An experimental model to increase user participation to YouTube advertisingSummary presentation to my Master dissertation defense- December 2008
1. WHEN THE MUTES START SINGING ____ A Consumer Behavior Perspective on Online Video Upload and User Activation on YouTube
2. OVERVIEW OF THE WHOLE WORK
3. When the Mutes start singing So far no research has looked at Video Upload from a Consumer Behavior p.o.v. The response of viewers to a stimulus in a viral video campaign is difficult to predict on a scientific basis . This lack of knowledge about the dimensions determining (Video) Upload Proclivity hinders future radical innovation in viral marketing campaigns A huge mass of passive users (Mutes) is still out there, waiting to step into the Age of the Proactive Individual. We need to find a way to engage and activate them, get them to want to participate more often. This work intends to contribute to the early stages of the definition of a clear decision model for online social participation and viral communication Experimenting a crossdiscipline approach to online participation in the case of Video Upload can be useful for future consumercentric Research in the fields of Viral Marketing and Online Marketing
4. Business Relevance Source: eMarketer 296% expected growth of UGC advertising market 2007/2012 47% of UG marketers (USA) use or will use viral video submissions
5. Objectives of this Work
6. A PROPER LOOK Identifying a multidisciplinary literary framework for Video Upload Proclivity
7. The concepts behind the screen YouTube is an online social platform for streaming video
8. A World of Research
9. FINDING GUIDANCE Extracting concepts from Qualitative Analysis and refining them through literature measures
10. A bottomup approach
11. Partial Findings phenomena affecting U.P.
12. Experiential Usage of the Website Limited Broad Reality Empowering Virtualness Enriching Service Content Appeal
13. Upload Ideology semiotic square
14. Narrative Relevance: mood & attitude conveyed Consistently with the Narrative power dimension described by (Cova on Mateschitz, 2008), an intriguing and unusual topic, if narrated in a captivating way, can unleash user participation. Besides the mere interest in a videos topic, tested subjects perceive the narration and the acts portrayed as part of a set of factors which finally impact on Mood. Measures and scales developed by Goldberg and Gorn (1987) and Zaichkowsky (1985) link the mood induced on the viewer by a video to the feeling of involvement and a more general attitude perceived by message recipients.
15. Measures, Literature and Tested Variables
16. PUTTING IT TO THE TEST Running a pilot survey test and creating a template for future research
17. The Survey Identity + Usage Video: Mood, Attitude
19. RESULTS Moving beyond the mere confirmation of hypotheses
20. Factors, relations, differences
Linear Regression: semiotic square assumptions confirmed, inverse relations uncovered
Baguettes : A mood/projection/expectation/decision approach is appropriate. All major aspects related to a stress on the expected experience of video uploading are significantly related to U.P. Baguettes care most about the experience of uploading .
Sliders : socialrelated factors , such as the willingness to activate W.O.M. about a video, the impact of offline ties on content relevance, impact the most on U.P., together with the mood/attitude elicited by the video. Sliders care most about sharing the fun with acquaintances .
Good Samaritans: Good Samaritans tend to prefer genuine user-generated spaces with few user to user interaction, just like Wikipedia. Good Samaritans care most about collaborating.
Evangelists: Evangelists do not care much about the experience of uploading or the social side of the act. All they want is to get their point through. Evangelists only care about the final outcome of their upload.
Bear in Mind: Goal directed emotions and Frequency of Usage have negative correlations with Upload Proclivity
21. Factors, relations, differences Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Semiotic square is correct (pair to pair relations). Maximum 7 variables, max number of iterations 55, Varimax rotation. 72,141% of Total Variance Explained. Mainly run in order to test the correctness of the semiotic square. All of the variables hypothesized are confirmed, to different extents, to exert an influence on U.P. Bear in Mind: Perception of Human Presence and Perception of Social Interaction on the Website showed either positive or negative relations to U.P. depending on the users mindset (as in Light & Wakeman, 2001). Goal directed emotions and Frequency of Usage have negative correlations to Upload Proclivity
22. Findings and Suggestions Effort : the negative direction of the relation between U.P. and Goal directed emotions frustrated/delighted suggests the appropriateness of an experiential marketing perspective on the act of uploading videos to YouTube. A dimension of effort is typical of the most memorable experiences ending with a positive outcome for the participants. The pleasure of walking uphill . The Mood trigger: Mood impacts strongly on U.P. and is related to many other important factors such as the willingness to activate W.O.M., goal directed emotions and anticipated emotions. The commoditization of YouTube: Frequency of Usage has a negative relation to U.P. The higher the frequency of usage, the lower the chances to surprise viewers. This might be related to the still intense usage of YouTube as a repository for music videos and proprietary content. Such usage hinders content generation from users and might put them on sleeping mode.
23. Findings and Suggestions Advertisers Mindsetbased targeting : Mindset based (semiotic square) targeting of viral video campaigns is possible through a proliferation of video calls where each one of them features different traits appealing to different semiotic square mindsets. Mindset based targeting also means viral spreading based on key users, which in most cases would be the Good Samaritans. Campaign Maximization: it means reaching the biggest mass of consumers in the shortest time. Astroturfing appears to be an appropriate technique. By infecting Good Samaritans an impression of a growing community will be generated and, as controlled video proliferation progresses, mute users could be intrigued. Good Samaritans: a stress on a GS mindset can foster a quicker penetration of our viral message. Good Samaritans are more keen to see a community even when there is none, they are less bound to their personal tastes when considering participation and they exclusively participate in user-generated environments.
24. Findings and Suggestions YouTube Revise ratings system: Star ratings retain a high and still unexploited consumer insight potential. Administering random pieces of selected psychological scales, such as a 1 -5 Unusual/Usual , instead of just stars might help. Indeed, the end user would see her ranking transform into stars right away, while Google would know much more about its users and content. A combination of ratings and user profiles, finally, would allow a constant monitoring of perception shifts and a big map to use when targeting viral campaigns. Optimize Frequency : A high frequency of visits is always a good asset when selling advertising spaces. However, Frequency of usage is negatively related Upload Proclivity on YouTube. This might be due to a widespread usage of YouTube as a repository for third party content. The related videos mechanism should be revised, distributing user generated videos in all searches run so that, for instance, for every music video watched, four related user replications would be shown.