Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It! Music of the Baroque Era A....

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Transcript of Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It! Music of the Baroque Era A....

  • If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!: Music of the Baroque Era

    A. Gabriele

  • The Baroque Era ● 1600-1750; ended with J.S. Bach’s death ● The English settled Jamestown in 1607 ● In 1610, Galileo confirms the Earth is round and revolves around

    the sun ● An apple falls from a tree, it knocks some sense into Isaac

    Newton, and he publishes the Laws of Universal Gravitation in 1697.

    ● In 1692 there were trials. Which trials, you ask? The Salem Witch Trials.

  • The term “baroque” comes from the French word for an irregularly shaped pearl.

    The artwork of the time was considered odd, irregular, and very ornate.

  • The style of Art and Architecture was ornate and decadent.

    Louis XIV was the monarch of France from 1638-1715

  • This is a depiction of Louis XIV as the Greek god Apollo

  • This is his Palace of Versailles

  • The Hall of Mirrors

  • Louis XIV’s Bedroom

  • Baroque Art

    ● Rembrandt ● Caravaggio ● Rubens

  • Baroque Literature ● Shakespeare (Hamlet, etc.) ● Cervantes (Don Quijote) ● Swift (Gulliver’s Travels) ● Milton (Paradise Lost)

  • Characteristics of Baroque Music ● Rhythm either flowed like the music of the Renaissance, or it is

    more free ● There is now a focus on instrumental music or instrumental

    accompaniment to voices. ● Chords are emphasized as part of the accompaniment (harmony),

    in addition to a bassline known as the basso continuo ● The basso continuo usually consisted of two instruments:

    ○ a keyboard instrument played the chords and the bassline ○ another low-sounding instrument to reinforce the

    bassline, like a cello or bassoon

  • Major Music Formats of the Baroque Era

    Vocal Music Opera Oratorio Cantata Mass

    Instrumental Music Chamber Music Concerto Grosso

  • Opera ● sung theatrical work, with

    staging and acting

    ● usually based on a secular story, often from antiquity

    ● orchestral accompaniment

    ● vocal soloists and choruses

    ● elaborate costumes and sets

    ● example: Henry Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_50zj7J50U

  • Oratorio ● sung theatrical work, but no

    staging, acting, costumes or sets

    ● usually based on a religious story

    ● orchestral accompaniment

    ● vocal soloists and choruses (more choruses than Opera)

    ● example: Handel’s Messiah

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZTZRtRFkvk

  • Cantata ● similar to an oratorio,

    narrates a story but unstaged

    ● shorter than an oratorio, designed to be part of a church service

    ● example: J.S. Bach’s Wachet Auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Sleepers Wake)

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCULWK4tNuc

  • Recitative vs. Aria ● A vocal line in an opera,

    oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythm and pitch fluctuations of speech

    ● It communicates the plot and advances the story.

    ● It often leads into an aria.

    ● A melodic song in an opera, oratorio, or cantata for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment.

    ● It communicates the emotions and inner thoughts of the character.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wni1GVRlMtc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P0WqWJs9wwk

  • Some instruments of the Baroque Era...

  • The Keyboard Family

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71iUAFFQ8ik

  • The Modern String Family

    The major instrument building families, like the Stradivari of Cremora, Italy, came into prominence during the Baroque.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9KxzuY0fJ-s

  • Wind Instruments

    The wind family hand many new innovations like keys on the woodwinds. Brass instruments still do not have valves.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0T6KysSejQ

  • The two main formats of instrumental music are chamber music and the concerto grosso.

  • Chamber Music ● Chamber Music uses a small

    group of musicians ● There is one player to a part ● It can be as small as one

    person playing a solo instrument

    ● Chamber Music is meant to be performed in a small venue, a chamber, like in someone’s house.

    ● Example: Archangelo Corelli’ s Trio Sonata in D major

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CwJRzYv6HNI

  • Concerto Grosso ● A composition for several

    instrument soloists and small orchestra

    ● Tutti vs. Soli ○ Tutti means “all”, the

    entire ensemble is playing

    ○ Soli is the plural of “alone”, a small group of featured soloists are playing

    ● Example: J.S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_V7oujd9djk

  • Some Composers...old dudes...

  • Henry Purcell

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUo2EudwBJU

  • Archangelo Corelli

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmauT8eZcM8

  • George Frederic Handel

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6fa2wZEsRWM

  • Antonio Vivaldi

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9KxzuY0fJ-s

  • We’ll be Bach tomorrow...

  • Baroque Characteristics of the Elements of Music

    Rhythm flowing like the music of the Renaissance; but sometimes the rhythm is more free with starts and stops

    Melody elaborate, ornamented, continuously expanding, long and winding, based on scales

    Harmony new emphasis on chords and bassline known as the basso continuo

    Timbre new emphasis on instrumental music and instrumental accompaniment to voices

    Texture more rapid changes in texture (homophony, imitative polyphony) throughout a single piece; homophony more important than before

    Dynamics sudden changes from loud to soft called terraced dynamics

    Form multi-movement dance formats in instrumental music; opera, oratorio, cantata, and mass formats in vocal music

  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

    ● Born to a family of musicians in Eisenach, Germany

    ● Orphaned at the age of 10

    ● Raised by his brother, who was his music teacher

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9sd9gOhjv3o

  • J.S. Bach as a young dude

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nnuq9PXbywA

  • Bach: prolific and complex

    ● He wrote over 1000 musical compositions in every format of the Baroque, except Opera

    ● One cantata a week for eight years ● The public complained about his

    “flowery” music ● Musicians though his music was too

    difficult to perform

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pu19NNXBVQg

  • Bach’s Work ● Church Musician

    ○ write music for services ○ play organ ○ teach choirs and soloists ○ conduct orchestras/choirs

    ● Court Musician ○ wrote music for entertainment ○ wrote commissioned pieces

    ● School Teacher ● Organ Teacher ● Organ Construction Consultant ● Composer ● Husband and father

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0_YjyNTqWY

  • “Since the best man could not be obtained for the job, mediocre ones would have to be accepted.”

    -Leipzig town council member commenting on the hiring of Bach

  • Bach’s Life ● Married his cousin Maria

    Barbara, and they had 7 children

    ● After she died in 1721, he married Anna Magdalena Wilken and they had 13 more children

    ● Do the math: that is 20 children total.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rb9UfGNuiSU