Baroque Era 1600-1750. Baroque Era Three distinct styles of the period were -Church music -Theater...
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Transcript of Baroque Era 1600-1750. Baroque Era Three distinct styles of the period were -Church music -Theater...
Baroque EraThree distinct styles of the period were -Church music -Theater music -Chamber music
Music, art, and architecture of this time becomes very important to the wealthy because of its large scale productions, spectacular ideas, and major contrasts
Baroque EraDramatic musicFirst written in Florence, ItalySoon spread throughout Europe
Baroque EraMajor developments in dramatic musicOratorio- dramatic large-scale production dealing with a biblical subject -oratorio has a narrator (soloist), chorus, and orchestra-no costume, staging, or scenery usedOpera- does not deal with Biblical subjects-large scale production with singing -has staging, scenery-soloists-chorus
Baroque EraCantata- shorter work-limited to soloists-small number of chorus members-small orchestral accompaniment-written on either sacred or secular subjectsPassion Music- centered specifically on the Christian Easter story
Baroque EraBaroque music left the style of a cappela that was used in the RenaissanceThe keyboard of choice was the harpsichordDuring the Baroque Era, instrumental music came to the forefront, rather than vocal musicDuring the Baroque period, the soprano and bass voices were more important in a choral composition than the tenor and the alto
Whats happening in America?Jamestown colony founded in 1607Henry Hudson explored what is now called the Hudson River in 1609In 1621, Thomas Ravenscroft wrote the Whole Booke of Psalms (4 part compositions with texts from the Book of Psalm in the bibleThe Grounds and Rules of Musick Explained first singing instruction book in America written by Rev. Walter of RoxburyBefore this music was learned by rote and memorized
Whats happening in America?Philadelphia founded in 1682 by William PennThe famous Salem Witch trials began in 16921738- John Wesley founded the Methodist Church in AmericaRobert Stevensons book-Protestant Church in America was an important resource in American musicMoravian school or organ builders considered best in the New World
Famous Composers of the Baroque Era-Alessandro Scarlatti
Alessandro Scarlatti1660-1725 Born in NaplesHis best known operas-La Rosaura (1690)-Teodora (1693)-Tigrane (1715)-Griselda (1721)
Claudio Monteverdi1567-1643Born in CremonaWrote 9 books of Secular madrigalsFirst opera was Orfeo1613-he became conductor of St. Marks Basilica in Venice1632- was ordained as a Catholic priest
Rhythm and MeterRhythm and meter become more defined.Usually a single rhythm can be heard through an entire piece. Bar lines are now used to group notes on the staff into measures
Antonio Vivaldi 1678-1741Born in ItalyNicknamed The red-headed priestWrote The Four SeasonsLeading violinist in St. Marks BasilicaMusic Teacher at an orphanage for girlsWrote numerous cantatas, oratorios, and motetsWrote over 400 concertos
Jean Baptiste Lully
John Baptiste Lully1632-1687Developed a unique for a French OperaFirst section is slow with dotted rhythmSecond section fast and livelyThird section is like the first section
Basso continuoThis helps to clarify what the harmony is. A single bass line used to reinforce bass voicesUsually played by Harpsichord or bassoon. Can also be played by cello and other instruments.
Ground bassGround bass is also known as basso ostinatoGround bass is music constructed from the bottom up. The bass will play the same short figure over and over while other upper instruments add in above it with different melodies based on the bass.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)Born March 21, 1685, Eisenach, GermanyBorn same year as George F. HandelMusic was a family businessHad 20 children -7 with 1st wife (his 2nd cousin) -13 with 2nd wife (singer) All children taught musicWrote 200 sacred and secular cantatas (was not appreciated while alive)
Bach cont.Musical Handwriting was considered the most beautiful and intricate of any composerBach received his earliest training from his father, who was a musician in EisenachHe composed in all the musical forms popular during the Baroque except for Opera.Bachs 3 professional positions were in the towns of Arnstadt, Muhlhausen, Weimar
Bach cont.Bachs mother died when he was 9 and father when he was 10Bach did not write church music in the fourth city in which he worked, Cothen, because he was only hired to write music for court entertainmentBachs last job was in the city of Leipzig, GermanyBach was blind at the end of his lifeThe Baroque Era ended the same year that Bach died in 1750
Johann Sebastian BachSome of Bachs works include: -The Wedding Cantata-The Peasant Cantata-The Christmas Oratorio-Magnificant-Mass in B-minor-St. John Passion-Prelude & Fugue in B-flat
Johann Sebastian BachToccata & Fugue in D-minorSleepers AwakeBrandenburg ConcertoThe Well-Tempered ClavierA number of fugues, chorales, toccatas, solo pieces and other works
George Frideric Handel
George Frideric HandelFebruary 23, 1685Born in Halle, SaxonyBorn the same year as BachUnlike Bach, no family of musicians,George begged his father for lessonsBecomes outstanding organist and harpsichordistFirst music teacher was ZachowAlso studied violin and oboe
George Frideric Handel1726- Handel becomes a British citizenWas known as the greatest composer of the oratorioWas employed by the Elector of Hanover, who was named King George I of EnglandFirst music position was as an organist in the cathedral in HalleWrote 40 Italian OperasMade and lost several fortunesCourt Musician
George Frideric Handel (1685-1754)created music in 4 categoriesThe Secular CantatasCatholic Sacred MusicOratoriosOperasHandel is known as the greatest composer of the oratorio during the entire Baroque Era
George Frideric Handel-Last composition was The Triumph of Time and TriumphBy the end of his life, he was also blindHe is buried in Westminster AbbeyHandel wrote a number of works that have lasted through the centuries:-St. John Passion-Coronation Anthems-Saul-Israel in Egypt
George Frideric Handel-Serse-Sansom-Judas MaccabaeusMost outstanding oratorios:Acis and GalateaEstherAlexanders FeasteMessiahJeptha
OperaOpera is drama presented in musicEarly opera was put on for Royal Weddings and such.1637 the first Public Opera Theater opens (these are equivalent to modern day movie theaters)By the end of the century there were seven in Venice alone.
Opera had two major parts
Recitative: Singing that imitates speech. It is mostly used for plot action, dialogue, and important situations.
Aria: Extended solo that has more musical elaboration and coherence. The vocal part is more melodic, the rhythm is more consistent, and accompaniment usually uses the entire orchestra.
Henry Purcell 1659-1695Born in WestminsterFather was a singer in the court of King Charles IIPurcell is the most famous English composer of the time period.
Henry PurcellHe was an Organist at Westminster Abbey. He wrote sacred instrumental and theater musicMost famous composition is Dido and Aeneas
Chronology of Baroque Era1600- The Baroque Era begins1601- Shakespeare writes Hamlet1602- Galileo Galilei discovers the law of gravity1604- Shakespeare writes Othello1605-Pope Paul V is crowned1606- Shakespeare writes Macbeth1607- Jamestown Colony is founded
Chronology cont.1607- Monteverdis first opera, Orfeo, is performed1609- Henry Hudson explores the Hudson River1610- Louis VIII is crowned King of France1611- The King James version of the Bible is published
Chronology cont.1620-The pilgrims arrive near Cape Cod on the Mayflower1621- Pope Gregory XV is crowned1625- Charles I is crowned King of England1630- Boston is founded by the Puritans1636- Harvard College is founded by Roger Williams
Chronology Cont.1640- The first book printed in the colonies is the Bay Psalm Book1643- Louis XIV is crowned King of France1643- Marc-Antoine Charpentier is born near Paris, France1653- Jean-Baptiste Lully is appointed court composer in Paris
Chronology Cont.1653- Oliver Cromwell dissolves the English Parliament1659- Henry Purcell is born in Westminster, England1660- Alessandro Scarlatti is born in Italy1664- New Amsterdam is renamed New York
Chronology Cont.1665- Heinrich Schutz writes the St. John Passion1666- Heinrich Schutz writes the St. Matthew Passion1678- Antonio Vivaldi is born in Venice, Italy1682- Philadelphia is founded by William Penn1683- Jean-Phillipe Rameau is born in Venice, Italy
Chronology Cont.1685- G.F. Handel is born in Halle, Saxony1689- William III and Mary are crowned King and Queen of England1692- The Salem witch trials occur in Massachusetts1701- Yale College is founded1704- Handel writes the St. John Passion
Chronology Cont.1704- Bach writes his first cantata1714- George I is crowned King of England1715- Louis the XV is crowned King of France1724- Bach writes the St. John Passion1727- Handel writes the Coronation Anthems
Chronology Cont.1729- Bach writes the St. Matthew Passion1730- Bach writes the cantata A Mighty Fortress is Our God1738- Bach publishes Mass in B-minor1738-Handel writes Saul, Israel in Egypt, and Serse
Chronology Cont.1738- The Methodist Church is founded by John Wesley1743- Handel writes Samson1746- Handel writes Judas Maccabaeus1750- The death of Johann Sebastian Bach ends the Baroque Era