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Rocky Mountain Biodiesel Biodiesel Technology and Use K. Shaine Tyson Rocky Mountain Biodiesel Biomass Opportunity and Challenges in Indian Country Denver, CO September 15, 2004
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  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Biodiesel Technology and Use

    K. Shaine TysonRocky Mountain Biodiesel

    Biomass Opportunity and Challenges in Indian Country

    Denver, COSeptember 15, 2004

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    What is Biodiesel ?

    A clean burning renewable fuel made from agricultural products

    Soy bean oilSunflower oilCanola and rapeseed oilAnimal fats

    Recycled cooking oil (yellow grease or WVO)

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Benefits of Biodiesel

    RenewableSupports agricultureSupports recyclingDisplaces petroleumAdds value to petroleum fuelsEnvironmental benefits

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Recycles CO2

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    Petroleum Biodiesel

    g CO2 per bHP-h of work Biodiesel emits 78.5% less CO2 than petroleum dieselBlends exhibit proportionate benefits

    B20 emits 15.66% less CO2 than petroleum diesel

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Biodiesel emits 78.5% less CO2 than petroleum diesel

    Soybean Production

    Soybean Crushing

    Biodiesel Production

    Biodiesel End Use

    169.34 g carbon in fat and oil

    -8.31 g C in glycerine, soapstock

    -2.36 g C in wastewater

    -1.74 g C in solid waste

    Transport

    148.39 g Cin biodiesel

    21.29 g C from CO2

    148.05 g C in CO2 0.34 g of C in

    THC, CO and TPM

    1 bhp-h work

    Transport Transport

    160.81 g carbon in soy oil

    1.24 kg soybeans

    -0.81 g C in wastewater

    -7.73 g C in meal residual oil

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Energy Efficient

    Biodiesel yields 3.2 units of fuel energy for every unit of fossil fuel consumed in its life cycle.Petroleum diesel yields 0.83 units of fuel energy per unit of fossil energy consumed.

    00.20.40.60.8

    11.2

    PetroleumDiesel

    Biodiesel

    MJ Fossil Used per MJ Fuel

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Energy ContentB100 energy content averages 121,000 BTU/gal

    Diesel No. 2 averages 131,000Diesel No. 1 averages 126,000

    B20 reduces fuel economy, power and torque by 1-2%B5 has 99.5% of the energy content of diesel fuel

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Biodiesel is a Lubricant

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    8000

    0.0% 2.5% 5.0% 7.5% 10.0%

    Percent Methyl Ester

    SLBO

    CLE

    (gra

    ms)

    Soy ME Canola ME Inedible Tallow Edible Tallow Lard LFFA Yellow Grease HFFA Yellow Grease

    EMA Spec >3100 grams

    NREL/SR-510-31460: Production of Biodiesel from Multiple Feedstocks and Properties of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends, March 2003.

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    EPA Emission Analysis

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    0 2 4 6 8 10

    tetramethyl butaneethyl benzene

    xylene (dimethyl benzene)C9 n-nonane

    ethyl methyl benzeneHeptanol

    C10 n-decaneHeptenoic acid, methyl ester

    ethyl hexanoldiethyl benzene

    methyl propyl benzeneC4-Benzene or C2-benzene

    phenyl ethanonemethylisopropylbenzene

    C11 n-undecanebenzoic acid

    ethyl dimethyl benzeneoctanoic acid (caprylic acid)

    nonanolbutoxyethoxy ethanol

    1-dodeceneC12 n-dodecane

    dimethyl undecanehexyl cyclohexane

    nonanoic acidmethyl tridecane

    tetrahydro dimethyl naphthaleneC13 n-tridecane

    methyl naphthaleneundecanol

    trimethyl dodecaneC14 n-tetradecane

    ethyl naphthalenedimethyl naphthalene

    hexanedioic acid, bis methylethyltetramethyl hexadecane

    2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dioneC15 n-pentadecane

    1,1'-ethylidenebis-benzene1.1'-biphenyl, 3-methyl-

    methyl ethyl naphthalenetrimethyl naphthalene

    C16 n-hexadecanetrimethyl pentadecane

    diphenyl methanoneC17 n-heptadecane

    C18 n-octadecanehexadecanoic acid methyl ester

    octadecadienoic acid methyl esteroctadecenoic acid methyl ester

    0 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

    RELATIVE EMISSION RATE (MG/HP-HR)

    B100 B20 2D

    HEAVY HC SPECIATION - CUMMINS N14 ENGINE

    Tier I Health Effects Data supplied by SWRI, 1997-8

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    PAH in Semi Volatile PM

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    nano

    gram

    s/bh

    p-h

    2-m

    ethy

    l nap

    htha

    lene

    1-m

    ethy

    lnap

    htha

    lene

    biph

    enyl

    2,6-

    dim

    ethy

    l nap

    htha

    lene

    acen

    apht

    hyle

    ne

    acen

    apht

    hene

    2.3.

    5-tri

    met

    hyln

    apht

    hale

    ne fl

    uore

    ne

    fluor

    ene

    1-m

    ethy

    l phe

    nant

    hren

    e

    phen

    athr

    ene

    anth

    race

    ne

    fluor

    anth

    ene

    pyre

    ne

    chry

    sene

    benz

    o(b)

    fluor

    anth

    ene

    benz

    o(k)

    fluor

    anth

    ene

    benz

    o(e)

    pyre

    ne

    benz

    o(a)

    pyre

    ne

    pery

    lene

    inde

    no(1

    ,2,3

    -cd)

    pyre

    ne

    dibe

    nz(a

    h)an

    thra

    cene

    benz

    o(gh

    i)per

    ylen

    e

    DieselBiodiesel

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Mutagenicity Testing

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    Rev

    erta

    nts/

    bhp-

    hr x

    10^

    5

    Cold +S9 Hot +S9 Cold -S9 Hot -S9

    Diesel

    Biodiesel

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    EPA Required Tier II Health Effects

    Testing at Lovelace Respitory Research Institute, 1999Exposed 10 wk old F & M F344 rats

    6 hrs/day, 5 days/wk for 13 weeksWhole diluted emissions, 1998 Cummins B5.9 100 % biodiesel produced from soybean oil3 levels (H, M, L) plus negative control

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    LRRI Health EvaluationsGeneral Toxicity:

    Body Weight & Feed Consumption, Clinical Observation, Mortality, Hematology (cell counts), Clinical Chemistry (liver & kidney function)

    Pathology (gross and histopathology, all organs)OphthalmologyNeuropathology

    Histopathology of brain, spinal cord, nervesBrain glial fibrillary acidic protein

    ReproductionDNA Damage:

    Micronucleus in bone marrow red blood cellsSister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Tier II Results

    No Significant Exposure-Related Effects On:

    Feed Consumption, Clinical Condition, Mortality, Ophthalmology, DNA (Micro-nucleus, Sister Chromatid), Neural Parameters, Reproduction (Fertility, Teratology)

    Minor Exposure Effects Deemed Not Biologically Significant

    Body and Organ Weights:Lower liver weight, Higher relative lung weight in F, Higher relative testis weight in M

    Clinical Chemistry:4 Liver-related parameters decreased, Glucose increased

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Tier II Results cont.Minor Exposure Effects:

    Lung Histopathology:Dose-related increase in macrophages containing particulate matterMinor alveolar cell changes in 4/30 females in the high level groupCaused by particles, but not toxic effectEffect diminished after 28 days non-exposure

    Only Biologically Significant Biodiesel Exhaust Exposure Effect was a Small Effect in Lungs at the High Exposure Level:

    Increased macrophages in M & FSlight increase in F lung weightCellular changes in a few F

    Based on this, the No Observable Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) was the Medium Level

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Biodiesel—The Healthy Alternative

    Based on the health benefits established for biodiesel emissions, many groups are using biodiesel to reduce health risks

    MinersSchool bus fleets

    Some people think the exhaust smells good too! Even B20 exhaust has a more pleasant odor than diesel No. 2.

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Benefits of Biodiesel

    Blends with petroleum dieselBlends up to 20% biodiesel can be used in any diesel equipment with out modification

    VehiclesStorageOff-roadHeating oilBoiler fuels

    No new investments required

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Cloud Point Rises as Biodiesel Fraction Increases

    -20

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    0% 5% 10% 20% 35% 50% 100%

    Clo

    ud P

    oint

    *F

    Soy Canola Lard Ed. Tallow Ined. Tallow YG #1 YG #2

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    ASTM Biodiesel Definition

    biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100.

    biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Biodiesel Ingredients

    Oil or fats +SoyCornSunflowerCanolaRapeseedMustardCottonseed

    CatalystsSodium hydroxidePotassium hydroxide

    Plus HeatMixing

    Alcohol +MethanolEthanol

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    What are fatty acid alkyl esters?

    Triglyceride: Fat or Oil molecule

    Biodiesel molecules

    Glycerin moleculePictures courtesy of

    Campa® als Kraftstoff

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    TechnologyVegetable oils

    Recycled greases & animal fats

    Dilute AcidEsterification

    Sulfur +methanol

    Transesterification

    Crude Glycerin

    Biodiesel Refining

    Crude biodiesel

    Biodiesel

    Methanol + KOH

    Glycerinrefining

    Glycerin

    Methanolrecovery

    Wash water & contaminates

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Quality Processing

    Crude Glycerin (+ methanol, soaps, catalysts, water)

    Transesterification

    ReactionCrude Biodiesel

    Vegetable oilsMethanolBase catalysts

    Dryer

    Dry Biodiesel to storage

    Water + acid Wet Biodiesel

    Refining

    RefiningWater, salt, soaps, glycerin, methanolCrude Biodiesel

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Good Production Technology

    ReactionTransforms 99% (or more) of fats and oil molecules to fatty acid estersMinimizes unreacted or partially reacted fatty acids

    Refining removes Neutralized catalystsMethanolGlycerinSoapsWater

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    ASTM D 6751 -- B100 for Blending Property ASTM Method Limits UnitsFlash Point 93 130.0 min. degree CWater & Sediment 2709 0.05 max. vol.%Carbon Residue 4530 0.050 max. wt. %

    (100% sample)

    Sulfated Ash 874 0.020 max. wt. %KinematicViscosity, 40C 445 1.9-6.0 mm²/sec.Sulfur 5453 0.05 max. wt. %Cetane 613 47 min.Cloud Point 2500 By Customer degree CCopper Corrosion 130 No. 3 max.Acid Number 664 0.80 max. mg KOH/gFree Glycerin 6584 0.020 wt. %Total Glycerin 6584 0.240 wt. %Phosphorus 4951 0.0010 max wt, %Vacuum distillation 1160 T-90 < 360 oC max

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Commercial Technology

    Century old technologiesNumerous patentsDozen + technology vendors99% + yields Any feedstockSizes from 0.5 million gal/yr to 60 mil gal/yrWith and without crushing technology

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Vendor Qualifications

    Existing facilities operating in good standingPerformance guarantees

    Quality guarantees (ASTM)Cost guaranteesYield guarantees

    Technical support TrainingFeedstock optimization

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Feedstock VariablesWhat kind of feedstock

    Free fatty acid contentPriceCold flow characteristicsSupply volumes

    Mixing feedstocksControls priceControls propertiesComplicates USDA paymentsComplicates potential excise tax incentives

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Scaling up “home brew”Home brewers’ DO NOT make ASTM quality biodiesel on a consistent basis

    Generally using low temperatures, no pressureYou can invest in scale up development

    Include extra costs for EngineeringLonger shakedown periodEquipment replacementTechnical assistanceHigher working capital

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Production Costs

    $0.00

    $0.50

    $1.00

    $1.50

    $2.00

    $2.50$/

    gallo

    n bi

    odie

    sel

    High cost soybiodiesel

    Low cost soybiodiesel

    Soy biodieselcoproduct

    credit

    High cost yel.grease

    biodiesel

    Low cost yel.grease

    biodiesel

    YG biodieselcoproduct

    credit

    Feedstock Reagents Labor

    Utilities Maint, ins, tax, pkg, ship, admin Interest

    Depreciation Coproduct

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    B2 to B20 Can be Affordable Premium Fuels

    0.0

    50.0

    100.0

    150.0

    200.0

    250.0

    300.0

    Cen

    ts p

    er g

    allo

    n

    low

    high

    low 188.0 136.0 93.7 83.3 72.5 71.4 70.1

    high 255.0 179.0 130.7 115.5 102.7 101.2 99.6

    Soy B100

    YG B100

    Soy B20 YG B20 Soy B2 YG B2 Diesel

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Biodiesel Markets

    B100Expensive, technical limitations, not recommended

    B20Bulk fuel fleets, primarily government, some retailHigh cost offset by emission benefits

    B2Commercial as premium diesel Lubricity value, fuel diversity

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Market IssuesWhat markets are available?

    B20, who are theyB2, which petroleum distributors?

    What volumes will moveIn the first six monthsBy the second year

    What will you have to do to compete?Vis-à-vis other biodiesel distributors/producers

    How will you build your markets?

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Potential IncentivesFederal Excise Credit

    Reduces on road taxes paid by Blenders1 cent per 1 percent vegetable oil biodiesel0.5 cent per 1 percent WVO biodiesel

    Blenders’ Income Tax CreditSame as above except for OFF-road usesLimited by income tax obligations

    States offering a variety of incentives

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Renewable Fuel Standard

    X% of (on road gasoline + on road diesel) must be renewable by 2012/2015

    Not passed into law yetEthanol is cheaper per gallon than biodieselRefiners will use ethanolSome refiners will use biodiesel

    Farm belt

    Won’t create big markets for biodiesel without the excise tax credit

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    Near Term Biodiesel Supplies

    1,6771,61413,424Total biomass oils

    5144953,808Trap grease

    5553406Yellow grease

    4427.9Fish oils

    3029221.5Poultry fat

    5452399Other fats & oils

    3833682,837Inedible tallow & greases

    111185Lard

    6360465Edible tallow

    2525190Peanut, Safflower, Linseed

    1918140Cottonseed

    000Canola16360465Sunflower

    1531471,130Corn

    3042922,250Soy

    Per yearPer year

    Gal B100Gal OilLbs/yr

    MillionMillionMillion

    Current Supplies equivalent to using 5.5% biodiesel in all on-road diesel markets in the U.S. in 2003

  • RockyMountainBiodiesel

    SummaryFeedstocks are availableFeedstock cost generally higher than petroleum diesel wholesale costProduction technology available for most feedstocks/scalesEnvironmental, health benefits creating demandB2 & B20 markets growingOff-road uses growingWithout incentives, economics not strongIncentives could create a boom

    Biodiesel Technology and UseWhat is Biodiesel ?Benefits of BiodieselRecycles CO2Biodiesel emits 78.5% less CO2 than petroleum dieselEnergy EfficientEnergy ContentBiodiesel is a LubricantEPA Emission AnalysisPAH in Semi Volatile PMMutagenicity TestingEPA Required Tier II Health EffectsLRRI Health EvaluationsTier II ResultsTier II Results cont.Biodiesel—The Healthy AlternativeBenefits of BiodieselCloud Point Rises as Biodiesel Fraction IncreasesASTM Biodiesel DefinitionBiodiesel IngredientsWhat are fatty acid alkyl esters?TechnologyQuality ProcessingGood Production TechnologyCommercial TechnologyVendor QualificationsFeedstock VariablesScaling up “home brew”Production CostsB2 to B20 Can be Affordable Premium FuelsBiodiesel MarketsMarket IssuesPotential IncentivesRenewable Fuel StandardNear Term Biodiesel SuppliesSummary