Chapter 2: The Age of Empires: 1550-550 BCE. The Age of Empires I.The Dynamism of the International...

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Transcript of Chapter 2: The Age of Empires: 1550-550 BCE. The Age of Empires I.The Dynamism of the International...

  • The Age of EmpiresThe Dynamism of the International Bronze AgeRecovery and Rebuilding: Empires and Societies in the Aftermath of the International Bronze AgeThe Civilization of the Hebrews

  • The Dynamism of the International Bronze Age Zones of Power within the International Bronze AgeHittite Kingdom of Haiti, 1650 B.C.E.Battle of Kadesh, 1274 B.C.E.Kassite Babylon and Assyria

  • One measure of the influence of the Hittites is the durability of their art. This relief, from Carchemish in Phoenicia, dates from at least two centuries after the Hittite empire collapsed, but illustrates the Hittite focus on chariot warfare. Also, the winged sun was a symbol other regional empires adopted.

  • The Dynamism of the International Bronze Age (cont'd)Zones of Power within the International Bronze AgeGolden AgePolitical stabilityEconomic prosperityAssyria Babylons chief rivalTukulti-Ninurta I (r. 1244-1208 B.C.E.)

  • The Dynamism of the International Bronze Age (cont'd)Zones of Power within the International Bronze AgeMediterranean Civilizations: Minoan Crete and Mycenaean GreeceMinoan civilization, 2600 -1400 B.C.E.Sea tradeExport of luxury goodsLinear AMatriarchy

  • Knossos. Frescoes on the palace walls of Knossos, Crete, from about 1500 B.C.E. Dolphins were favored as food for elite feasts. The palaceat once an elite dwelling, religious site and a storehouse and distribution center for foodwas rebuilt many times between destructions by earthquakes and, perhaps, invasions.The palace was was also important as the source of the myth of the Labyrinth.

  • The Dynamism of the International Bronze Age (cont'd)Zones of Power within the International Bronze AgeMycenean, 1400 B.C.E.Linear BCity-States and Coastal Communities: Syria and CanaanUgaritAgricultureinternational trade

  • A mazelike structure designed and built by skilled craftsmen and inventor Daedalus for King Minos of Crete to hold the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull. Daedaluss design was so cunning that he almost became lost himself after he finished building it.

    After defeating the Athenians in a war, King Minos decreed that every seven years,seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls would be sent to the labyrinth to be eaten by the Minotaur. On the third round of this cycle of sacrifice, the hero Theseus (future king of Athens) volunteered to go to Crete and kill the monster.

    Theseus was aided by Ariadne, daughter of King Minos, who gave hima ball of thread (the clew or clue) to find his way out of the labyrinth. Ariadne also furnished him with a sword, and instructions (always go forward, always go down, never left or right). Theseus made his way to the center of the maze, stumbled on a rock, awakening the sleeping Minotaur, and began a bloody fight., in which he eventually prevailed by slitting the beasts throat. Myth of the Labyrinth

  • Knossos, Crete

  • Palace of Knossos, Crete, c. 1500 CE (Labyrinth)

  • The Dynamism of the International Bronze Age (cont'd)Zones of Power within the International Bronze AgeTroy: A City of Legend3000-1000 B.C.E.Homers Iliad

  • The walls of Mycenae in southern Greece, built over 3,000 years ago. Warlike city-states arose in this region of sparse agricultural productivity, on the profits of the manufacture and export of luxuries for markets in Egypt and Anatolia. After 1500 B.C.E., the language of Mycenae replaced that of Crete in official Cretan records, suggesting political/military mastery b the Mycenaeans.Mycenae defenses

  • Citadel of Mycenae

  • The Dynamism of the International Bronze Age The Club of the Great PowersGreat Power Relations and ExchangesKing Assur-Ubalit I Hattusili IIIInternational tradeConquest and Client StatesAnnual tributeAuxiliary troops

  • Wall painting in the tomb of the vizir Rekhmireone of hundreds of Egyptian nobles buried in sumptuous graves in Thebes circa 1500 B.C.E. Part of Rekhmires job was to receive tribute or, in effect, gifts from foreign lands. Items depicted here include copper ingots with handles from the eastern or northern shores of the Mediterranean and exotic products from the Nubian frontierivory, apes, a giraffe.

  • The Dynamism of the International Bronze Age The Club of the Great PowersCommonalities Among the Great Power CulturesPalace systemSocial hierarchy

  • The Dynamism of the International Bronze Age Crisis and Collapse: The End of the International Bronze AgeDark ageThe Epic of ErraThe Sea PeoplesSystemic InstabilityHabiru: peasants in debt take to the hills (or desert, marshes, etc) to become bandits, soldiers for hire, or outlaws.

  • Recovery and RebuildingEmpires and Societies in the Aftermath of the International Bronze AgeBefore and Between the EmpiresDark Age New Peoples of the Land: the ArameansNew Peoples of the Sea: The PhoeniciansProto-Canaanite alphabet

  • Sea Peoples. Now the northern peoples in their isles were quivering in their bodies, says the inscription that accompanies a ship-borne battle scene of the reign of Ramses III. They penetrated the channels of the mouths of the Nile. . . . They are capsized and overwhelmed where they stand. . . . Their weapons are scattered on the sea.Playing Defense: Egypt vs. Sea Peoples

  • The Civilization of the HebrewsThe Early History of the HebrewsHebrews 1200 B.C.E.ExodusIsrael: From Monarchy to Exileanti-royalism

  • The Civilization of the HebrewsThe Early History of the HebrewsThe United MonarchySaul, 1020 B.C.E.David, 1005-970Solomon, 970-931 B.C.E.grand temple

  • The Civilization of the Hebrews (cont'd)The Early History of the HebrewsThe Divided MonarchySuccessor KingdomsOmri, 885-875 B.C.E.Ahab, 873-852

  • The Civilization of the Hebrews (cont'd)The Early History of the HebrewsInto ExileLost Ten Tribes of IsraelHezekiah, 727-697 B.C.E.Zedekiah, 597-586 B.C.E.JewsJudaism

  • The Civilization of the HebrewsThe Hebrew Religious LegacyEarly SyncretismYahwehElAsherahBaalThe Prophetic MovementElijahOther prophets

  • The Civilization of the HebrewsThe Hebrew Religious LegacyYahweh Alone: The Emergence of MonotheismBook of the LawCovenantBabylonian ExilePentateuch/TorahThe Hebrew LegacyChosen People

  • MAP 2.1The International Bronze Age, ca. 15001100 B.C.E.For 500 years, networks of commerce and diplomacy tied together the distinct cultures of Egypt, Greece, Anatolia,and Southwest Asia.**THE DEATH MASK OF AGAMEMNONThis thin gold mask, about eleven inches long, was found at the citadel of Mycenae in the tomb of a ruler who died about 1550 B.C.E. Heinrich Schliemann, whose excavations were the first to show that Troy did exist in history as well as legend, mistakenly jumped to the conclusion that it was the death mask of King Agamemnon, who led the Greek forces during the Trojan War, as told in Homers Iliad.*THE INTERNATIONAL MONUMENTAL STYLEMany Late Bronze Age kings constructed new capital cities as a way to proclaim their power to their people and to their potential rivals at home and abroad. In constructing these palaces and cities, kings borrowed from each others cultures to such a degree that a single international style in monumental building emerged, as these Hittite and Mycenaean fortress gates illustrate. The entrance gate to the Hittite capital of Hattusas and the gate into the citadel of Mycenae both feature massive stone lions, the symbol of royal strength in many Bronze Age societies.THE INTERNATIONAL MONUMENTAL STYLEMany Late Bronze Age kings constructed new capital cities as a way to proclaim their power to their people and to their potential rivals at home and abroad. In constructing these palaces and cities, kings borrowed from each others cultures to such a degree that a single international style in monumental building emerged, as these Hittite and Mycenaean fortress gates illustrate. The entrance gate to the Hittite capital of Hattusas and the gate into the citadel of Mycenae both feature massive stone lions, the symbol of royal strength in many Bronze Age societies.*CHRONOLOGY: THE INTERNATIONAL BRONZE AGE

    MAP 2.2 Southwest Asia in the Iron AgeThe economic and social crisis that accompanied the end of the International Bronze Age brought with it surges of migration, resulting in new peoples settling throughout Southwest Asia and the coalescence of indigenous peoples into new tribal groups. Free (for a time) of Great Power control, Syria and Canaan splintered into small kingdoms and city-states.TABLET AND PARCHMENT; CUNEIFORM AND ALPHABETThis Neo-Assyrian relief from the southwest Palace at Nineveh (ca. 630620 B.C.E.) shows Assyrian scribes making an inventory of the booty from a military campaign against Babylonia. Significantly, one scribe holds a clay tablet and is writing in Akkadian cuneiform, whereas the second scribe is writing in Aramaic (and therefore in a phonetic alphabet script) on papyrus. By the seventh century B.C.E. both papyrus and parchment were widely used, but few of these fragile documents have survived.*MAP 2.3 Phoenician Expansion, ca. 900600 B.C.E.Impelled by the quest for commerceand particularly for control of the lucrative metals tradePhoenicians developed a commercial empire across the Mediterranean Sea. Initially, the Phoenician settlements were only trading posts, but in many areas, these expanded into colonial settlements. By 600 B.C.E. Carthage had become the chief Phoenician city in the western Mediterranean. It controlled the resources of north Africa and parts of Spain.CHRONOLOGY: THE NEO-ASSYRIAN AND NEO-BABYLONIAN EMPIRESASSYRIAN TORTURE TACTICSThis Assyrian relief shows Assyrian soldiers impaling prisoners from Judah. In 701 B.C.E. the emperor Sennacherib and his army marched into Judah to put down a rebellion. They besieged the city of Lachish and then brutally tortured its inhabitants. They later besieged Jerusalem, but King Hezekiahs surrender saved the capital city.CULTURAL CONTINUITIES: BAAL ACROSS THE CENTURIESThis 13th-century B.C.E. bronze statuette of the Canaanite god Baal comes from Ugarit. The worship of Baal was a feature of Canaanite religion throughout both the Bronze and Iron Ages. A gold foil overlay distinguishes the head and face, and silver on the chest, arms, and legs perhaps represents armor.CHRONOLOGY: THE KINGDOMS OF THE HEBREWS