BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM CHERRY (Prunus cerasus ......Biodiesel properties Property Biodiesel CKO...

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Transcript of BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM CHERRY (Prunus cerasus ......Biodiesel properties Property Biodiesel CKO...

  • BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM

    CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L.)

    KERNEL OIL

    Olivera Stamenković, Milan Kostić, Vlada Veljković

    University of Niš, Faculty of Technology, Leskovac, Serbia

  • BIODIESEL?

    TAG Transesterification (alcoholysis)

    Fatty acid methyl esters mixture - satisfied the biodiesel quality

    standard (EN 14214 ili ASTM D6751)

    R -C-OH + CH3OH R-C-O-CH3 + H2O

    FFA

    FFA Esterification

    O

    Oily feedstock

    (TAG)

    CH2-O-C-R1

    CH -O-C-R2 + 3 CH3OH

    O

    CH2-O-C-R3

    O

    catalyst

    CH3-O-C-R1

    CH3-O-C-R2 + CH-OH

    CH3-O-C-R3

    CH2-OH

    CH2-OH

    Fatty acid methyl esters

    (biodiesel)Glycerol

    O

    O

    O

    catalystOO

  • Actuality of biodiesel

  • BIODIESEL

    Vegetable

    oils

    (crude, refined,

    used)

    Animal fats

    Waste oils

    Alcoholysis

    Higher cetane number

    Biodegradable

    Less toxic

    Less smoke and dust

    Less GHG emission

    vs fossil diesel

  • Oily feedstocks

    1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation

    Edible crops oil,

    animal fats Non–edible crops oils,

    waste fats and oils

    Algal biomass

  • novel feedstocks from cheap and waste sources not competing with food

    ➢ Winter cover crops

    Oily feedstocks - Perspectives

    ➢ Waste oily by-products from food processing

  • Goal:The biodiesel production from cherry kernel oil (CKO) with high free fatty acid

    (FFA) content by methanolysis over CaO in a batch stirred reactor

    ➢ Oil extraction: Soxhlet method by using n-hexane

    ➢ Two step process for biodiesel production:

    • FFA esterification: methanol/oil molar ratio: 8.5/1; H2SO4 amount: 2 wt%

    (to the oil), temperature: 45 oC

    • TAG methanolysis: methanol/oil molar ratio: 9:1, the CaO loading: 5 wt%

    (to the oil), temperature: 50 oC

    EXPERIMENTAL:

    ➢ Analytical method: HPLC

  • RESULTS

    Property

    Density (20 oC), g/ml 916.1

    Viscosity (20 oC), mPas 93.3

    Acid value, mg KOH/g oil 29.3

    FFA, % 14.6

    Iodine value, g I2/100 g ulja 141.7

    Water content, % 0.21

    Fatty acid compositions, %

    C16:0 6.6

    C18:0 2.1

    C18:1 41.25

    C18:2 48.93

    C20:0 1.12Extraction conditions: n-hexane,

    solvent/kernel ratio: 6/1, 3 h

    Oil content: 28%

    Physico-chemical properties of CKO

    Oil extraction from cherry kernels

  • FFA esterification

    The FFA content variation with time (45 oC, methanol/oil molar ratio :

    8.5/1, H2SO4 amount 2 %)

    1%

  • TAG methanolysis

    The variation of reaction mixture composition with time (50 oC,

    methanol/oil molar ratio 9/1, CaO amount 5 %

  • Scheme of experimental

    procedure

  • Biodiesel properties

    Property Biodiesel CKO EN 14214

    Density (15 °C), kg/m3 862 860-900

    Viscosity (40 °C), mm2/s 4.24 3.5-5.0

    Acid value, mg KOH/g 0.42 0.50 max

    Iodine value, g I2/100 g 137 120 max

    Water content, mg/kg 260 500 max

    FAME, % 99.1 96.5 min

    MAG, % 0.7 0.8 % max

    DAG, % 0.1 0.2 % max

    TAG, % 0.1 0.2 % max

    Flash point, °C 146 101 min

    Cetane number 52 51 min

  • CONCLUSIONS

    ➢The low-cost cherry kernels are promising feedstock for

    biodiesel production because of significant oil content

    ➢The two step process (acid-catalyzed esterification of FFAs

    followed by the base-catalyzed methanolysis of the esterified

    oil) was applied due to high acid value of crude CKO

    ➢The properties of obtained FAME are within the

    specifications of EN14214 biodiesel standards, except theiodine value which is above the standard limitation