Rajat Paharia Stanford Hci Seminar Feb 2010

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    Participation Engines

    Driving User Behavior with Game

    Dynamics and Behavioral Economics

    1

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    About Me: Rajat Paharia

    Founder, Chief Product Officer

    Bunchball

    Software Experience Design

    IDEO

    Software Engineer

    IBM Research, Avaya, etc.

    MS CS with a focus on HCI

    Stanford

    BA CS

    UC Berkeley

    2

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    Drive Participation with Metagames

    Statistics

    Competition

    Comparison Status

    Achievement

    3

    Football, Baseball, etc. are all Metagames.

    Metagames are as American as apple pie.

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    Measure & Drive User Behavior

    Inviting friends Watching a video Completing acourse

    Participating in

    discussions

    Uploading photos

    or videos

    Trying new

    features

    Spending more

    time in training

    Coming back to

    train more oftenYour Action Here

    4

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    Reward Status Achievement

    Self

    Expression Competition Altruism

    Leverage Human Desires.

    Reward Status Achievement

    Self

    Expression Competition Altruism

    Points

    Levels

    Challenges

    Virtual Goods

    Leaderboards

    Gifting &

    Charity

    5

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    GAME MECHANICS

    SECTION 1

    6

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    DUNDER MIFFLIN INFINITY

    NBC

    7

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    Home Page

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    SchruteBucks = Points

    9

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    User-Generated Content Tasks

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    Profile Page: Levels, Points

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    Virtual Desk & Sponsored Goods

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    Virtual Desk Store

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    Leaderboards

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    ESPIN.COM

    HEARST TEEN NETWORK

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    Real Time Feedback

    16

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    Earning Bottle Caps

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    Avatar Creator

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    Challenges

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    Multiple Tasks

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    Virtual Rewards

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    BETA1

    MICROSOFT

    22

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    The Beta1 Game

    Quadrupledparticipation

    Test Windows VistaEarn a b for installing beta,e for voting on a version, t

    for running it overnight, etc.

    Your status visible toeveryone

    23

    People were talking smack in

    the halls and bragging abouttheir status on the leaderboards.

    VPs would run into my office and

    yell, Wheres my e? I earned it

    last night!

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    RIBBON HERO

    MICROSOFT OFFICE LABS

    24

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    25

    Learning MS Office w/ Game Mechanics

    "Games for learning is an

    increasingly popular field thats

    quickly gaining ground. When we

    started this project, we wondered if

    there was a place for games inOffice. We set out to understand

    whether elements of game play

    (things like scoring points,

    competing with friends, and

    earning achievements) could

    motivate people to explore more ofthe app, learn new features, and

    ultimately become more

    productive"

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    MINT.COMNIKE+

    PERSONAL STATISTICS

    26

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    27

    Mint.com Personal Finance

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    Nike+ - Personal Fitness

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    GDITTY

    HOPELAB

    29

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    gDitty Physical Activity Meter

    gDitty makes moving around a fun, rewarding experience for kids. The gDitty product

    combines an activity meter with an online rewards program that motivates kids to move

    more. The gDitty device is worn on the belt or in a pocket. Activity data recorded by the

    gDittyis then uploaded to a kids personal profile on the gDitty website, where activity is

    calculated into points. These points can be redeemed for virtual goods and real-world

    rewards, including customizable avatars, gift cards, even the opportunity to make a

    donation to a cause.

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    ETC

    SOME OTHER IDEAS

    31

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    Teams / Times

    Peer Pressure isPowerful

    Team vs. team

    Head-to-Headmatchups

    The Clock isPowerful

    This week only

    Finish in thisamount of time

    32

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    Who Buys Virtual Goods?

    You do.

    33

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    Social vs. Commercial

    ThanksgivingDinner

    Lawyers

    34

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    FREQUENCY

    SECTION 2

    35

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    Use Reinforcement Schedules

    It's been shown thatanimals and humans workto maximize a reward's

    frequency, not its

    magnitude.Put simply, "how often" is

    usually more important than

    "how much." A mouse interacts

    more frequently with a reward

    schedule that rewards it more

    frequently.

    36

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    Use Reinforcement Schedules

    Fixed interval (FI) schedulesdeliver reinforcement for the

    first response after a fixedlength of time since the last

    reinforcement, while premature

    responses are not reinforced.

    User gets

    points for

    logging in tothe site once

    per day.

    User gets

    points for

    watchingone video an

    hour.

    37

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    Use Reinforcement Schedules

    Variable interval (VI) schedulesdeliver reinforcement for thefirst response after a randomaverage length of time passes

    since the last reinforcement.

    User is rewarded with

    points for the first game

    played after an average of10 minutes from the last

    game.

    38

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    Use Reinforcement Schedules

    Fixed Ratio (FR)schedules deliverreinforcement after

    every nth response.

    User gets a

    trophy after

    winning 50

    games.

    User gets a

    reward

    after every5th video

    they watch.

    39

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    Use Reinforcement Schedules

    Continuous ratio (CRF)schedules are a special form of

    a fixed ratio. In a continuousratio schedule, reinforcement

    follows each and every

    response.

    Every time a user

    posts to the forumsthey earn points.

    40

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    Use Reinforcement Schedules

    Variable ratio (VR) schedulesdeliver reinforcement after arandom number of

    responses (based upon a

    predetermined average)

    On average,

    every 3

    games auser will win

    some points.

    Slot

    machines.

    41

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    BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS

    SECTION 3

    42

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    Relativity and Contrast

    43

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    Decoy Effect

    44

    Economist.com subscription - $59.00

    1 year subscription to Economist.com

    Print subscription - $125 1 year subscription to the print edition ofThe Economist

    Print & web subscription - $125

    1 year subscription to the print edition ofThe Economist&1 year subscription to Economist.com

    16

    0

    84

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    Decoy Effect

    45

    Economist.com subscription - $59.00

    1 year subscription to Economist.com

    Print & web subscription - $125

    1 year subscription to the print edition ofThe

    Economist&

    1 year subscription to Economist.com

    68

    32

    +52

    -52

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    Decoy Effect

    All expensespaid vacation to

    Italy

    All expensespaid vacation to

    Italyexcept you have to pay for

    your own coffee

    All expensespaid vacation to

    Spain

    46

    A -A B

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    Anchoring

    Is thepercentage of

    African American

    nations whichare members of

    the United

    Nations more orless than 45%?

    Is thepercentage of

    African American

    nations whichare members of

    the United

    Nations more orless than 65%?

    47

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    Anchoring

    Social security #s and wine.

    Upper 20% placed bids 216%-346% higher thanthe lowest 20%.

    Can anchor on anything.

    48

    !

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    FREE!

    49

    Lindt Truffle = 15 cents

    Hersheys Kiss = 1 cent

    73

    27

    !

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    FREE!

    50

    Lindt Truffle = 14 cents

    Hersheys Kiss = Free!

    31

    69

    -42

    +42

    FREE!

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    FREE!

    51

    Most transactionshave an upside and

    a downside

    When something isFree, we forget the

    downside

    Humans are afraidof loss. There is no

    visible possibility ofloss when youchoose a Free item.

    There is no riskof having made

    the wrongdecision.

    L A i

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    Loss Aversion

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    50% chance

    of losing$200

    100% chance

    of losing$100

    vs.

    50% chance

    of winning$200

    100% chance

    of winning$100

    vs.

    R i i

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    Reciprocity

    Requires that one persontry to repay what another

    person has provided.

    Future obligation benefits

    society, so everyone istrained to obey this rule or

    face serious social

    disapproval.

    53

    R i it (2)

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    Reciprocity (2)

    Applies even to uninvited first

    favors, which reduces our ability todecide whom we wish to owe.

    Can spur unequal exchanges.

    Can also take the form of initialconcession that stimulates a return

    concession. Rejection then retreat.

    54

    C it t & C i t

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    Commitment & Consistency

    After making a commitment, taking a stand, or

    position, people are more willing to agree to

    requests that are consistent with their prior

    commitment.

    Ill watch your stuff

    Ill get you that toy for Christmas

    I support the environment

    Ill bet on that horse

    Ill buy that car

    55

    S i l P f

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    Social Proof

    People often view a behavior as more correct in

    a given situation to the degree that we seeothers performing it.

    Tip jar

    Ringers in the audience

    Man on the street

    Over 99 Billion Served

    What to do if you need help

    Social Norms

    56

    S it

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    Scarcity

    People assign more value to opportunities

    when they are less available.

    Things difficult to attain are typically more

    valuable. The availability of an item orexperience can serve as a shortcut clue to

    its quality.

    When something becomes less accessible,

    the freedom to have it may be lost. PeopleHATE to lose choices.

    57

    S it (2)

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    Scarcity (2)

    Two optimizing conditions for scarcity:

    Scarce items are heightened in value when

    they are newly scarce. Things have higher

    value when they have become recentlyrestricted more than those things that were

    restricted all along.

    People are more attracted to scarce

    resources when they compete with others for

    them.

    58

    Recommended Reading

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    Recommended Reading

    InfluenceRobert Cialdini

    PredictablyIrrational

    Dan Ariely

    FreakonomicsSteven D. Levitt,

    Stephen J. Dubner

    Cognitive Biaseson Wikipedia

    Total EngagementByron Reeves

    Leighton Read

    Changing theGame

    David Edery

    Ethan Mollick

    [email protected]: @bunchball

    Were hiring!

    mailto:[email protected]:[email protected]