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I !I .:.,
Chapter 2THE MIN OR PROPHETS IN MARK'S GoSPEL
IntroduaionMark's1 indebtedness to the Book of Isaiah is well known but his use ofthe Minor Prophets has received comparatively little attention. Marknever quotes from nor alludes to Hosea, Amos, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum,Habakkuk, Haggai and Zephaniah. Of greatest significance is th e Bookof Zechariah, with an explicit quotation in Mk 14.27 (Zech. 13.7), aswell as allusions in Mk 11.2 (Zech. 9.9-10), Mk 13.27 (Zech. 2.10 [ET2.6]) and Mk 14.24 (Zech. 9.11). A phrase from Mal. 3.1 appears inthe composite quotation (Exod. 23.20/Isa. 40.3) at the beginning of theGospel (Mk 1.2), though it is ascribed to Isaiah. Malachi is also presentin the discourse about the return of Elijah in Mk 9.11-13 (Mal. 3.22-23[ET 4.4-5]).4 The metaphor of the s i c k l e ' in the context of eschatologicalharvest (Mk 4.29) could be an allusion to Joel4.13 (ET 3.13), while theseverity of the judgement described in Mk 13.19 has similarities withjoel 2.2. Finally, there are a number of parallels between the stilling ofthe storm in Mk 4.35-41 and the story of jonah. There is no conclusiveevidence that Mark alludes to any of the other Minor Prophets. Withthe exception of the opening citation of Mal. 3.1, which Mark probably
Mattbaeo Koeckerto: anno sexagesimo quinto feliciter peracto coUegae carissimoin donwn natalitiwn oblatum.1. 'Mark refers to the author with out identifyinghim with any historical person.2. The major monographs on Marks use of the Scriptures give little attention to theMinor Prophets. A. Suhl,Die Funktion der a l t t e s ~ ~ n n e n t l i c h e n Zitate und Anspie/ungen imMarkusevangelium (Giitersloh: Giitersloher Verlagshaus, 1965) and J.Marcus, The Wayofthe Lord: Cbristological Exegesis of he Old Testament in theGospel ofMtnlc (Louisville,KY: Westminster. 1992) focus on Zechariah and Malachi.3. On Hosea and Amos, see below. In .Mk 15.32 the crucified is merely addressedwith o 3aotAe\,s 'lapcn}A, explaining oXpaa-rc)s-. There is no reason to infer that theevangelist alludes to Zeph. 3.15.4. In Mk 9.11 a phrase from Mal. 3.23 (ET 4.5) is attributed to the scribes.5. NA27 lists Hos. 6.6 (Mk 12.33); Amos 2.16 (Mk 14.52); 8.9 (Mk 15.3); Zeph.3.15 (Mk 15.32) but none of these are convincing.
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28 Minor Prophets in the New Testamenttook from tradition, it would appear that Mark made use of the LXX.We begin our study with the explicit quotation of Zech. 13.7 in Mk14.27.6
QuotationsZech. 13.7 in Mk 14.27Aher the meal, Jesus and the disciples have gone back to the Mount ofOlives (Mk 14.26). Jesus predicts that all the disciples will fall away,will be caused to stumble. Though this will happen because of him(cf. v.l. and Mk 6.3), there is a deeper reason. Mark's Jesus groundshis prediction by citing from the Scripture: 'for it is written'. Thisintroductory formula signals to the recipients of the text that words ofGod, who determines the course of events, will follow. The evangelistaltered the second person plural imperative of the text he cited fromZech. 13.7 traTataTe,7 into the first person indicative traTatc.l in Mk14.27b in order to let the cited words appear not as God's commandbut as his intention: 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will bescattered'. Zech. 13.7 is also cited in the Damascus Codex (XIX,8), inconnection with the day of judgement, when God visits the earth. Theentire Jerusalem prophecy of Zechariah seems to have been appliedto the last days. The Lives of the Prophets, preserving traditions thatreach back into pre-Christian times, explicidy characterized Zechariah'sprophecy in Jerusalem as based 'on his visions about the end of theGentiles, Israel, the temple ... He announced a twofold judgement,on the nations and on Israel. Mark places the quotation in aneschatological context.
Mk 14.28 interprets the quotation.' The dose link between thequotation in Mk 14.27b and Mk 14.28a is signalled not only by thecontrastive aAAa, but also from v. 28, where it becomes clear that theimages of the struck shepherd and the scattered flock from Zech.13.7 aremapped onto Jesus and his disciples in v. 27. This seems to be the reasonwhy the evangelist had to rewrite the text from Zechariah. In order tomake the reference to Jesus possible, he altered the plural TOUS lTOIJ.lEVas
6. lntertextuality is to be approached from the perspective of the reader; d. C.Breytenbach, 'Das Markusevangelium, Psalm 110,1 und 118,22f. Folgetextund Pritext', inC. Tuckett (ed.), The Old Testamentin the Gospels (BETL, 131 ; Leuven: Leuven UniversityPress - Peeters, 1997), pp. 197-220, esp. 197-201.7. Late minuscules have the Markan reading.8. Cf. Liv. Pro. 1S.S.
9. Cf. also S. L Cook, The Metamorphosis of a Shepherd: The Tradition History ofZechariah 11:17 + 13:7-9', CBQ SS (1993), pp. 4S3-66, esp. 463-6.
29in Zech. 13.7 LXX into the singular TOV t r o t ~ e v a . But what does the firstline of the metaphor mean? The verb traTaooc..J in the quotation means'to physically strike a blow, to strike or to hit' but it can also express a'deadly blow'. From v. 28 it is evident tha t Jesus is the shepherd who willbe struck, since he will be raised up. To eyepOijval J!E indisputably refersto his resurrection, thus traTatc.l TOV t r o t ~ e v a in v. 27 must refer to thedeath of Jesus. The shepherd will be given a deadly blow. What is themeaning of the second line of the metaphor, TO trp0(3aTa liaam:opmo8JiooVTat? One has to note the alteration in the quotation. Unlike codicesVaticanus and Sinaiticus which read eKotraoan10 in Zech. 13.7, Mk14.27 has litam:opmaOr}oovTat. The verb means, like the Hebrew f1!l,'to scatter, to disperse'. Adapting to the time of traTatc..J, the evangelistchanged from an aorist imperative second person to a future passivethird person.11 The scattering of the flock will happen in the future. Verse28 determines that the disciples are depicted in terms of the flock. Mterthe death of Jesus, they will be scattered like sheep without a shepherd.This will be part of the eschatological events leading up to great sufferingof the disciples and the destruction of the temple (Mark 13). But thereis a positive announcement. The Greek verb trpooyc..J means 'to leadforward, on, onward, to escort on the way'. So after his resurrection,Jesus will resume his role as shepherd and lead his flock to Galilee. Thetext implies that the dispersion which starts with his death will thenend.12
Combined QuotationsExod. 23.20 and Mal. 3.1 in Mk 1.2bThe quotation in Mk 1.2b-3 is introduced 'as it is written in the prophetIsaiah' with no reference to Malachi. The quotation itseH has threepeculiarities. Firsdy, Mk 1.2b-c is a conflation between Exod. 23.20and Mal. 3.1. The two texts are combined by the relative pronoun os.Secondly, typically for Mark, 3 a second citation (from Isa. 40.3 LXX) is
10. mmaoo 't o draw out, to draw forth'.11. The reading litacncoprrto81}aoVTat in codex Alexandrinus and in the sixth centurycodex Marchalianus is clearly influenced by the Synoptics; litacncopmoOJ)n.Yaav in cOdexSinaiticus is due to late correction. 12. Through careful analysis of the context, D. S. du Toit, Der abwesende Herr.Strategien im Markusevangelium zur Bewiiltigung der Abwesenheit des Auferstandenen(WMANT, 111; Neukirchener Verlag: Neukirchen-Vluyn, 2006), p. 139, has illustratedconvincingly that litaCJKopmo8JlooVTat cannot refer to the flight of he disciples.13. The combination of quotations is a technique by which Mark composed his text;cf. C. Breytenbach, 'Die Vorschriften des Mose im Markusevangelium. E.rwigungen zurKomposition von Mk 7,9-13; 10,2-9 und 12,18-27', ZNW97 (2006), 23-43.
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30 Minor Prophets in the New Testamentadded in Mk 1.3.14 Thirdly, the conflation in Mk 1.2b-c is a traditionalquotation, since the very same conflation between Exod. 23.20 andMal. 3.1 forms the basis of the independent tradition from Q. 15 Bothtraditions, Mk 1.2b and Lk.Q 7.27b-c/Mt.Q 11.1 Ob-c have, instead of thehi-composite verb e ~ a t r c x r r i A A C I . l in Mal. 3.1, the composite atroanAACI.land an additional phrase, trpo trpooc..ltrou aou. Although the latter comesfrom Exod. 23.20a ('I am going to send a messenger in front of you'),both Mk and Q do not follow the Greek translations of Exod. 23.20b inthe second line, but unanimously read os KaTacnceuaaea -ri}v ooov aou.16Their common text thus rather recalls 't o prepare a way before me' ofMal. 3.1 than 'to guard you on the way' from Exod. 23.20. The additionof the article before ooov signifies that the synoptic tradition focuses onthe specific path of Jesus. The second person aou, following -ri}v ooov,might still reflect the influence of Exod. 23.20 preceding the lines takenfrom Malachi in the Mk/Q tradition. It uses KaTam::euaaea ('to makeready for some purpose, prepare') instead of im(3Ae'lJeTal ('to lookattentively at, look upon') as Mal. 3.1 LXX does. This might indicatethat the Mk/Q tradition reflects the ill!l (pi. with 1i, to clear a path')of the Hebrew original.17The early synoptic tradition, which must have been taken over byMark, thus expressed the role of John the Baptist through a conflatedcitation (Exod. 23.20 and Mal. 3.1). It is precisely the notion fromthe Hebrew text of Malachi entailed in the traditional quotation thatthe messenger 'prepares' the way, which led Mark to add (Mk 1.3)the quotation from Isa. 40.3 LXX to the tradition (Mk 1.2b-c) and tointroduce the whole complex quotation with Ka8oos yeypalTTaa ev
'Haal9 t r p o c i > ~ T ( ) (Mk 1.2a).18 Exodus and Malachi are no t evenmentioned. The traditional quotation is taken to be part of Isaiah. ForMark, the beginning of the Gospel (= good news) about Jesus Christ [theSon of God] is in accordance with what has been written in the prophetIsaiah.19
14. Cf. the synopsis of the texts in S. Pellegrini, Elija- Wegbereiter des Gottessohnes(HBS, 26; Freiburg: Herder, 2000), 226-7.15. With the exception that Matthew adds iycb after ioou both texts are identical.Even this prevented a unanimous reconstruction of a Q-text, as can be seen from thediffering proposals of the International Q-Projea and the Critical Edition of Q. Cf. F.Neirynck, Q-Parallel.s (Leuven: Peeters, 2001), pp. 78-9 .16. Cf. Mk 1.2c//Lk.Q 7.27dMt.Q 11.10c.17. SimilarlyTheodotion with hoaJ.laOEI.18. Mk 1.1-la should read: 'ApxiJ ToU aiayyeAiou 'h}aoiiXpaOTou [uiou 8eoii]yiypatrTal EV T4l 'Hoaa9 T4)trpot1)Tn 19. On the importance of Isaiah for Mark, d. M. Hooker, 'Isaiah in Mark's Gospel',in S. Moyise and M. J. J. Menken (eds), Isaiah in the New Testmnent (London and NewYork: T&:T Oark, 2005), pp. 35-49.
Mark's Gospel 31Allusions
Allusions to Hosea20 and Amos21 are improbable, whilst Mark's readersmight be led to recognize phrases and motives from Jonah, Malachi, Joeland Zechariah.
]onah 1.4, 10 in Mk 4.35-41It can righdy be asked whether the episode on the calming of thestorm (Mk 4.35-41) is narrated against the backdrop of Jonah. Thesimilarities between Jonah 1.4 and Mk 4.37 are striking indeed. Thecorresponding detail of Jonah fast asleep, snoring in the bowels of theship Uonah 1.5) and Jesus sleeping in the stem on a cushion (Mk 4.38)beg for a more detailed comparison.22 In both narratives the wind causesa rough sea endangering the ship. In both stories the main charactermust be woken up and is reprimanded by the others on the ship. Theverbal reoccurrences from Jonah in Mark's episode are not limited toTo trAo'iov and OaAaaaa (the latter refers to the lake, cf. Mk 4.41). InMk 4.41 the motive of fear of those accompanying Jesus is expressed inthe same words (including 6gura etymologica) that the crew in jonah
20. The phrase 'and after six days' (Mk 9.2) marks the shift in time between thetransfiguration narrative and the preceding context. Some have suggested an allusion toHos. 6.2, but that phrase rather recalls ExocJ. 24.16, urging the reader to understand thetransfiguration against the backdrop of Moses' encounter with the Lord on Sinai (cf. Exocl.24.9-18). When Jesus comments in Mk 12.33c that to love God wholeheartedly, with allthe understanding and strength, and to love one's neighbour as oneself, 'is much moreimportant than all whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices', Mark alludes to a well-knownmotive, reaching back to the times of Hosea. A direct allusion to Hos. 6.6, however,is not recognizable. Cf. Hos. 6.6: 6acha EAws eEACil Kal oU 8ualav Kai etrlyvcooav BeouoAOICaUTc.)pcrra ('For I will have compassion rather than sacrifice, and the knowledgeof God rather than whole burnt-offerings'). H. B. Swete, The Gospel according to Mmk(London: Macmillan, 1902), p. 286 opted for 1 Kingdoms 15.22: ~ e a i elmv I a J ~ o U J ' ) A ei8eAT)ToV T4)acupt"cl o A o t c a u T c b J ~ a T a mi Buoiaa 6ls TO cXKoUoal ~ v i i s acupiou ('and Samuelasked if whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices are such a delight to the Lord, as to obey thevoice of the Lord?').
21. According to Mark's passion narrat ive, from the sixth (=noon) to the ninth hour,the three hours before Jesus died, 'darkness came over the whole land until three in theafternoon' (Mk 15.33). The corresponding time and the motive of global darkness might-s o Irenaeus,Haer. IV 33.12- recall Amos 8.9, b ut the absence of he sun setting at middayand the evangelist's choice of words do not allow the conclusion that he alludes to theprophet's words: 'That the sun shall go down at midday, and the light shall be darkenedon the earth by day'. It is unlikely that the young man fleeing naked (Mk 14.52) alludes toAmos 2.16 ('the naked shall flee away in that day, said the Lord'). For Swete, Gospel, p.354, the incident recalls Gen. 39.12-19. 22. Cf. E. Lohmeyer,Das Evangelium des Markus (KEK, V2; GOttingen: Vandenhoeck&: Ruprecht, 1963), p. 92.
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! :.! '
32 Minor Prophets in the New Testament1.1023 uses (Kat E c i K > ~ n e n o a v oi & v ~ p e s - cj>o(3ov peyav): teat EcJ>ol3n8TJOav
c j > O ~ o v peyav teal eAeyov. Additionally, the outcome of both stories isidentical, in that the sea is calmed Uonah 1.15; Mk 4.39). Albeit thatthe dangerous situation, caused by wind and raising waves, the fear ofthe crew pleading for help, and a passenger who assists in rescuing, arecommon motives of this type of narrative, 4 the similar terminology, thecontrast between the fear of the crew and the sleeping passenger make itlikely that Mark drew on the Greek version of the episode from Jonahin telling his story, 5 thus focusing on Jesus' power as Son of God (1.11 ).His word silences the natural forces.u
Mal. 3.22-23 LXX in Mk 9.11-13Mk 9.11-13 is the second part of a larger episode (Mk 9.9-13), whichcan be classified as an argument on the basis of Scripture. 7 After thetransfiguration Jesus orders Peter, John and James to tell nobody whatthey have seen until after the Son of Man has risen from the dead(Mk 9.9). The disciples seem to include the resurrection of the Son ofMan in the general eschatological resurrection of the dead.28 Trying tounderstand this, they ask what this rising from the dead could mean (Mk9.10b). The reason for their lackof understanding becomes evident fromtheir question. It is put in words which allude to Mal. 3.22 LXX2': 'Whydo the scribes say that Elijah must come first?' How can the Sonof Manrise from the dead if, according to the scribes, Elijah must first returnbefore there can be a resurrection of the dead? Although Mark does not
23. Mark points tO jonah 1.10 rather than 1.16 (Kai e4>oPtl8ttoav oi av6pes ~~ ~ ~ wv KVplov). 8ij.evXIIgr has the Tetragrammaton.24. Cf. the analysis of the motives by G. TheiBen, Urchristliche Wundergeschichten(Giitersloh: Giitersloher Verlagshaus, 1974), pp. 107-11. For parallel narratives fromGreek and Jewish tradition see W. Cotter, Miracles in GrearRoman Antiquity (New York:Routledge, 1999), pp. 132-42.25. Cf. R. Kratz, Rettungswunder (EHS, XXDI/123; Frankfurt: Lang, 1979), 207-16.See also A. Y.Collins,Mark: A Commentary (Hermeneia; Philadelphia: Fortress, 2007), pp.259-60.26. The words of the Markan Jesus 'my soul is very sorrowful' (Mk 14.34) mightrather cite Psalm 42 or 43 than allude to the words of onah tha t he is 'grieved unto death'Uonah4.9).27. Cf. Marcus, Way, pp. 100-10.28. I have analysed theargument and its presuppositions in some detail elsewhere. Cf.C. Breyt=bach, oas Markusevangelium als uaditionsgebundene Erzihlung? Anfragen andie Markusforschung der achtziger Jahre', in C. Focant (ed.), The Synoptic Gospels: SourceCriticism and the New Literary Criticism (BEll., 110; Leuven: Leuven University Press- Peeters, 1993), pp.n-110, cf. pp. 102-5.29. The verbal agreement is confined to 'HAiav and eA8iiv. Both words functiondifferently in both texts.
M a r k ~ Gospel 33quote Mal. 3.22, there are more indicators in his narrativethat he alludesto the tradition in Mal. 3.22-23 LXX, that Elijah will be sent before thegreat and terrible day of the Lord. John the Baptist has been sent (cf.Mk 1.2b). According to Mark he proclaimed baptism after conversion(Mk 1.4). According to Malachi, the returning Elijah will restore therelationships between father and son and neighbours (Mal. 4.6/Mal.3.23 LXX; cf. Sir. 48.10). Mk 9.11 thus presupposes the tradition aboutElijah redivivus from Malachi. In Mk 9.12 Jesus agrees that Elijah comesto restore 'everything' (Mk 9.12a), which will include the restitution ofthe above mentioned relationships. The verbal similarities are confinedto chrotcaTao-nioet in Mal. 3.23 LXX and citrotca8tOTavet in Mk 9.12a,but it is clear that the evangelist alluded to the Malachi tradition. Jesus'answer draws on the common synoptic tradition that Elijah returned asJohn the Baptist (cf. Lk.Q 7.27/Mt.Q 11.10) and resolves the problemof the disciples: Since Elijah has already come as John the Baptist,the precondition of the scribes is already fulfilled. Consequendy theeschatological resurrection can be inaugurated by the Son of Man.
Zech. 9.9-10 in Mk 11.1-11According to Zechariah the return of the Lord to Jerusalem will startfrom the Mount of Olives (Zech. 14.4-6). Jesus sets out from Bethany onthe eastern slope of the Mount of Olives (Mk 11.1). Is this an allusion tothe prophet's words?l0 There is harder evidence for an allusion to Zech.9.9 in the next verse (Mk 11.2).31 The Hebrew text of Zech. 9.9 wantsto stress the purity of the i1Cn ('pack animal'). The king rides on a i"JJ('male ass' or 'colt ass'); it is the offspring of a p ~ ('filly ass'). TheGreek translation renders i1Cn adequately with utrol;Uytov 'under theyoke', a term for a pack animal. It then, however, translates i"V withtrc.:lAov, which designates a foal, a young horse.32 The words n 1 J n ~ 1 ~('a filly of a donkey') are rendered by the adjective veov 'young'. Withtrc.:lAov Mk 11.2, 4, 7 thus repeatedly takes up a term from Zech. 9.9.Mark, however, does not specify that the trooAos- is a donkey. In both
30. The saying of the Markan Jesus 'For mortals it is impossible, but not for God;for God all things are possible' (Mk 10.27b) presupposes a widely attested Jewish belief inGod's omnipotence (cf. Gen. 18.14; Job 42.2; jdt. 9.14; 13.4; 3 Mace. 5.51; Philo, Spec.4.127; Abr. 175; Mk 14.36, 62) and is not confined to Zech. 8.6. That family ties will besevered during the last days is a common apocalyptic motive (c.1 En. 100.1-l;Jub. 23.19)shared by Mk 3.21; 13.12 and Zech. 13.3.31. Suhl, Frmktion, pp. 57-8, denies any influence from Zecb. 9.9. Notwithstandinghis treatment of the johannine parallel, one can agree with Liihrmann that the story hasroots in Zech. 9.9. Cf. D. Liihrmann, Das Markusevangelium (HNT, 3; Tiibingen: j.C.B.Mohr, 1987), p. 188.32. Cf. BDAG, s.v.
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34 Minor Prophets in the New Testamentthe Hebrew source and its Greek translation this is evident. In fact, itis merely because Mark expands on the veov from Zech. 9.9 by tellinghis reader in Mk 11.2 that the trc;).Aos has never been ridden (eel>' ovou6els o\nrCal a v e p ~ l T C a l V EKcX8tOEV) that one can infer that he alludes tothe Greek translation of Zech. 9.9.33 The royal motive of the comingkingdom of David which Mark adds in 11.10 to the ~ u o t a t i o n of Ps.117.26 LXX in Mk 11.9 is clearly taken from Zech. 9.9 (t6ouo a o t . A r u soou EPXETat 001).34 Matthew was certainly correct in highlighting theallusion by quoting Zech. 9.9 in Mt. 21.5.35 Against the backdrop ofZech. 9.9 Mark depicts Jesus as entering Jerusalem, as the one whocomes in the name of the Lord, and whose advent fuels the hope of hisentourage that the return of the Davidic reign is imminent. What thishope entails can be inferred from Zech. 9.10 LXX: 'And he shall rootthe chariots out of Ephraim, and the horse out of Jerusalem. The bow ofwar shall be destroyed and abundance and peace from the nations. Andhe shall govern over the waters as far as the sea, and over the rivers onearth's end'. In 12.35-37 the Markan Jesus dashes this hope by arguingon the basis of David's 'own words' that the Christ is not a Son ofDavid. 6 Since the narrator has introduced Jesus as the Christ (cf. Mk1.1 ), the reader is left with the question: ~ y does he enter Jerusalemas a king?' According to Mark, Jesus is the harbinger of the kingdomof God, not that of David. 7 All his enemies will be subdued under him(12.36); he will gather the elect from everywhere (13.27).
]oe/4.13 (ET 3.13) in Mk 4.29; ]oe/2.2 in Mk 13.19The allusions to Joel are confined to the depiction of the final judgement. 8Mark 4.29 depicts the moment when the final judgement commencesmetaphorically with the phrase 't o send in the sickle' designating theaction with which the final judgement commences, as is the case inJoel 4.13 (ET 3.13). Since this is not common eschatological imagery,
33. Cf. Lohmeyer, Evangelium, p. 229.34. The Greek can be rendered as 'Rejoice greatly, 0 daughter of Zion. Announcealoud, 0 daughter of Jerusalem; behold, your King is coming to you, he is just and liberates,he is unassuming and riding on a pack animal, a young foal'.
35. Cf. the contribution of Clay Alan Ham in this volume.36. Cf. Breytenbach, 'Markusevaogelium', pp. 201-14.37. Cf. the similar exposition of L. Schenke, Das Markusevangelium (Stuttgart:Kohlhammer, 2005), p. 264.38. The phrase that 'the sun will be darkened, and the moon will no t give its light,and the stars will be falling from heaven, and the powers in the heavens will be shaken'in Mk 13.24-5 is quoted from lsa. 13.10; 34.4. This imagery,:whicb is also used by joel2.10 and (in the Hebrew text) in 3.4 and 4.15, is widely attested in Jewish apocalypticliterature (cf. Sib. Or. 3.800-1; 4.346-9, 476-80; As. Mos. 10.5; 4 Ezra 5.4-5; 7.39; T.Levi 4.13).
Mark's Gospel 35it could be an allusion.39 That the day of the Lord will be the darkestand gloomiest day ever Uoel2.2) is comparable to the great tribulationannounced in Mk 13.19.
Zech. 2.10 in Mk 13.27At the hour of judgement, Mark's Jesus will return as Son of Man at theright hand of Power (14.62).40 This combination of Dan. 7.13 and Ps.110.141 implies that the Son of Man comes as Lord to whom all enemieswill then have been subjected (cf. Mk 12.35-37).42 In Mk 13.27 the Sonof Man of Dan. 7.13 is again the one who 'will gather his elect from thefour winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven'. Taking intoaccount (1) that in Mark's Gospel the 'Son of Man' and 'Lord' both referto Jesus' coming seated at the right hand of God, and (2) that Mk 13.27and Zech. 2.10 LXX both have the motive of the four winds (EKnooapCalV avEJJCalV)43 in combination with the gathering ( h n o u v a ~ e t /
o u v a ~ C a l ) of the addressees, one might argue that Mk 13.27 recalls theGreek translation of Zech. 2.10 ('from the four winds of heaven I willgather you, says the Lord': EK TEOOcXpCalV cXVEJ.ICalV TOU oupavou ouva~ C a l UJ.ICXS' .Aeyet Kliptos), rather than Deut. 30.4.
Zech. 9.11 in Mk 14.24It is exactly the link between the kingdom of God and Jesus whichrequires that Mk 14.23-24 should be interpreted coherently with Mk14.25. After giving the cup to the Twelve, the Markan Jesus declares:'Truly I tell you, I will never again drink of the fruit of the vine untilthat day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God' (14.25). In whichway is the cup associated with the dawn of God's kingdom? In Mark,Jesus elucidates the drinking of the wine in the cup as his 'blood of thecovenant, which is poured out for many'. The sharing of the cup clearlyrefers to Jesus' death, but what meaning does it attribute to it? Oneshould no t utilize Mt. 26.28 to introduce the notion of forgiveness of sininto Mk 14.24. For Mark, Jesus' authority to forgive sin is not connected
39. Suhl, Funktion, p. 154; du Toit, Herr, p. 125.40. See Breytenbach, 'Markusevaogelium'.41. Cf. R. Watts, 'The Psalms in Mark's Gospel', inS. Moyise and M. j. j. Menken(eds), The Psalms in the New Testament (London and New York: T& T Clark, 2004), pp.25-45, esp. 41.42. Cf. Breytenbach, 'Markusevangelium', pp. 207-8,213-4. 43. For this motive cf.1 En. 18.1-2; 4 Ezra 13.5 and Rev. 7.1.44. For this motive cf. 4 Ezra 4.12-3; 13.5. The Greek a u v a ~ c . l deviates from theHebrew fzJi!) 'to expand' (cf. T. Ash. 7.2-7).
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36 Minor Prophets in the New Testamentto his death (cf. Mk 2.5, 10). Since man can give nothing in return forhis life (Mk 8.37), it is the Son of Man who gives his life as a ransomfor many (Mk 10.45). When one places the blood of the covenant inMk 14.24 in its narrative context, it is best understood as an exchangefor the doomed life of many. Mark might be recalling the covenant ofExod. 24.8 via its reception in Zech. 9.11-1245 : 'You also, by the bloodof the covenant, have sent forth your prisoners from the pit that has nowater'.46 A 11::1, a well or cistern, with no water in it, often served as aprison (Gen. 37.20; 40.15; Isa. 24.22), which is clearly the meaning inZech. 9 11. Indeed ,. its translation AcXKKOS can metaphorically refer tosheol (cf. Ps. 27.1 LXX). Both Mk 14.24 and Zech. 9.11 are followedby a positive statement. In Mk 14.25 it is the advent of the royal reignof God, and in Zech. 9.12 the restitution of the people, who now live onZion: 'You shall reside in fortresses, o prisoners of the assembly, and forone day as expatriate, I will recompense you double'.47 If Mk 14.24 isread in the light of Zech. 9.11, the turn in Mark's Christology becomesclear. The drinking of the wine in the cup symbolizes the death of Jesusin terms of the covenant. His death sets the prisoners free, having aransorning effect (Mk 14.24 with Zech. 9.11). Since Peter's confession(8.29), Mark has prepared a line of interpretation, which he now followsthrough. Jesus is the Christ, bu t has to suffer as Son of Man (8 .29, 31).Man is not able to give any exchange for his own life (8.37). The Christ,the Son of Man, came to serve and to give his life in exchange for allhumans (10.45). He enters Jerusalem on a foal, just, as one who savesand is humble. As Christ he is not the Son of David (12.36), neither doeshe come to reinstitute David's kingdom as the crowd expects him to do(11.10). As the narrative develops, he recaps on the announcement thathe came to give his life as ransom (10.45) by explaining t hat the sharingof the cup symbolizes his death as having, in terms of the covenant, aransorning effect for many (14.24). When he returns, he will gather theelect (13.27 ).
With the exception of the traditional conflated quotation from Exod.23.20/Mal. 3.1 in Mk 1.2b-c, Mark follows the Greek translations45. This line of interpretation has been recognized by Lohrneyer, Evangelium, p. 307;Marcus, Way, p. 157, and J. R. Donahue and D. J. Harrington, The Gospel of Mark (Sacra
Pagina Series, 2; Collegev ille, MI: Liturgical Press, 2002), p. 399 . None of the interpretationsunderstand the allusion in the context of Mk 8.37; 10.45 (see below).46. Zcch. 9.11 :Kai m1 iv aiiJaTI a 6 ~ K i;arrEOTEIAas ISEoiJious oou EK AaKKou ouKxoVTos u&.lp.47. 6 ~ E o 6 E EV OXUPWIJOT I liEOIJIOI Tils ouvaywyiis Kai aVTi IJIOS tliJEpasrrapon:EOlOSOOU /im]..a cXVTOJToOc..low 001
Mark's Gospel 37of the Minor Prophets. Quotations or allusions from Jonah, Joel,Zechariah and Malachi can be accepted with some confidence and areused in a variety of ways. Thus for a single narrative (Mk 4.37-41), anepisode from Jonah forms the backdrop, while imagery from Joel servesto express the final judgement (Mk 4.29; 13.19). Citations from andallusions to Malachi are integrated into broader conceptions that drawon Isaiah to depict John the Baptist as the one preparing Jesus' path(Mk 1.2-3; 9.1-13). Finally, quotations from and allusions to Zechariahplay an important role in portraying the Messianic expectations thatthe crowd were associating with Jesus (11.1 -11), the prediction of thedispersion and gathering of the Twelve (14.27), the ransoming effect ofthe Son of Man's death (10.45; 14.24), and the announcement of hiseschatological advent (13.27). Thus, although Mark's use of the MinorProphets is not as extensive as the Book of Isaiah, it nevertheless playsan important role in his narrative.