21300913 Employee Motivation Project Report
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For more Notes, Presentations, Project Reports visit a2zmba.blogspot.com hrmba.blogspot.com mbafin.blogspot.comExecutive Summary Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker one reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing. Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values, beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce. Now days employees have been hired, trained and remunerated they need to be motivated for better performance. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set or forces that cause people to behave certain ways. People are motivated rewards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed People wants more. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs. Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, or motivation Managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction. Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers and supervisors at all level. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of the organization. It requires more time, more skill, and managers who care about people. It takes true leadership. By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more important. When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities, they are motivated to work even harder so they wont let the company down. Motivation is essential for any company because employee is Asset of company. Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of the organization.
Introduction In the organizational setting the word Motivation is used to describe the drive that impels an
individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who wants to work .Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if employees know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they can often perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers want to know what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder. When people speak of motivation or ask about the motives of person, they are really asking Why the person acts, or why the person acts the way he does .The concept of motivation implies that people choose the path of action they follow. When behavioral scientists use the word motivation, they think of its something steaming from within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin in the Latin word mover which means to move. Thus the word motivation stands for movement. One can get a donkey to move by using a carrot or a stick; with people one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands. However, these only have a limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated, increased or reinforced to secure further movement. If a manager truly understands his subordinates motivation, he can channel their inner state towards command goals, i.e., goals, shared by both the individual and the organization. It is a well known fact that human being have great potential but they do not use it fully , when motivation is absent .Motivation factor are those which make people give more than a fair days work and that is usually only about sixty-five percent of a persons capacity .Obviously , every manager should be releasing hundred percent of an individuals to maximize performance for achieving organizational goals and at the same to enable the individual to develop his potential and gain satisfaction. Thus every manager should have both interest and concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability. At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers (Bedeian, 1993). Motivation Theories Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory. According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance
will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Adams' theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965). Skinner's theory simply states those employees' behaviors that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated (Skinner, 1953). Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviors that lead to positive outcomes. Managers should negatively reinforce employee behavior that leads to negative outcomes. WHAT IS MOTIVATION? A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is: Performance =f (ability motivation) Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task. However, ability alone is not enough. The persons desire to accomplish the task is also necessary. Organizations become successful when employees have abilities and desire to accomplish given task. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. 6 Reassess needs deficiencies 5 Receives either rewards or punishment 4 Performs 3 Engages in goal directed behavior 2 Searches for ways to satisfy needs 1 Identifies needs
Framework of motivation Framework of motivation The framework comprises six steps. (step1) Motivation process begins with the individuals needs. Needs are telt deprivations which the individual experiences at a given time and act as energizers. These needs may be psychological (e.g., the needs for recognition), physiological (e.g., the needs for water, air or foods) or social (e.g., the needs for friendship). (step2) Motivation is goal directed. (step3) A goal is a specific result that the individual wants to achieve .An employees goal are often driving forces and accomplishing those goals can significantly reduce needs. (step4) Promotions and raises are two of the ways that organizations seek to maintain desirable behavior. They are signals to employees that their needs for advancement and recognition and their behaviors are appropriate. (step5) Once the employee have received either rewards or punishments. (step6) They reassess their needs. DEFINITIONS Some definitions on motivation: how behavior gets started is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped, and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on jones, 1955). the term motivation refers to a process governing choices made by person or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity motivation is the result of process, internal or external to the individual that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that aimed at a goal or an incentive Obviously, the first definition covers all stages shown in the motivation model. The Role of Motivation: Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival (Smith, 1994). Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs, motivating employees is arguably the most complex. This is due, in part, to the fact that what motivates employees changes constantly (Bowen & Radhakrishna, 1991).