Biochemistry Lipids. Family of Lipids Lipids Lipids: family of biochemicals that are soluble in...

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Transcript of Biochemistry Lipids. Family of Lipids Lipids Lipids: family of biochemicals that are soluble in...

  • BiochemistryLipids

  • Family of Lipids

  • LipidsLipids: family of biochemicals that are soluble in organic solvents but not in waterClasses:Waxes: fatty acid + a long-chain alcoholTriglycerides (fats & oils): glycerol + 3 fatty acids Phospholipids: glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate + amino alcoholGlycolipids: glycerol or spinogosine + fatty acid + monosaccharideSteroids: 3 cyclohexanes + 1 cyclopentane fused together

  • Fatty Acids

  • Fatty Acids

  • Fatty Acids with Starch

  • Fatty AcidsFatty acids: long-chain carboxylic acidsForm fats and oils (usually have an even number of carbons)Saturated fatty acid: all single bondsUnsaturated fatty acid: at least 1 double bondPolyunsaturated: two or more double bondsMost double bonds are cis- bonds that cause a bend in the chain

  • Fatty AcidsPropertiesSaturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature and have a high melting pointUnsaturated fatty acids are liquid at room temperature and have a low melting point

  • Prostaglandins

  • Prostaglandins

  • Fatty Acids in the Human bodyEssential fatty acids: polyunsaturated fatty acids that the body can not makeImportant: linoleic and linolenic acidsLack of in infants cause skin dermatitisArachidonic acid is converted into prostaglandins which serve as local chemical messengers

  • Fats and Oils

  • Fats and Oils

  • Fats and Oils

  • Hydrogenation of Oils

  • Fats and Oils

    Fats: 509% or more saturated fatty acids; solid at room temperatureOils: more unsaturated fatty acids; liquid at room temperature

  • Fats and OilsProperties:Hydrogenation (adding H2)Converts a double bond to a single bondChanges liquid oil to a soft semisolid fatOxidation to carboxylic acidFat/oil becomes rancid with a disagreeable odorSome oils have antioxidants to slow oxidationRefrigeration in an air-tight container slows oxidationMicroorganisms oxidize body oils during exercise

  • Soap: Long Chain Fatty Acid SaltFatty acidNa+COO-NonpolarPolarFatFat with soap is water soluble

  • Fats and OilsProperties continued:Saponification with heat and strong base produces a glycerol and salts of the fatty acids Hydrolysis (breakdown)Requires a strong acid catalyst or lipase enzymeProduces 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids

  • Phospholipid

  • Phospholipid

  • PhospholipidPhospholipids join a bilayer to form a cell membrane.Polar HeadNonpolar TailThe Cell Membrane

  • GlycolipidPhospholipids join a bilayer to form a cell membrane.The Cell Membrane

  • PhospholipidsPhospholipid:alcohol + phosphate +fatty acid Glycerophospholid: glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate/amino alcoholLecithins and cephalins abundant in brain & nerve tissue, egg yolks, wheat germ, and yeastForms cell membranes

  • PhospholipidsSphingolipid: sphingosin + fatty acid + phosphate/amino alcoholA phospholipid with sphingosin instead of the glycerolImportant in the myelin sheath that surrounds most nerve fibersGlycolipid: glycerol + 1 fatty acid + sugarIn cell membranes Function in cell adhesion & self-identity markers

  • PhospholipidsLipidoses, lipid diseasesExcess accumulation of sphingolipid or glycolipidCaused by an absent, mismade, or deficient enzyme that breaks down the lipid

  • Steroids

  • SteroidsCholesterol Synthesized in the liverGives strength to cell membranesIn myelin sheath, bile salts, vitamin D produced by the skinExcess in body leads to gall stones and plaque in the arteries

  • SteroidsBile saltsSynthesized from cholesterol in the liverSent to the digestive tract to emulsify fatsPromotes absorption of cholesterol in the digestive tractFat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, KA for night visionD promotes absorption of Ca+ in intestinal tract and deposition of Ca+ in the bonesE prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in cell membranesK functions in blood cloting

  • SteroidsHormones:Sex hormones control reproduction, sexual characteristics, and general growthAdrenal corticosteroidsCortisone increases blood glucose levels and reduces inflammationAldosterone acts in the kidneys to maintain Na+ and water balanceSex hormones Anabolic steroid, derivative of testosteronePrevents breakdown of worn out muscle cellsHas dangerous side effects

  • A Lipoprotein

  • Lipids in the BodyLipoproteinsWater insoluble lipids must be delivered to all parts of the body by the water-based bloodBody packages lipids in membrane with proteins to make the lipids water solubleTypes: VLDL, LDL, HDL, chylomicronsHDL on the way to the liver is good cholesterolLDL on way to the cells is prone to deposit in blood vesselsEnzyme in blood capillaries releases lipids from the protein carrier

  • Lipids in the BodyLipoproteinsWater insoluble lipids must be delivered to all parts of the body by the water-based bloodBody packages lipids in membrane with proteins to make the lipids water solubleTypes: VLDL, LDL, HDL, chylomicronsHDL on the way to the liver is good cholesterolLDL on way to the cells is prone to deposit in blood vesselsEnzyme in blood capillaries releases lipids from the protein carrier

  • The End