Kelp Dover

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Transcript of Kelp Dover

CARC2033: Research Design and Practice (RDP)

A technical feasibility study for the farming of Kelp seaweed at Dover Port or similar sites.

Georgia Chatzimichali 1

Table of Contents:Table of contents Table of illustrations / figures Introduction and Background Objectives Method 02 03 04 04 05

Kelp and its properties Growing Kelp Anatomy Growing kelp: precedents Vertical cultures Horizontal cultures Mixed culturesThe proposed Dover Docks project Feasibility Issues Substrata Sea Urchin Population Environment Location Sunlight Availability Sedimentation and water quality Sea temperature Water currents, nutrients, rainfall, turbidity Tide and water depth Proposed Prototype culture Economic Feasibility The Prototype Models Advantages Conclusions Limitations of the research and recommendations Study Dissemination / Public Engagement Bibliography

06 08 10 12 13 14 1516 22 23 23 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 30 31 33 35 36 36 37 38


Table of Illustrations / Figures:Illustration 01: View of the Dover Harbour Illustration 02: Nutritional Properties of Kelp, Ocean Approved (2011) Illustration 03: Timeline of processes involved in growing kelp Illustration 04: Kelp Hatcheries (FAO, 2011), and Plantations (Carrell , 2008) Illustration 05: Giant Kelp: life zones and anatomy, Hamner (2004) Illustration 06: Kelp in a Natural Environment FAO (2011) Illustration 07: Kelp Precedents Illustration 08: Horizontal Cultures FAO (2011) Illustration 09: Vertical Cultures FAO (2011) Illustration 10: Mixed Cultures FAO (2011) Illustration 11: Proposed Project Masterplan, Dover Western Docks Illustration 12: Proposed Project Perspective View Illustration 13: Proposed Project Perspective View (Shakespeare Beach) Illustration 14: Geographic distribution of kelp forests Santelices (2007) Illustration 15: Sun path study and diagrams Illustration 16: Sunlight study over a year, (2011) Illustration 17: Sample site locations, 3rd Draft Consultation Report, (2008) Illustration 18: Dovers Sea Water Temperatures (CEFAS / DEFRA 2011) Illustration 19: Dover Ports Current Directions, 3rd DCR (2008) Illustration 20: FAOs Proposed farming design (FAO, 2011) Illustration 21: Demonstration of Dover Ports Tide, Google (2006, 2011) Illustration 22: Variation of tide waves height, Akwensivie, et al (2011) Illustration 23: 3D perspective view of the proposed kelp farm platform Illustration 24: Prototype design exploded view Illustration 25: Prototype design Plan and Section Illustration 26: Site model demonstrating the placement of the farm Illustration 27: Images of the prototype kelp farm model 04 06 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 32 33 34



Introduction & BackgroundThis report is a supplement for the proposed Dover western docks redevelopment project.

ObjectivesThe aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of developing a kelp farm in a complex marine environment such as the site of Dovers Western Docks. The project examines the particular site as a case study but considers all the factors that must be addressed in any similar environment.

The proposed project entails the redevelopment of the site to create two new terminals (one ferry and one cruise terminal), a major landscaping project along the admiralty pier which incorporates crops, gardens and a kelp farm as well as marketplace spaces for the sale of local produce and kelp products.

Illustration 01: View of the Dover Harbour


MethodA feasibility study examines whether or not a certain proposed action or objective can be carried out in reality. This particular project examines whether or not it is possible to create a kelp farm on a site such as the Dover Western dock. The methodology used in this study is a combination of techniques both theoretical and practical. 1. Literature analysis Initially, a thorough analysis of available research into the science of growing kelp was conducted. This enabled the development of an understanding of the environmental requirements of kelp to grow. The research is mostly gathered through academic sources in the areas of marine biology, marine environment and oceanographic sciences. This research generated a series of questions that need to be addressed regarding the suitability of a site for a kelp farm. These questions formulate the foundation of the feasibility study. 2. Case Studies Through examining cases of other kelp farms and using them as precedents, the extent of realism of the requirements identified in the literature analysis can be established. 3. Creation of a theoretical model By collating the findings from the literature and analysing precedents of other kelp farms a theoretical model of issues was created. These issues are what needs to be examined in a particular site to ensure the success of a kelp farm.

4. Qualitative Input (expert interviews) The potential lack or research in a particular field such as kelp farming can lead to gaps in a feasibility study, so a number of outside sources can be used to corroborate the findings or fill in these gaps. In this particular project, two interviews were conducted with Kelp farming experts. Since knowledge of kelp may not be sufficient without an understanding of the particular type of site (geographical or regional eccentricities) the experts chosen were also particularly knowledgeable of the region (UK & surrounding isles). The interviewees were provided with the study / proposal and were asked to make comments, corrections and to provide input. Questions asked were probing to investigate the feasibility of the proposal i.e. would you consider additional factors in this study? or do you consider this water cleanliness standard sufficient for kelp farming in reality? The use of multiple methods ensures the methodological rigidity of the study. The use of multiple methods to infer the same finding is also known as methodological triangulation and increases the reliability and validity of the results of studies. Triangulation the use of qualitative and quantitative techniques together can be very powerful to gain insights and results, to assist in making inferences and drawing conclusions (Fellows and Liu, 2008, p. 9-10) Important comments from the interviews are highlighted in italics under relevant sections (see comment below).

Kelp and other seaweed products are in growing demand people are realising the nutritional value of these powerfoods5

Kelp:Properties of Kelp (Laminaria Saccharina) Can grow as fast as half a metre per day Absorbs carbon dioxide Can be used as a very efficient biofuel Is one of the best agricultural fertilizers Has Incredible Nutritional Properties

Species of Laminaria found in the British Isles:Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux (Oarweed; Tangle) Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie (Curvie) Laminaria ochroleuca Bachelot de la Pylaie Laminaria saccharina (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux (sea belt; sugar kelp; sugarwack) Wikipedia, 2011

Illustration 02: Nutritional Properties of Kelp, Ocean Approved Kelp Products (2011)Kelp vs. Brown Rice - Fibreg/100g Wet Weight

Kelp vs. Whole Milk - Calciumg/100g Wet Weight

Kelp vs. Spinach - Iron50 40 30 20 10 0

8g/100g Wet Weight

400 300 200 100 0

6 4 2 0 Kelp Slaw Cut Brown Rice

Kelp Slaw Cut


Kelp Slaw Cut


Kelp Slaw 6.2 grams/100g wet weight Brown Rice 3.8 grams/100g wet weight

Kelp Slaw 364.7 mg/100g wet weight Milk 115mg/100g wet weight

Kelp Slaw 45.6 mg/100g wet weight Spinach 3.57 mg/100g wet weight


Fertilizing PropertiesSeaweed, is one of the best materials for an earth garden. Kelp helps the stimulation of soil bacteria. This increases fertility of the soil by humus formation (which feeds on the bacteria), aeration and moisture retention. In addition: -Seed germination is improved -Fruits and vegetables increase in nutritional value -Plants develop more extensive roots, which means healthier foliage, fruit and foliage -Plants have a greater resistance to nematodes, disease and pests.

Carbon KillerKelp cleanses the water of excess nutrients and absorbs carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming.

Sustainable GrowthSeaweed doesn't require arable land, fresh water or fertilizer. Kelp grows swiftly -- 2 feet a day in some species - and produces no runoff or erosion

Biofuel PotentialResearch has shown that chopped or ground seaweed can more effectively be used in anaerobic digesters to produce methane than terrestrial biomass, because seaweed contains no lignin and little cellulose and converts rapidly to methane with high yields. (Christiansen, 2008)


Growing Kelp:Kelp seaweed grows naturally in the environment, but as with all farming methods, it is necessary to create a facility that ensures natural but fast and large scale production. The kelp facilities required for farming and processing kelp are: The hatchery, where the spores are reared and seeded from mid July to November The raft farming beds (plantation) where the kelp is farmed in the sea from November to March Drying facilities, where the harvested kelp is taken in March for drying Further processing and quality control facilities in the case of commercial packaging.

Seed Production Hatchery Facilities Mid-July to Mid November

Kelp Production Grow-out Period Mid-November to MidJuly




6. Transplantation of young sporophytes

February 7. Grow-out in floating raft

5. Rearing of young seedling in greenhouse October Phase 1: Hatchery 4. Sporophyte Phase 2: Kelp Farm 8. Harvesting March

9. Dried products & instant food September 3. Egg / Spermatozoid 2. Gameophyte