North and South
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Transcript of North and South
North and South
North and SouthChapter 14 pp. 406 - 429
Section 1: Industry in the NorthMain Idea:As the Northern economy grew, new inventions and faster transportation changed the way goods were manufactured and shipped.
New InventionsNew inventions for farming were created in the North including new plows, reapers and drills.Jethro Woods iron plow had replaceable partsJohn Deere invented the more lightweight steel plow.
The TelegraphInvented by Samuel Morse in 1844.The device sent electrical signals down a wire in a code of dots, dashes, and spaces.Communication across the country got faster and improved business efficiency.
The First RailroadsLocomotive the engine that pulls railroad cars.People didnt like the idea of railroads at first:Some feared losing jobs as wagon driversThere were many accidents including breakdowns and fires.Eventually problems were fixed and by the 1850s the railroad system was all over the country.
Yankee Clippers Demand for imports and exports led to the need for fast trade ships.Large masts and huge sails helped the ships use more wind to move the ship faster.By the 1850s, English iron steamships were being used. They were faster and sturdier than wooden clipper ships.
The Northern Economy ExpandsMany factors led to an expansion of the Northern economy: Steam powerMachine-Produced goodsRailroad distribution of goodsNorthern farmers couldnt compete with cheaper grain being shipped from the West by railroad.Many left their farms to work in the factories, as store clerks or sailors.
Railroads brought cheap grain and other foods from the West to New England. New England farmers could not compete with this new source of cheap foods. Many left their farms to find new jobs as factory workers, store clerks, and sailors.7Section 2: Life in the NorthMain Idea:Industry in the North changed with the arrival of new immigrants and the efforts of factory workers to improve their working conditions.
Factory Conditions Become WorseBefore factories, artisans made small amounts of quality goods by hand.Factory owners were more interested in volume; more goods = more money.Workers labored for 4:30am 7:30pm in unsafe conditions.Sometimes entire families worked in one factory.Workers Join TogetherArtisans formed trade unions to fight for better wages and conditions, and shorter workday.If their demands were not listened to, worker would stop working (strike)Women workers in New England textile mills organized as well Sarah Bagley formed the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association.
At the time, strikes were illegal in many parts of the United States. Strikers faced fines or jail sentences. Employers often fired strike leaders.Women had always earned less money than men did. Second, most union leaders did not want women in their ranks.
10A New Wave of ImmigrantsMany people immigrated to America in the early 1840s due to famines in Ireland and revolutions in Germany.Some native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants (Nativists).Immigrants were blamed for increase in crimeKnow-Nothing Party An anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic political party who met in secret. When asked, members said, I know nothing.
When Democratic revolts in Germany failed many fledNativists wanted to preserve the country for native-born white citizensIrish settled in the city to work in the factories. German often had money to purchase land out west.11African Americans in the NorthThere was discrimination against free African Americans in the North.Some African Americans were successful.William Whipper Lumberyard ownerHenry Boyd Owned a furniture businessHenry Blair invented a corn planting machineMacon Allen first African American lawyerJohn Russwurn editor of the first African American newspaper, Freedom's JournalBy the early 1800s, however, all the northern states had outlawed slavery. Discrimination is a policy or an attitude that denies equal rights to certain groups of people12Section 3: Cotton Kingdom in the SouthMain IdeaCotton was the leading crop in the agricultural economy of the South
Cotton Gin, Cotton BoomEli Whitneys Cotton Gin made processing raw cotton faster.Cotton profits grew.6,000 to 2 million bales a year.Cotton farming expanded to the West, as did slavery.More slaves were needed to pick more cotton on bigger farms.
They could grow plenty of cotton because the South's soil and climate were ideal. However, removing the seeds from the cotton by hand was a slow process. Planters needed a better way to clean cotton.14An Agricultural Economy / Economically DependentCotton was not the only cash crop of the South.RiceTobaccoSugar CaneLivestockIndustry was limited to meeting the needs of the community, not for export.Due to the lack of local industry, the South became dependent on the North for:FurnitureFarm EquipmentMachinesRich planters preferred to invest their money in land and slaves rather than in factories.Slavery also reduced the need for southern industry; millions of slaves could not buy anything reducing the need for manufactured goods.15Section 4: Life in the SouthMain Idea:Most white southerners were not plantation owners; however, the plantation system and slavery were the center of southern life.
The CottonocracyWealthy planters with 20 or more slavesOnly 3% of SouthernersOnly 1% had more than 50 slaves.Most southern whites were not part of the Cottonocracy. Small Farmers 75% of the populationWorked in the fields along side the slaves.
Because of their wealth and influence, many planters became political leaders.Poor whites had hard lives, but they enjoyed rights that were denied to all African Americans, enslaved or free.17African Americans in the SouthFree African Americans:Most lived in the northern part of the South (Maryland, Delaware) where slavery was declining.Slave owners made life very hard for free African Americans.Enslaved African Americans:1/3 of the Southern population by 1860Most lived difficult lives and were mistreated and abused.Slave Codes were laws that restricted the lives of slaves including learning to read, meet in groups, own guns or leave owners land w/o permission.Most free African Americans were descendants of slaves freed during and after the American Revolution.Free African Americans were not allowed to vote or travel.They could not leave their owner's land without a written pass. They were not allowed to own guns.18Family Life and ReligionFamilies of slaves were often separated and sold, so it was important to keep those who could be together.Extended families that were able to stay together were a source of strength, pride, and love.Religion helped slaves cope with the conditions. Most slaves were devout Christians and would sing hymns and spirituals while working the fields.Resistance Against SlaverySome slaves escaped to the North, others would resist by breaking tools, destroying crops, and stealing food.Denmark Vesey was betrayed and executed before he could stage a revolt (1822).Nat Turner and his followers killed 57 whites over two months before being caught and hung (1831).Nat Turner was an African American preacher believed his mission was to take revenge on plantation owners. Nat Turner's revolt increased southern fears of an uprising of enslaved African Americans. 20