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Ecological and socio-economic assessment of Kenyan coastal fisheries:

The case of Malindi-Ungwana Bay artisanal fisheries versus semi-industrial

bottom trawling

UGent Promoter:

Prof. Dr. Ann Vanreusel

Kenyan Promoter:

Dr. Edward Kimani

Cosmas Nzaka MUNGA

September 2013

Ecological and socio-economic assessment of Kenyan coastal fisheries:

The case of Malindi-Ungwana Bay artisanal fisheries versus semi-industrial bottom

trawling

Cosmas Nzaka Munga

Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute

Marine Fisheries and Ecology Programme

P.O. Box 81651 80100, Mombasa, Kenya

UGent Promoter

Prof. Dr. Ann Vanreusel

Gent University

Marine Biology Research Group

Krijgslaan 281-S8, 9000 Gent, Belgium

Kenyan Promoter

Dr. Edward Ndirui Kimani

Coordinator, Marine Fisheries and Ecology Programme

Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute

P.O. Box 81651 80100, Mombasa, Kenya

Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor in Science:

Marine Sciences

Members of the Reading Committee:

Prof. Dr. Magda Vincx -

-

-

Gent University, Belgium

Dr. Hans Polet ILVO, Belgium

Prof. Dr. Steven Degraer RBINS & Gent University, Belgium

Members of the Examination Committee:

Prof. Dr. Dominique Adriaens - Gent University, Belgium

Prof. Dr. Magda Vincx - Gent University, Belgium

Dr. Hans Polet - ILVO, Belgium

Prof. Dr. Steven Degraer - RBINS & Gent University, Belgium

Prof. Dr. Nico Koedam - Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

Dr. Marijn Rabaut - North Sea Advisor Belgian Minister of

North Sea & Gent University, Belgium

Dr. Edward Kimani - KMFRI, Kenya

Prof. Dr. Ann Vanreusel - Gent University, Belgium

Prof. Dr. Jan Mees - VLIZ & Gent University, Belgium

Dr. Marleen De Troch - Gent University, Belgium

Gent University

Faculty of Science

Marine Biology Research Group

Campus Sterre S8

Krijgslaan 281

B-9000, Gent

Belgium

Email: cosmasnke2001@yahoo.com/cmunga@kmfri.co.ke

Publically defended on 23rd

September 2013.

Chairman of the defence: Prof. Dr. Dominique Adriaens, Gent University, Belgium.

For citation of published work reprinted in this thesis, please refer to the original publications.

Munga, C.N. , 2013. Ecological and socio-economic assessment of Kenyan coastal fisheries:

The case of Malindi-Ungwana Bay artisanal fisheries versus semi-industrial bottom trawling.

Gent University, Belgium 210 pp.

.

mailto:cosmasnke2001@yahoo.com/cmunga@kmfri.co.ke

i

Dedication

Two individuals who wanted the best out of me:

To my late father, Munga Nzaka Dingwanga who valued education despite having not been to school.

To my late brother-in-law, Shaban Zuma Ngome for his academic encouragement even up to the time of his death.

Knowledge is like a garden if its not cultivated, it cannot be harvested (Kenyan Proverb)

Wealth that is free for all is valued by none the fish in the sea are valueless to the fisherman, because there

is no assurance that they will be there for him tomorrow if they are left behind today (Gordon, 1954)

ii

Acknowledgements

Every long journey begins with a single step. This marks the end of my Ph.D.

programme after four years of hard work. This successful ending would not have been

possible without the support in many ways from a number of institutions and individuals.

First: my heartfelt and sincere gratitude go to the Flemish Inter-University Council for

awarding me financial support through the VLIR ICP Ph.D. scholarship. programme. Second:

to my UGent Promoter, Prof. Dr. Ann Vanreusel who started mentoring me tirelessly way

back since my master program in Ecological Marine Management (ECOMAMA), currently

Oceans and Lakes, while at the Free University of Brussels, from my nascency in marine

science until this advanced stage. Thank you so much for your professional guidance and

encouragement even at times when things were difficult, you treated me with much care and

concern like one of your sons. Third: to my Kenyan Promoter and my colleague at the Kenya

Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI), Mombasa, for having been more than just

a workmate, many thanks for having shared your great and long term experience in the field

of fisheries research whole-heartedly without any reservations. You have been my greatest

inspiration, and I am still looking forward to continue working with you.

My Ph.D. programme would not have been complete without the sea time provided to

me to participate in scientific ship cruises under the just ended South West Indian Ocean

Fisheries Project (SWIOFP) in Kenya. My participation in the cruises was positively and

readily accepted by Dr. Renison Ruwa (KMFRI Deputy Director, Coastal and Marine

Division), who was the project National Focal Point for Kenya, Prof. Johan Groeneveld, who

was the project Regional Component 2 Coordinator, and Ms. Teresa Athyde who was in-

charge of cruise logistics and planning. The Kenya Navy kindly provided us with the needed

sea security during the sea time. I thank you all for having given me the golden field work

opportunity and indeed a great exposure.

iii

I would wish to extend my thanks to the Director of KMFRI, Dr. Johnson Kazungu.

He is the one who hinted me about the importance of Malindi-Ungwana Bay fisheries as a

national interest. He challenged me right in his office during one of my courtesy calls to come

up with a scientific research proposal to contribute information for the sustainable utilisation

of the bays fisheries resources. This is the very insight, which culminated in this Ph.D. study.

I would also extend my thanks to the entire KMFRI management for various support given to

me while undertaking my study. This is especially the office transport (field vehicles) that was

readily availed to me upon request. My colleagues in KMFRI Fisheries Research Programme:

James Gonda, Boaz Orembo, Rashid Anam and Dickson Odongo, thank you very much for

sharing your experience and knowledge in fish identification while working with you in the

various fish landing sites. Not forgeting my other colleagues in KMFRI Socio-economic

Programme: Jacob Ochiewo, Edward Waiyaki, Fridah Munyi and Faith Kimanga. Many

thanks for sharing your socio-economic experience with me and the great fieldwork we had

together. My colleagues in the Marine Biology Research Group at Gent University: Lilian

Nduku, Rasha Sabeel and Eva, many thanks for your encouragement during the tough times

we underwent together. Not forgeting my Land Lady, Barbara who always reserved for me a

room for my accomodation while in session at Gent, many thanks for your generosity. To my

Belgian friends: Arne and Gijs, and not forgeting all Kenyan student fraternity at Gent, many

thanks for making me comfortable while at Gent.

Last but not least, to my dear family for their patience and prayers while I was away

from home for many years, you have made me proud of you. My mum, Regina Munga for

seeing me through all my education from difficult beginings especially after being widowed,

you never gave up, but you made sure I had the best in education. This was possible with

great support from my brother and sister Emmanuel Ndegwa and Priscar Mbetsa. Not

forgetting my nephews and nieces: Eunice Luvuno, Francis Ngome, Loice Kwekwe and

iv

Sammy Chimvatsi. To my dear one, loving wife Gladys Njoki, the strongest of all in my

family, for having endured lonely times while taking care of our son Ivan Munga and

daughter Tanya Waruguru, thank you so much for your great support. Your strong prayers and

continuous encouragement have finally borne fruits, there we are, Dr. and Mrs. Munga

Cosmas Nzaka!

v

Summary

This Ph.D. study assessed the ecological and socio-economic aspects of the artisanal

fishery and semi-industrial bottom trawling in the Malindi-Ungwana Bay, Kenya before and

after the trawl ban. Bottom trawling targets shrimps but also produce bycatch. For several

decades, these two fishery types were practiced in the bay. Later on, conflicts emerged

ostensibly due to excess trawl bycatches otherwise targeted by artisanal fishers, perceived

environmantal degradation, and damage of artisanal fishing gear by the trawlers. Retained

trawler bycatches also flooded the local fish markets with cheap fish that competed unfairly

with fish sold by the artisanal fishers. These problems persisted for sometime until a ban on

bottom trawling was imposed in September 2006 to pave the way for the formulation of the

existing shrimp fishery management plan, six years after the ban. This Ph.D. study therefore,

drew its motivation to investigate the status of the Malindi-Ungwana Bay fisheries before and

after the trawling ban and fulfilled the following specific objectives:

i. the study determined t