Emotional and Social Intelligence Competencies in the Workplace Emotional and Social Intelligence...

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Emotional and Social Emotional and Social Intelligence Intelligence Competencies in the Competencies in the Workplace Workplace January 31, 2008 January 31, 2008 Presented to: THE GLOBAL EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE FOURM Mumbai, India By Dr. Robert Emmerling Competency International Web: www.CompetencyInternational.com Email: [email protected]

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  • Emotional and Social Intelligence Competencies in the Workplace January 31, 2008

    Presented to: THE GLOBAL EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE FOURM Mumbai, India

    ByDr. Robert Emmerling Competency International Web: www.CompetencyInternational.com Email: [email protected]

  • THE NEW WORLD ORDERNever has the world seen change..

    Occur so rapidlySo completelyAnd on such a global scale

    Simply put, we may be living through the greatest change in human history.

  • THE NEW BUSINESS ENVIORNMENTProcessDelegateCollaborateDomainLocalGlobalChangeStableDynamicStructureHierarchyMatrix

  • The new global reality requires we rethink some of our assumptions about leadershipTHE NEW BUSINESS ENVIORNMENT

  • American Psychologist (1973)Testing for Competence Rather Than IntelligenceIQ tests are good predictors of academic performance but not job performance or life satisfaction

    Journal of Applied Psychology (2004)Correlated IQ with perceptions of leadership effectiveness and objective results of leadersMeta-Analysis of 151 independent samples

    What did they find?Overall, results suggest that the relationship between intelligence and leadership is considerably lower than previously thought.EI Competencies and Traditional IQ

  • Distribution of IQ

  • Technical &FunctionalSkillsIQEmotional and SocialIntelligence CompetenciesThreshold Requirements(Star Qualities)Competencies and Performance

  • Research shows that IQ accounts for between 4% and 25% of job performance. Research on 181 jobs at 121 companies worldwide showed that 2 out of 3 abilities vital for success were EI-Based Competencies Research reviewed by Dr. Goleman shows that these competencies become even more predictive the more senior the leader Primary reason employees leave organizations is due to relationship issues with their bossThe Business Case for EI-based Competencies

  • Increases with Job Complexity:-1S.D. +1 S.D.PRODUCTIVITY Average Job Complexity 1 S.D. above mean 100% Low +19% =119% Moderate +32% =132% High +48% = 148% Sales +48-120% = 148-220% 0% 13.5% 50% 86.5% 100%SUPERIOR performance ~Top 1 in 10 in a jobPercent of People in a JobThreshold or adequate=minimum acceptableWhat is SUPERIOR Performance Worth?

  • An underlying characteristic of a person that leads to or causes effective or superior performanceCompetency Defined*

  • Self-ControlTrustworthinessConscientiousnessAdaptabilityAchievement OrientationInitiativeEmpathyOrganizational AwarenessService OrientationDeveloping OthersLeadershipInfluenceCommunicationChange CatalystConflict ManagementBuilding BondsTeamwork & CollaborationSelf- ManagementEmotional Self-AwarenessAccurate Self-AssessmentSelf-Confidence

    GOLEMAN MODEL OF EI COMPETENCIESSocial AwarenessSelf- AwarenessRelationship Management

  • Implies the intention to work cooperatively with others, to be part of a team, to work together, as a member of a group (rather than as a leader) as opposed to working separately or competitively.

    COMPETENCY EXAMPLE: TEAMWORKDegree of ComplexityComplexity of behavior and understanding increase as competency level increases

  • 1. DEFINE PERFORMANCE CRITERIAProfit, Productivity, Client Outcomes, etc. 2. IDENTIFY CRITERION SAMPLEBEST performerstop 15%--v. average 3. COLLECT DATACollect data using Behavioral Event Interviewing (BEI) 4. INDENTIFY DISTINGUISHING COMPETENCIESStatistical Analysis of Data 5. CONSTRUCT A COMPETENCY MODEL Use precise behavioral descriptions and identify Target Levels 6. VALIDATE THE MODELConcurrent and predictive validity studies 7. CREATE AND DEPLOY APPLICATIONSSelection, training, performance management, succession planning, etc. Steps in Establishing EI-Competency Models*

  • Performance ratings or nomination: Criterion samples are determined on the basis of performance ratings or nominated by supervisors, peers and/or direct reports. Productivity or effectiveness measures: Criterion samples are determined by objective data related to productivity or performance. Case Example: A major multinational industrial firm used profit of the business units managed by individual executives as the primary measure of executive effectiveness.

    Case Example: Ameriprise Financial Advisors used client portfolio performance as the criteria of effectiveness for financial advisors.

    Define Performance Criteria and Study Sample

  • Initial research found Achievement Orientation, Initiative, Service Orientation, Influence, Directiveness, Developing Others, Self Confidence were related to profit

    Validation research showed that the competencies in the original model were able to predict 27% of the variance in profit measured 2 years after competencies were initially assessed using BEI Cross cultural research showed that these same competencies predicted performance equally well in 2 European countries and the United States

    Case Example: Major Industrial Firm

  • Training was targeted on the competencies identified in the study and consisted of feedback based on individual BEI results, competency-based training, goal setting, and action learning. Return on investment was calculated to be 613%Case Example: Major Industrial Firm

  • Why Guidelines Were Developed Provide guidance for researchers and practitioners Distinguish developing EI from traditional forms of learning How Guidelines Were Developed Evaluation of Model Programs Literature Review Expert opinion

    BEST PRACTICES FOR DEVELOPING EI*

  • Assess Org. Needs Assess Individuals

    Provide Feedback Carefully Maximize Learner Choice

    Encourage Participation

    Link Learning EQ to Personal Values

    Adjust Expectations Gauge Readiness

    Foster Positive Relations Between Learners andTrainers Self-Directed LearningSet Clear Goals Break Goals into Manageable Steps

    Provide Opportunity to Practice

    Experiential Methods

    Enhance Insight Prepare Learners for Setbacks

    Provide Feedback on Practice

    MotivationLearning Encourage Use of Skills on-the-Job Provide anOrganizational Culture That Supports Learning

    Remove Situational Constraints Evaluation Improved Performance Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations www.eiconsortium.org

    *Authors: Cherniss, Goleman, Emmerling, Cowan, & AdlerBRINGING EI TO THE WORKPLACE*

    PreparationTrainingTransferEvaluation

  • Cognitive / Technical Learning is centered primarily in the neocortexInvolves fitting new information into existing frameworksLearning can occur relatively quicklySocial and Emotional LearningLearning takes place in several areas of the brainLearning requires both cognitive and emotional learningInvolves changing things that can be central to our identities - the way we think, feel, and act.Learning occurs over a period of time

    TWO KINDS OF LEARNING*

  • Paving the Way for ChangeUnderstand organizational and individual needsDeliver assessment results carefullyMake it a personal journeySet realistic expectations change can happen but it wont happen overnight

    GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING EI*

  • Doing the Work of Change

    Foster positive relationshipsSet S.M.A.R.T goals for developing EIUse experiential methods and allow for practice and frequent feedbackSpread training over time to allow people to practice on-the-jobPrepare people for setbacks GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING EI*

  • Transfer and Maintenance of ChangeEncourage use of skills on the jobDevelop an organizational culture that supports social and emotional learningEvaluate

    GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING EI*

  • Additional Resources and References

    Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations www.EIConsortium.orgCompetency International www.CompetencyInternational.com

    ReferencesBoyatzis, R.E., (1982). The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance, John Wiley & Sons, NY.Boyatzis, R. & McKee, A., (2005). Resonant Leadership: Sustaining Yourself and Connecting with Others Through Mindfulness, Hope, and Compassion, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.Boyatzis, R.E., & Sala, F., (2004). Assessing emotional intelligence competencies. In Glenn Geher (ed.), The Measurement of Emotional Intelligence. Novas Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY.Emmerling, R. J. & Goleman, D. (2003). Emotional intelligence: Issues and common misunderstandings. Issues and Recent Developments in Emotional Intelligence. Available online www.eiconsoritum.org. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. Bantam, NY.Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E., McKee, A., (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Harvard Business School Press, Boston.Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Judiesch, M. K. (1990) ). Individual differences in output variability as a function of job complexity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 28-42.

  • Additional Resources and References

    ReferencesJudge, T. A, Colbert, A. E, & Ilies, R. (2004). Intelligence and Leadership: A Quantitative Review and Test of Theoretical Propositions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 542-552. McClelland, D.C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than intelligence. American Psychologist, 28(1), 1-40.McClelland, D.C. (1998). Identifying Competencies Using Behavioral Event Interviews. Psychological Science, 9, 331-339.Spencer, L.M. & Spencer, S.M. (1993). Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance, John Wiley & Sons: NY.Spencer, L. M., Emmerling, R. J., Peterson, K. & Lennick Aberman Group (2007). Emotional Intelligence Competencies of Financial Advisors That Deliver Superior Client Portfolio Performance. White paper available online at www.CompetencyInternational.com.Spencer, L. M., Ryan, G., & Bernhard, U. (2008). Cross-cultural Competencies in a Major Multinational Industrial Firm. In R. Emmerling, V. Shanwal, & M. Mandal (Eds), Emotional Intelligence: Theoretical and Cultural Perspectives. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Spencer, L.M. (2001). The economic value of emotional intelligence competencies and EIC-based HR programs. In Goleman, D. and C. Cherniss. (Eds.). The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for, Measure, and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Contact Information [email protected]

    Briefly run through the bullets but wait to expand on each for the following slides. Mention Competence at WorkMention that although we typically use Behavioral Event Interviewing as our data collection tool, this general methodology would work to establish models using different data collection tools, techniques. Here we return to our conversation from earlier related to how much does performance actually vary, i.e. how big is the potential target in terms of potential impact. As you can see the target here is relatively big. An average business head would return 1.26 Million USD in profit back to the company were a star can return about 2.95 Million USD more than twice as much. Consistent what would be predicted more complex roles provide more variability in performance. When the initial competency study was done between average and stars found the various competencies listed here. In a validation study looking at how good the model would predict profit two years later, the competencies were able to significantly predict financial returns two years after competencies were assessed. In fact 27% of the variance was accounted for by the competencies, which for a complex variable like profit is relatively good. More over the model held up when tested in different cultures as well. This is actually one of the few pre-post studies of the effect of training on EI competencies using an actual control group. The interesting thing about this study is that it actually used profit as the measure of program effectiveness. You will notice that Return on Sales actually went down. Anecdotally, we think that this is because since competencies like initiative and achievement orientation were part of the training, the development of such competencies may have caused them to more aggressively spent money on things like market share in an effort to increase sales. This group did spend more but it did translate into more profit which was one of the key measure the organization was hoping to impact. The program had a 613% which means that the costs for initial consulting, model construction, training design, and implementation were returned 6 fold. This is from the first training only, the program continues to this day, in fact we recently started a new group this summer in the program. When the EI Consortium was founded, one of its primary goals was provides some guidance to coaches and training and development professionals relative to best practices for training emotional intelligence competencies.

    One of the things that emerged quickly, was the fact that really there are two broad categories of learning, what we would call Cognitive / Technical training and Social and Emotional Learning.

    This is an important distinction, because methods appropriate for one domain might not be the best method for developing the skills in the other domain.

    In the case of, Cognitive / Technical, learning is primarily center in the neocortex, that is the outer layer of your brain. You might call this the thinking brain. Learning occurs here mostly by fitting new information into existing knowledge, because of this learning can occur relatively quickly. We are wired to learn new fact quickly.

    On the other hand, social and emotional learning takes place in several areas of the brain. For social and emotional learning to occur your training design and methods must engage both the cognitive and emotional centers of your brain.

    This kind of learning can often challenge things that are more central to who we are. What this often entails is changing the why we think, feel, and act. Because these things are tend to be more central to who we are, you can expect that learning occurs over time. What is really needed is sustained effort over time.

    When the EI Consortium was founded, one of its primary goals was provides some guidance to coaches and training and development professionals relative to best practices for training emotional intelligence competencies.

    One of the things that emerged quickly, was the fact that really there are two broad categories of learning, what we would call Cognitive / Technical training and Social and Emotional Learning.

    This is an important distinction, because methods appropriate for one domain might not be the best method for developing the skills in the other domain.

    In the case of, Cognitive / Technical, learning is primarily center in the neocortex, that is the outer layer of your brain. You might call this the thinking brain. Learning occurs here mostly by fitting new information into existing knowledge, because of this learning can occur relatively quickly. We are wired to learn new fact quickly.

    On the other hand, social and emotional learning takes place in several areas of the brain. For social and emotional learning to occur your training design and methods must engage both the cognitive and emotional centers of your brain.

    This kind of learning can often challenge things that are more central to who we are. What this often entails is changing the why we think, feel, and act. Because these things are tend to be more central to who we are, you can expect that learning occurs over time. What is really needed is sustained effort over time.

    What I would like to go over now is some best practices for developing emotional intelligence. You can download the full-text copy of this report from the EI Consortiums website. Ill provide you that link at the end of the presentation.

    For a program in emotional intelligence to be effective requires that you are able to link the assessment and development of emotional intelligence to performance in a particular role.

    While quite a bit of research exists that links emotional intelligence to work performance, the most persuasive evidence will come from correlating EQ with performance measures in the organization you are working with. This is how American Express and Johnson & Johnson were able to launch such large-scale multi-year initiatives related to EQ.

    Again having a good measure of emotional intelligence is key to establishing this link. Although there is validity in self-report measures, it can often be more effective to employ a multi-rater assessment of emotional intelligence to get the most valid assessment that accounts for the largest amount of the variance in work performance.

    To help build motivation to develop emotional intelligence it is important that you give special attention to how the feedback is given. Ideally, a coaching relationship or training design allows people the time and safety needed to actually hear the feedback. Focusing on a balance of strengths and development areas can help deal with the defensiveness that you may encounter around EQ assessments.

    Linking development of EQ competencies to things that an individual values helps. People really only develop EQ if they see that it fits with their aspirations for what they want to be. You may need to help people clarify exactly what those values are and how EQ fits into their personnel mission statement. Helping people see this link is key to the development process.

    And it is also important that you set realistic expectation for what such a change will require, change can happen, but it wont happen over night. What we saw in the last slide, was really how you set the stage and build motivation to develop EQ. Here we have some of the techniques and design elements that make that change possible.

    The key ingredient to any successful effort to build emotional intelligence is relationships. Relationships between trainers and participants, between coaches and clients, and relationships on-the-job are all extremely important to the development process. Without supportive relationships and a safe environment to practice in, it can be very difficult to development EQ.

    Though not unique to the development of EQ, SMART Goals provide an great framework for developing EQ.

    Development goals that are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time Framed, are certainly better than a vague promise to work on leadership style or people skills. This helps the development process to stay focused and adds a level of accountability.

    Because the development of emotional intelligence occurs in several areas of the brain it is important that coaching and training use experiential methods, methods that include feedback and encourage reflection. Just educating people about theory related to emotion intelligence will be less effective than designs that encourage people to work with and examine their emotional reactions as they occur.

    The best training designs spread learning over time, which gives people a chance to practice their developing skills back on-the-job. This also allows people a chance to get back together after they have had sometime to experiment back on-the-job.

    What you will often see when people are trying to develop their emotional intelligence is that people inevitably run into setbacks. As I mentioned earlier there is a common assumption that these are things that cant really be developed. When people hit a road block, they often fall back into old patterns of behavior, because they become frustrated and start to view change as impossible.

    Helping individuals understand that setbacks are a normal part of the development process and helping them to frame them as opportunities for learning and self-awareness. This can help ensure that a minor slip doesnt derail the development plan completely.Once training or coaching has occurred, even the best training and coaching efforts will be undermined if the organizational culture in which the learning occurs does not support the newly acquired skills and insights.

    Here the senior leadership and supervisors of those engaged in the development process play a key role, in providing the support and opportunities for individuals to use their new skills on-the-job.

    At the organizational level, it is important that metrics be put in place to gauge the effectiveness of programs that promote EQ. Of course the metrics will depend on the key issues facing a given organization.

    Just putting an evaluation plan in place, and communicating to those involved that the program will be evaluated, often communicates the importance of the program and helps to provide specific feedback to program designers and key stakeholders as to elements within the program that are effective versus those which need to be adapted, eliminated or replaced.

    It also gives you added credibility and gives you a source of feedback on the efficacy of your training and coaching efforts.