Potentials for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture · PDF file 2 | Potentials for...

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Transcript of Potentials for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture · PDF file 2 | Potentials for...

  • Potentials for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Review of research findings, options for mitigation and recommendations for development cooperation

  • 2 | Potentials for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    As a federally owned enterprise, GIZ supports the German Government in achieving its objectives in the field of international cooperation for sustainable development.

    Published by: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

    Registered offices Bonn and Eschborn, Germany

    Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 40 53113 Bonn, Germany T +49 228 44 60-0 F +49 228 44 60-17 66

    Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5 65760 Eschborn, Germany T +49 61 96 79-0 F +49 61 96 79-11 15

    E [email protected] I www.giz.de/sustainable-agriculture

    Sector Project Sustainable Agriculture (NAREN)

    Author UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH, Freiburg, Germany

    Design/layout Ira Olaleye, Eschborn, Germany

    Photo credits/sources: Pg. 8: ©GIZ/Bärbel Högner; Pg. 38: ©GIZ/Elmar Foellmi; Pg. 50: ©GIZ/Dirk Ostermeier; Pg. 58: ©GIZ/Andreas König; all other photos incl. cover: ©Birgit Kundermann

    URL links: This publication contains links to external websites. Responsibility for the content of the listed external sites always lies with their respective publishers. When the links to these sites were first posted, GIZ checked the third-party content to establish whether it could give rise to civil or criminal liability. However, the constant review of the links to external sites cannot reasonably be expected without concrete indication of a violation of rights. If GIZ itself becomes aware or is notified by a third party that an external site it has provided a link to gives rise to civil or criminal liability, it will remove the link to this site immediate- ly. GIZ expressly dissociates itself from such content.

    On behalf of German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Division Rural development; agriculture; food security

    GIZ is responsible for the content of this publication.

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    Printed on 100% recycled paper, certified to FSC standards.

    Revised edition, 2018 First Edition 2014 by Birgit Kundermann, Gießen, Germany

  • Review of research findings, options for mitigation and recommendations | 3

    Content Abbreviations and acronyms ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

    Executive summary .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

    1 Background ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

    2 GHG emissions in agriculture and land use change ........................................................ 11 2.1 General overview and main trends ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 2.2 Forestry and other land use ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 2.2 Livestock production ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18

    Livestock: an important global commodity ............................................................................................................................................................................... 18

    Livestock as contributor to greenhouse gas emissions .................................................................................................................................. 20 2.3 Emissions from fertilizer application ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23

    Fertilizer: an essential input to agricultural production ............................................................................................................................... 23

    Fertilizer as contributor to GHG emissions ............................................................................................................................................................................... 24 2.4 Rice production ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

    Rice – the world’s most important staple food crop ........................................................................................................................................... 25

    Paddy rice cultivation as contributor of GHG emissions .............................................................................................................................. 25 2.5 Production and utilization of bioenergy ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 26 2.6 Agricultural value chains ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 28

    Upstream emissions ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29

    Downstream emissions ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 30

    Consumption patterns ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 31

  • 4 | Potentials for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    3 Mitigation of GHGs in agriculture and land use change .................................. 33 3.1 General considerations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 3.2 Avoiding emissions from deforestation and restoration of degraded lands ................................................................ 37

    Restoration of degraded soils ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 3.3 Mitigation from improved livestock management ......................................................................................................................................................... 40 3.4 Mitigation from improved cropland management ....................................................................................................................................................... 41

    Sustainable intensification is the key on small scale farms .............................................................................................................. 41

    Improved rice production ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 44

    Less inputs, more sustainable outputs on larger farms ............................................................................................................................... 45 3.5 Combined systems .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 46 3.6 Reducing GHGs in agricultural value chains ........................................................................................................................................................................... 48 3.7 Co-benefits of mitigation ...................................................................................................