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Transcript of Community-level socio-ecological vulnerability assessments ... COMMUNITY-LEVEL SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL

FAOFisheries and

Aquaculture Circular

FIPI/C1110 (En)

ISSN 2070-6065

COMMUNITY-LEVEL SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS IN THE BENGUELA CURRENT LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM

FAO Fis h er ies a n d Aqu a cu ltu re Circu la r No. 1110 FIPI/ C1110 (En )

COMMUNITY-LEVEL SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS IN THE BENGUELA CURRENT LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM Serge Raemaekers Senior Researcher/Lecturer University of Cape Town Cape Town, South Africa Merle Sowman Associate Professor University of Cape Town Cape Town, South Africa

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2015

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978-92-5-108908-8

FAO, 2015

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iii

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

This circular was prepared for FAO under the project Climate Change, Fisheries and

Aquaculture: testing a suite of methods for understanding vulnerability, improving adaptability

and enabling mitigation (GCP/GLO/322/NOR).

The material in the appendix is reproduced as submitted.

FAO. 2015.

Community-level socio-ecological vulnerability assessments in the Benguela Current Large

Marine Ecosystem, by Serge Raemaekers and Merle Sowman.

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1110. Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Climate change is considered one of the most critical challenges facing the planet and

humankind. It poses a key threat to marine ecosystems and fisheries resources as well as

communities that depend on these systems for food and livelihoods. Understanding the

vulnerability of these socio-ecological systems to climate change, and their capacity to

adapt, has become the focus of several climate change and fisheries projects and

programmes in recent years. Increasingly, researchers and practitioners recognize that

actions supporting adaptive capacity building have to be grounded in local needs and

experiences and, thus, vulnerability assessments should be participatory and inclusive. A

good understanding of local vulnerabilities, including local perceptions of the multiple

drivers of change, historic and customary adaptation strategies, and existing capacity within

local institutions and among individuals, should be used as building blocks for strengthening

resilience and identifying appropriate adaptation strategies. Participatory vulnerability

assessment is an approach that facilitates better understanding of the extent to which a socio-

ecological system (e.g. coastal fishery system) is susceptible to various socio-ecological

changes (including the effects of climate change) and the systems capacity to cope with

and adapt to these changes from the viewpoint of the local communities. This analysis will

help countries, partner agencies and their staff, researchers and fisheries professionals in

understanding how to define and measure vulnerability within complex fisheries systems,

using perception-based approaches within fishing communities in the Benguela Current

region (Angola, Namibia and South Africa) as an example. Ultimately, the scope of this

work is to improve resilience of fisheries systems and dependent communities to multiple

drivers of change including climate change and ocean acidification.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Gina Ziervogel, Nick Simpson, Hilkka Ndjaula and Warren

Potts for their respective contributions to this report. Nico Waldeck, Christian Adams, Peter

Oewis, Stuart du Plessis, Katrina Hilundwa, Pedro Alfonso Kingkombo, Chevon Griffiths and

James Howard are thanked for their input and support during the fieldwork in South Africa,

Namibia and Angola. Government and non-governmental organization stakeholders from the

three countries as well as small-scale fishers from Doringbaai, Saint Helena Bay, Struisbaai,

Walvis Bay, Henties Bay, Cacuaco, Barra do Dande and Tombwa are gratefully acknowledged

for their input and participation during the in-country stakeholder and community-level

workshops. Cassandra De Young and Kevern Cochrane are thanked for their insights and

support provided throughout the project.

v

CONTENTS

Preparation of this document ................................................................................................ iii

Abstract ................................................................................................................................... iii

Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................. iv

Abbreviations and acronyms ................................................................................................ vii

1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1

1.1 Aim and objectives of the study ................................................................................... 3

2. Conceptual review to inform the RVA approach ............................................................ 4

2.1 Vulnerability and vulnerability assessments ................................................................ 4

2.2 Adaptation .................................................................................................................... 7

2.3 Approaches to and methodologies for vulnerability assessments review and discussion ..................................................................................................................... 8

2.3.1 Index-based and quantitative vulnerability assessments .......................................... 10

2.3.2 Community-level vulnerability assessments ............................................................ 11

2.3.3 Towards more holistic and participatory vulnerability assessments ........................ 12

3. Climate change and small-scale fisheries ....................................................................... 14

4. Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 16

4.1 Development of a rapid vulnerability assessment ...................................................... 16

4.2 Stakeholder planning workshops and case study selection ........................................ 16

4.3 The rapid vulnerability assessment ............................................................................ 18

4.3.1 Facilitator, field work team and preparations .......................................................... 19

4.3.2 The RVA workshop ................................................................................................. 19

5. Findings ............................................................................................................................. 28

5.1 South Africa ............................................................................................................... 28

5.1.1 Doringbaai ................................................................................................................ 28

5.1.2 Struisbaai.................................................................................................................. 34

5.1.3 Saint Helena Bay ...................................................................................................... 39

5.2 Namibia ...................................................................................................................... 45

5.2.1 Walvis Bay ............................................................................................................... 46

5.2.2 Henties Bay ............................................................