MU47G – The History of Western Music Unit VII: If it Ain’t Baroque… The Baroque Era (1600-1750...
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- MU47G The History of Western Music Unit VII: If it Aint Baroque The Baroque Era (1600-1750 CE)
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- Review! A Capella-style Vocal performance without instrumental accompaniment Continuous Imitation Exchanging motives through musical parts Growth in solo instrumental music Esp. lute and keyboard As polyphony is getting more prominent, polychordal instruments (more than one note at a time) gained more prominence. Word Painting Making the lyrics fit the music Ascending melodies, ending with the word stars on the highest note. Harsh dissonance on the word, Death. Instrumental Music Yes, instruments can play music too.
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- Monteverdi! Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643 CE) 1601 CE - Court musician for the Duke of Mantua. 1613 CE Becomes Choirmaster at St. Marks until his death in 1643. He wrote much dramatic music (including the first operas in the Baroque Era), but most importantly, he published 8 books of madrigals that show the transition out of the Renaissance Era and into the Baroque (1587-1643).
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- The end of all good music is to affect the soul - Claudio Monteverdi
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- The West During the Baroque The continued conquest of the New World but the wars of Empires in both worlds. Middle-class rises up against aristocracy. Opposite extremes: Extravagant wealth and terrifying poverty. Hopeful idealism and furious oppression. I am the state. King Louis XIV Age of Reason / Enlightenment vs. Pious Zealotry Copernicus Galileo Isaac Newton
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- Musically Speaking Clearest transitions from Renaissance to Baroque was the move from texture to melody. From several independent moving parts to single, clearly-distinguished melody. Monody one song One vocalist with instrumental accompaniment. Thats a pretty big change how did that happen?
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- The Florentine Camerata Writers, artists and musicians in Florence, Italy. Aristocratic Humanists (people with a lot of money caring about humanity) Resurrection of Ancient Greek musical/dramatic ideals. Music supports the emotional content of the text. Stile Rappresentativo (representative style) Melody flowing over a progression of chords. Singing over top of chords, you say we could do this over a poem or a whole drama.
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- Lets Go to the Opera Le Nuove Musiche The New Music By removing the complexities of counterpoint (note-against-note) and moving them into a more chordal context, there was room for vocal solo not a big texture of them, just one person. By applying to this to a poemthen a whole drama the Opera was born
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- Thinking in Chords Less about counterpoint, more about chords. Figured Bass Because musicians knew basic harmony, the whole chords didnt need to be written out. Numbers above the bass note, indicating the inversion. But what if theres no polychordal instrument? (i.e. keyboard instrument or stringed-one)
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- Basso Continuo There is ALWAYS an accompanying instrument all the time. Basso Continuo Someone plays the bass, someone plays the harmony. So, a Baroque Chamber TRIO has THREE players TWO SOLOISTS and SOMEONE PLAYING THE CONTINUO. Lets listen to some.
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- Major/Minor Tonality If someone plays the chords and harmony the harmony still has to make sense (resolution). Gradual move towards the concept of resolving to the I chord, (tonic) Furthermore, gradual move towards the concept of resolving to the I chord via the V chord, (dominant) Tonic/Dominant relations = Major/Minor Tonality Not only in the key of the tonic, but doing tonic/dominant with different keys Modulation But, wait I thought that with just tuning or Pythagorean tuning, only certain intervals sounded in tune its going to sound terrible if you modulate.
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- Equal Temperament As music advanced into the Baroque, playing in different keys became a big deal. Instead of tuning to smaller intervals (and not tuning others), the standard tuning was to the octave, then the twelve semitones were equally divided. (show tuning systems in Logic) Allowed composers to write in every key. Well-Tempered Clavier (Bach). (play example)
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- Baroque Musical Style Vigorous Rhythm. Constant and Continuous Melody Free Use of Dissonance Though, in fairness, resolution was still a big deal. Terraced Dynamics Passages of soft, followed by passages of loud (But no intermediaries, i.e. cresc./decresc.)
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- Technique and the Virtuoso! As stated in the Renaissance Era, both instruments and players began to improve Dramatic rise in both during the Baroque. As technique improved (and Equal Temperament became more integrated into writing), musical works got harder. As work got harder, players got better. Virtuosos (or, Virtuosi, to be grammatically-correct. Harpsichord sonatas by Scarlatti; Violin works by Vivaldi. Vocal works got pretty wild too, but there needed to be a special kind of man to sing them
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- Castrati ouch. As Opera became more technically challenging, the male vocal parts became more range-heavy, Castrato A male castrated during boyhood to preserve his soprano/alto range. Associated with heroic roles, I know, I know Speaking of vocal music.
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- This Opera Thing A drama, that is sung, combining vocals, soloists, choruses, ensembles and/or orchestras. Recitative: Talk-singing Follows the inflection/rhythm of speech. (What is Recitative? video) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpHhDBm0lN Y http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpHhDBm0lN Y
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- This Opera Thing Aria Italian for Air Releases the tension from the Recit. A highly-emotional song song, not recit. Overture The instrumental piece that opens the opera and sets its mood. The text = libretto The writer of the text = librettist
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- Some Opera to Check Out LOrfeo (1607) Claudio Monteverdi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nCtACwEnjOo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nCtACwEnjOo LIncoronzione di Poppea (The Coronation of Poppea) (1642) Claudio Monteverdi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-BGZ4NipLM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-BGZ4NipLM Dido and Aeneas (1689) Henry Purcell http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JOSNacCcj6c http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JOSNacCcj6c
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- Getting a Handel on Opera Dominated the English Opera scene near the end of the Baroque. Opera Seria (serious opera) About heroic/tragic themes, not about hilarious situation comedies like Opera Buffa Julius Caesar (1724) German, 1685-1759. Most famous work is, most probably, Messiah, an oratorio. Oratorio sacred musical drama.
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- Messiah Premiered in Dublin, Ireland 1742. Transcribed in 24 days. After finishing the Hallelujah Chorus, Handel exclaims to his servant: I did think I did see all Heaven before me, and the Great God Himself! Compilation of biblical verses from Old/New Testament. Oratorio in three parts: First Christmas section, the prophecy of Christ and his birth. Second Easter section, the suffering of Christ, his death and the spread of his ideals. Third Redemption section, redeeming of the world through faith.
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- Messiah No. 18, Aria, Rejoice Greatly G. F. Handel 1742 From Messiah, which is an oratorio in three parts. Part I A-B-A form. Da capo aria so, first section; second section, then take the da capo back to the beginning. Disjunct rising line (a melisma on rejoice) Melody trades between voice and violins
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- Messiah No. 44, Chorus, Hallelujah G. F. Handel 1742 From Messiah, which is an oratorio in three parts. The climax of the oratorio, the end of the Easter Section. Alternating sections of homophony and textured writing.
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- Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Born in Eisenach, Germany to a religious and musical family But orphaned when he was 10-years old. He raised by his older brother, also an organist. Super-musical; super-religious. The aim of and final reason of music should be nothing else but the glory of God and the refreshment of the spirit. Three eras of Bach Weimar Cthen Leipzig
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- Johann Sebastian Bach Weimar (1708-1717 so he was 23 when he started) Appointed court organist to the Duke of Weimar his first big gig. He became famous as an organ virtuoso First six children born in this period do the math. After not being promoted and pushed during this period, he left the Court of Weimar and accepted an offer from the Prince of Anhalt-Cthen. Cthen (1717-1723, only five years) Wrote concertos, suites, and/or sonatas for many instruments including his famous Brandenburg Concertos. Bachs wife died *tear* dont worry, he married a young singer named Anna Magdalena Wilcke, the daughter of the town-trumpeter scandalous! Leipzig Appointed to St. Thomass church in Leipzig super important post. He oversaw music making in the other four churches in Leipzig and also trained their choristers AND wrote music for them. Problems with his eyes two cataracts and surgery Died of a stroke in 1750
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- Jesu, Joy of Mans Desirings J. S. Bach Written in 1716, first performed in July of 1723. From Cantata 147. Originally written for trumpet, oboe, strings and organ.
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- Cello Suite, No. 1
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