Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options from Rice Field

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Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options from Rice Field. Sirintornthep Towprayoon The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi Bangmod, Bangkok, Thailand 10140. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options from Rice Field

  • Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options from Rice FieldSirintornthep TowprayoonThe Joint Graduate School of Energy and EnvironmentKing Mongkuts University of Technology ThonburiBangmod, Bangkok, Thailand 10140

    Presented at In-session workshop on Climate Change Mitigation 19 Bonn 2004, Maritim Hotel,Bonn

  • BackgroundRice fields contribute approximately 9-13 percent of the global greenhouse gases Methane and nitrous oxide are the dominant GHG emission

  • MechanismTo implement mitigation options need well understanding of the emission mechanismsInteraction between rice plant, microbe, the environmental condition in the soil, and the cultural condition of the farmerMethane produced by methanogen under anaerobic condition in the rice fieldNitrous oxide produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria under the anoxic condition Rice plant, during reproductive growth excrete some essential nutrient and activated microbial growth

  • Denier van der Gon, 1996].

  • ProductionEmissionsoil propertiesRice varietiesIndigenous MicroorganismsRoot exudatesGrowth and developmentHeight, mass,density

  • ProductionEmissionAnaerobic and anoxic conditionRice varietiesIndigenous MicroorganismsHeight, mass,density

  • Mitigation optionsFactor affecting GHG emissionLand preparationSeed preparationRice varieties Fertilizer applicationWater managementHarvesting and fallow period

  • Land preparationWet land level Dry land level

  • Plowing

  • Seed preparationDirect seedingPre-germinated seed and seedlingsTransplanting or Casting

  • Harvesting

  • The choice of mitigation optionsUltimate goal : High yield and GHGs reductionEconomic aspect Low cost : investment, labor, machineryMarket : positive expandable market, good priceGovernmental subsidySocial aspectAcceptable by farmersEasy to implementUndisturbed farmer way of life

  • Impact of mitigation options on rice cultivation

  • Options chosenWater managementReduce GHG Economic : not involved with investmentEasy to implement and being accepted by farmer

    Shifting fertilizer applicationReduce GHGEconomic : less invesment

  • Options of water managementIn common practice, water was drained out of the field during vegetative period.Drainage reduce methane but promote nitrous oxideShifting drainage time from vegetative period to reproductive period help reduce methane production and emissionShorten drainage day also help reduce nitrous oxide emission

  • Methane emission and soil redox potential from 4 different drainage rice fields

  • Nitrous oxide and methane emission from 4 different drainage rice fields

  • Comparison to local method

  • Yield and GHG EmissionArea of irrigated rice field (local practice) is 3 times greater than area of rain fed rice field ( continuous flooding)Three scenarios have been set upContinuous flooding and local practice (base case) Continuous flooding and midseason drainageContinuous flooding and multiple drainage All midseason drainage

  • Estimated economic comparison

  • Option of fertilizer applicationTwo time of fertilizer application : basal fertilizer and top dressing fertilizerIn general, urea is use as the common fertilizerAmmonium sulphate (inhibit methanogen) and ammonium phosphate ( promote rice plant growth ) was applied in substitute to urea

  • Economic comparison

  • Reduction and trading

  • Conclusion(1)GHG emission from rice field is survival emissionThe implementation need to be carefully considered The options should not impact on the farmers way of life as well as theirs investment but should promote theirs income

  • Conclusion(2)Aprox. 25 percent of GHG reduction could achieve in comparison to base case Options to reduce GHGs impact on rice yield Optimizing between GHG reduction and yield need to be concerned

  • AcknowledgementThailand research fundMs. Saipin Poonkaew and Ms. Kruamas Smaghan

  • Thank you for your attention