austria and the Catholic League attacked Bohemian Lines and won the battle, and took Prague in just two hours. This attack was led by General Tilly. 9. Overview of the Bohemian Period Ferdinand was declared deposed and the Bohemian throne was offered to Frederick V, the elector palatine. Revolt also appeared in other Hapsburg dominions, especially under Gabriel Bethlen in Transylvania. Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria, with the army of the Catholic League under Tilly, helped the imperial forces defeat the Bohemians at the White Mt. near Prague (Nov., 1620). John George of Saxony, a leading German Protestant prince, supported Ferdinand. Frederick, ever afterward called the Winter King, had lost his brief hold on Bohemia. The war continued in the Palatinate, and severe repression began in Bohemia. More on The Bohemian Period: 10. The Battles of Wimpfen and of Hoechst in 1622Resulted in catholic victoryResulted in another catholic victoryMore on Wimpfen: on Hoechst: 11. Battle of Stadtlohn 1623 The Battle of Stadtlohn was fought on August 6, 1623 and it was between the Christian of Brunswick and the Catholic League.Resulted in yet another catholic victory More on the battle of stadtlohn : 12. Overview of The Palatinate Period Frederick expected aid from his father-in-law, James I of England, but got no help. The Palatinate was taken by Tilly; he won at Wimpfen and Hchst (1622).Frederick's lands were confiscated by the emperor, and the Upper Palatinate and the electorate were conferred on Maximilian of Bavaria.The imperialist victory at Stadtlohn (1623) practically ended one phase of the warMore on the Palatinate Period : 13. The Battle of Lutter July ,1626 Christian IV knowing that Wallenstein was in absence, he attacked General Tillys army. Wallenstein later sent reinforcements and then Christian IV made his stand between Hahausen and Lutter am Barenberge. Christian being an incompetent commander decided not to use all his fire power and was overrun. He then fled with his remaining Calvary to Wolfenbuttel.Another catholic victory More on the battle of Lutter : 14. Overview of The Danish Period (1625-1629) The new phase saw the German war expanded into an international conflict. Christian IV of Denmark came into the fighting, principally because of his fear of the rise of Hapsburg power in N Germany; he openly avowed religious motives but hoped also to enlarge his German possessions.Christian IV advanced into Germany. The emperor's cause was advanced by the work of Wallenstein, who gathered an effective army composed of hired soldiers and adventurers then defeated Mansfeld at Dessau (1626).A little later the Danish king was defeated by Tilly at Lutter. 15. The Battle of Breitenfeild (1632) In 1631,the Swedish army led by Gustavus Adolphus, defeated Tilly at the Battle of Breitenfield. In 1632, the swedes won another battle in which Tillley was killed.Gustavus Adolphus in the battle of Breitenfeld 16. The equipment of Swedish heavy cavalry, who were armed with a long sword and two pistols.(Berlin: Deutsches Historisches Museum) 17. Overview of The Swedish Period (1630-1635) The King, Gustavus Adolphus entered the war. He believed in the Protestant Cause, and feared Emperor Ferdinand would become too powerful. This was the first time a political issue entered the war.In 1630, Gustavos set sail from Sweden to alliviate the city of Magdeburg, which was under attack from Tilley. Gustavus had the best trained and disciplined army in Europe, but arrived to late to prevent the looting, capture, and destruction of Magdeburg. In 1631 at the Battle of Breitenfeild Gustavus Adolphus defeated Tillys army and tilly was killed. 18. Overview of The French Period (1638-1648) Wars lost their religious motives and were fought for political reasons.Cardinal Richelieu wanted to stop Hapsburg powers from growing so he marched his French army into Germany to join up with the Swedish army.With great leaders like Louis II and Vicomte de Turenne they won a series of victories that gave hope to Protestants. 19. The Peace of Westphalia The peace of Westphalia was a result to the misery and hardship the German people suffered during the war. In 1644 Countries started meeting to negotiation a peace treaty. The negotiations took four years to come up with the series of peace treaties called the Peace of Westphalia.Religions Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism would have equal tolerations. Europe after Thirty Years War 20. The Aftermath The major results of the war were a huge decrease in the German population; the destruction of German agriculture, the overall break down of the German economy, the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire, and the decline in Hapsburg powers.The way politics fell in place Germany and Hapsburg were at a disadvantage. The separation of North Germany from Austria begun and was to continue for more than two hundred years.The Thirty Years war marked the end of the renaissance period and paved the way for the Age of Enlightenment. 21. Belligerents Protestant States and AlliesRoman Catholic States and AlliesSweden (From 1630)Holy Roman EmpireFrance (From 1635)Catholic LeagueDenmark-Norway (1625 -1629)AustriaBohemia (1618 - 1620)Bohemia (After 1620)United ProvincesSpanish EmpireSaxonyHungaryElectoral Palatinate (until 1623)Kingdom of CroatiaDenmark- Norway (1643 - 1645)Brandenburg PrussiaBrunswick- LuneburgEngland (1625 - 1630)TransylvaniaHungarian Anti-Habsburg Rebels Zaporozhian CossacksOttoman Empire 22. Works Cited Thirty Years War: Thirty Years War: France Habsburg Rivalry: "Thirty Years' War." Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopdia Britannica, 2012.web.11.25.2013