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### Transcript of Chap04 Conditional

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1

If Control Construct

A mechanism for deciding whether anaction should be taken

JPC and JWD 2002 McGraw-Hill, Inc.

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Boolean Algebra

Logical expressions have the one of two values - true or false

A rectangle has three sides

The instructor has a pleasant smile

The branch of mathematics is called Boolean algebra

Developed by the British mathematician George Boole in the19th century

Three key logical operators

And

Or

Not

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Boolean Algebra

Truth tables

Lists all combinations of operand values and the result of theoperation for each combination

Example

P Q P and Q

False False False

False True FalseTrue False False

True True True

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Boolean Algebra

Or truth table

P Q P or Q

False False False

False True True

True False True

True True True

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Boolean Algebra

Not truth table

P not P

False True

True False

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Boolean Algebra

Can create complex logical expressions by combining simplelogical expressions

Example

not (P and Q)

A truth table can be used to determine when a logicalexpression is true

P Q P and Q not (P and Q)

False False False True

False True False True

True False False True

True True True False

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A Boolean Type

C++ contains a type namedbool

Typebool has two symbolic constants

true

false

Boolean operators

The and operator is &&

The or operator is ||

Thenot

operator is !

Warning

& and | are also operators so be careful what you type

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A Boolean Type

Example logical expressions

bool P = true;

bool Q = false;bool R = true;

bool S = (P && Q);

bool T = ((!Q) || R);

bool U = !(R && (!Q));

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Relational Operators

Equality operators

==

!=

Examples

int i = 32;

int k = 45;

bool q = (i == k);

bool r = (i != k);

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Relational Operators

Ordering operators

>=

i);

bool r = (i >= k);

bool s = (k

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Operator Precedence Revisited

Precedence of operators (from highest to lowest)

Parentheses

Unary operators

Multiplicative operators

Relational ordering

Relational equality

Logical and Logical or

Assignment

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Operator Precedence Revisited

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

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Operator Precedence Revisited

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

Yuck! Do not write expressions like this!

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Operator Precedence Revisited

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to((((5 *15) + 4) == 13) && (12 < 19))

||

((!false) == (5 < 24))

Consider5 * 15 + 4 == 13 && 12 < 19 || !false == 5 < 24

However, for your information it is equivalent to

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Conditional Constructs

Provide

Ability to control whether a statement list is executed

Two constructs

If statement

if

if-else

if-else-if

Switch statement

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The Basic If Statement

Syntax

if(Expression)Action

If the Expressionis true thenexecuteAction

Actionis either a single

statement or a group ofstatements within braces

Expression

Action

true false

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Example

if (Value < 0) {

Value = -Value;

}

Value < 0

Value = -Value

true fa lse

Is our number negative?

If Value is not less

than zero then ournumber is fine as is

If Value is less thanzero then we need toupdate its value tothat of its additive

inverse

Our number isnow definitelynonnegative

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Sorting Two Numbers

cout > Value1 >> Value2;if (Value1 > Value2) {

int RememberValue1 = Value1;

Value1 = Value2;

Value2 = RememberValue1;

}

cout

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Semantics

value2 < value1

int rememberValue1 = value1

value1 = value2

value2 = rememberValue1

true false

Are the numbersout of order

Rearrange value1and value2 to

put their values

in the proper

order

The numbers w ere

initially in order

The numbers were

rearranged into theproper order

The numbers are in

order

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What is the Output?

int m = 5;

int n = 10;

if (m < n)++m;

++n;

cout

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The If-Else StatementSyntax

if(Expression)Action1

elseAction2

IfExpressionis true then executeAction1otherwise executeAction2

if (v == 0) {

cout

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Finding the Max

cout > Value1 >> Value2;int Max;

if (Value1 < Value2) {

Max = Value2;

}

else {

Max = Value1;

}

cout

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Finding the Max

Value1 < Value2

Max = Val ue2 Max = Val ue1

true fa lse

Is Value2 larger than Value1

Yes, it is . So Value2 islarger than Value1. Inthis case, Max is set

to Value2

No, its not. So Value1is at least as large asValue2. In this case,Max is set to Value1

Either case, Max is setcorrectly

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Selection

It is often the case that depending upon the value of anexpression we want to perform a particular action

Two major ways of accomplishing this choice

if-else-if statement

if-else statements glued together

Switch statement

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An If-Else-If Statement

if ( nbr < 0 ){

cout

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A Switch Statement

switch (ch) {

case 'a': case 'A':

case 'e': case 'E':

case 'i': case 'I':case 'o': case 'O':

case 'u': case 'U':

cout

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cout > Left >> Operator >> Right;

cout

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