2. Thirty Years War: 1618 to 1648 Longest continuous war in modern history Fought primarily in the German Provinces Began as religious war between Catholics andProtestants in the Holy Roman Empire Developed into general conflict over power ofKings and National self determination inwestern Europe Can be called a European Civil War (but there weremore than two sides) 3. Thirty Years War Religion Self-determination Power of Princes, Emperor, Pope Territorial, ethnic alliances versus religious alliances The War Feeds Itself 4. 1517 Lutheran Reformation breaks out in Germany-spreads throughout central and northern Europe. 1520s Henry VIII agitates for annulment of hismarriage and begins his breakaway from Rome. 1522-1522 Ignatius of Loyola writes SpiritualExercises and ushers in the Counter-Reformation. 1525 Zwingli begins agitating for new religiouspractices in the Swiss Confederation. 1529 Princes in German Provinces protest that theyshould decide the religion for their provinces. 1534 Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus 1536 John Calvin writes The Institutes of theChristian Religion 5. Early Reformer from Bohemia (will becomeCzechoslovakia in the 20th century). Argued against Doctrine of Transubstantiation At the Council of Constance, Huss wasaccused of heresy and burned at the stake in1416 Huss execution did not extinguish anti-Roman Catholic sentiments in Austria,Hungary, Bohemia, Poland 6. Protestants fought between themselves overdoctrine and power Zwinglians, Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinistssought dominance in central Europe Roman Catholic princes and Holy RomanEmperor fought to maintain order, bringProtestants back to Church Issue: who controls religion in a particularterritorythe Monarch or the Pope Early compromise--Peace of Augsburg 1555: Princecontrols religious choice in his territory 7. Roman Catholics Lutherans Hussites Calvinists Zwingligans Moravians Anglicans (Britain) Orthodox Christianity Islam Everybody wants religious freedom forthemselvesnot so much for anybody else 8. France Surrounded by Spanish Hapsburg Emperor in theNetherlands and Spain Ruled by members of the Bourbon family Holy Roman Empire: a non-contiguous kingdom Some territories were in revolt Independent Princes Ruled by members of the Hapsburg family The Spanish Road Austria-Hungary and Bohemia also ruled by Hapsburgprinces Netherlands divided into independent provinces andSpanish provinces Sweden and Denmark wanted control of northernGerman States on border of the Baltic Sea 9. Not yet a nation Collection of Principalities within the HolyRoman Empire Princes were electors of the Holy RomanEmperor Religious affiliations of principalities afterLutheran Reformation settled by Peace ofAugsburg (1555) Each of the 225 German princes could choose thereligion in his kingdom 10. King of Austria King of Hungary Elected King of Bohemia in 1618 by a coalition ofLutheran and Catholic princes on theunderstanding that he would leave religion to theprinces Lutherans and Catholics supported Ferdinand overFrederick, Prince of Palatine, who was associated withCalvinists Bohemian princes in dispute with Catholic Bishopover building Protestant Chapels Ferdinand sided with the Bishop 11. May, 1618 Ferdinand sent four CatholicCounts to meet with the Bohemians in Prague An assembly of townspeople (burghers) ledby Count Thurn of Bohemia was to meet thedelegation When the Counts entered, the crowd threwtwo of them and their secretary out thewindow They were saved from death because theylanded in a pile of horse manure 12. March 1619: Ferdinand II succeeded his cousinMathias as Holy Roman Emperor. Bohemian Princes refuse Ferdinand andsupported the Saxon Prince, Frederick V ofPalatine, as Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick V is a Calvinist Frederick V is son-in-law of James I of England Ferdinand II (Spanish Hapsburgs). Austrian Princes (Austrian Hapsburgs-- cousins ofSpanish Hapsburgs) join revolt against Ferdinand. Count Thurn of Bohemia leads army to walls ofVienna. 13. 1620 Protestant Prince, Bethlen Gabor, (withsupport of the Muslim Ottomans) leadscampaign against Catholic forces ofFerdinand II (Spanish Hapsburgs) in supportof Frederick V (Austrian Hapsburgs). Ottomans provide troops and funding toattack Poland who supported the Catholic,Ferdinand II. Polish-Ottoman War of 1620-1621 changesnothing (status quo ante). 14. Battle of White Mountain 8 November 1620 Bohemian Army of 30,000 men met Catholic forcesof 27,000 men (including Rene Descartes) on a hilloutside Prague. Catholic forces won decisive victory. Battle of White Mountain lasted about anhour. 15. 1621: Ferdinand orders all non-LutheranProtestants to leave Bohemia or convert. 1622: Ferdinand II orders all Lutherans inGerman principalities to convert or leave. 1625: Danish King goes to war on theProtestant side. Danes fight from 1625-1629 1630: Sweden enters the war. Swedes fightfrom 1630-1635 16. Gustavus II Adophus King of Sweden, secretlyfunded by France, enters war on behalf ofProtestants. After many victories, Gustavus Adophus killedin Battle of Lutzen in 1632. 17. France enters the war on Protestant side in1635 French fear power of Ferdinand and being encircledby Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs German lands lay in between French, Spanishand Austrian forces 18. 25-40% of German population die during the 30Years war. Principality of Wurttemberg: 75% of population Principality of Brandenburg: 50% of population Across German territory: Swedes destroyed 2,000 castles; 1800 villages; 1500 towns 50% of male population of Germany died Disease: Bubonic plague Typhus Dysentery Famine: wholesale destruction of agriculture armies supported food needs through plunder. 19. The Miseries and Misfortunes of War Depicts the invasion of Lorraine by CardinalRichelieu Scenes depict the horrors of war but Frenchidentified as a band of renegade soldiers Inspired Goyas Los Disatastres del la Guerradepicting the Spanish War with Napoleon1808-1814. 20. Scene of a Pillage. Jacques Callot 1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm,Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia 21. Plundering a Farmhouse. Jacques Callot 1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm,Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia 22. The Stappado. Jacques Callot 1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm,Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia 23. The Wheel. Jacques Callot ,1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm.Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia. 24. The Stake. Jacques Callot 1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm,Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia 25. The Hanging. Jacques Callot 1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm,Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia 26. The Hospital. Jacques Callot 1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm,Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia 27. Dying Soldiers by a Roadside. Jacques Callot 1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm,Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia 28. The Distribution of Rewards. Jacques Callot 1632, etching 8.1 x 18.6 cm,Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sidney, Australia 29. The Third of May, Francisco Goya, 1814, Prado Musuem, Madrid 30. Series of treaties Affirmed rulers right to determine thereligion of his state Created territories of modern states in Europe 31. France becomes dominant power in Europe. Austrian & Spanish Hapsburgs lose territoryand power. Germany will not be united until the 19thcentury.