World War I A war to end all wars…? World War I- The Great War.
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Transcript of World War I A war to end all wars…? World War I- The Great War.
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Slide 2 World War I A war to end all wars? Slide 3 World War I- The Great War Slide 4 Underlying Causes MANIA Militarism Alliances Nationalism Imperialism Anarchy (international) Slide 5 Militarism: Glorification of War & Military Build up of large reserve armies Mobilization - organize resources for combat (triggers other nations mobilizing) Naval Expansion - William II (GR) fires Bismarck and expands navy wants to be equal to G.B. (most powerful) G.B. feels threatened, expands, develops new battleship - Dreadnought Slide 6 Alliances Defense Agreements Among Nations Three Emperors League: (1881) Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary - doesnt last b/c of A-H rivalry with Russia in Balkans Triple Alliance - (1882) Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary - attempt to isolate France Triple Entente - (1907) France, Russia, G.B. Entente: Friendly understanding between nations Slide 7 Slide 8 Nationalism Extreme Pride in Ones Nation or Desire to Form a Nation French Nationalists sought revenge against Germany for loss of Alsace- Lorraine Slavic Nationalism - Pan-Slavism: Unify all Slavic people under one empire Slide 9 Imperialism domination of one country by another Germany and France came close to war over control of Morocco Germany wanted to create Berlin to Baghdad Railway - caused resentment among British and Russians British feared interference with India and reduce traffic thru Suez Canal Slide 10 Anarchy International Anarchy Nations of Europe pursue policies without regard for the wishes of their neighbors Crisis - No international organization to monitor Slide 11 Immediate Causes of WWI Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of A-H (June 28, 1914) by Gavrilo Princip - member of Serbian nationalist group Black Hand Slide 12 Why the Assassination? Ferdinand planned to give Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina a voice in the govt equal to that of Austro- Hungarians This threatened the movement for a separate Slavic state Slide 13 What Happens Next? A-H hold Serbians responsible A-H seeks assurance (backup) from Germany in event of war Germany issues Blank Check to A-H William II gives full support to any actions A-H might take against Serbia Slide 14 Tensions Build!! A-H issues ultimatum (set of final conditions that must be accepted to avoid severe consequences) to Serbia Demands that Serbia allow A-H officials into country to suppress all subversive movements & conduct investigation Gives Serbia 48 hours to agree or face war Serbia does not agree to all parts A-H declares war on Serbia! (July 28, 1914) Slide 15 The Tangled Web of War Slide 16 Declarations of War Germany declares war on Russia (Aug 1, 1914) Germany declares war on France (Aug 3, 1914) Great Britain still hoped to remain neutral and not go to war, but Slide 17 Germany Invades Belgium! Germany demands passage across Belgium to fight France (*Part of Schlieffen Plan) British protest demand made by Germany upon neutral nation of Belgium 1839 Treaty signed by G.B., Russia, France & Germany guaranteed Belgiums neutrality Slide 18 Germany invades Belgium G.B. demands they withdraw Germany responds calling treaty, a scrap of paper G.B. declares war on Germany (Aug 4, 1914) Slide 19 *The Schlieffen Plan Germanys invasion of Belgium was part of this plan Germany had enemies to East & West & did not want to fight a war on both fronts at the same time Believed Russia would be slow to mobilize and that they could fight & defeat France (W. Front) first in 6 weeks & then fight Russia on Eastern Front THE RACE TO THE SEA! Slide 20 Slide 21 Expectations Both sides thought the war would be a quick ordeal Kaiser told his soldiers, youll be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees. They underestimated the role industrialization would play in this war. French troops marched off shouting, Well be home by Christmas Slide 22 United states in the War Lusitania Zimmerman Telegram Slide 23 Life During the War Slide 24 Slide 25 The British government wanted to encourage men to enlist for war. They said the war would be safe, hardly any fighting, a good lark and over by Christmas. They used advertising posters to encourage this idea! A picture of soldiers going Over the Top Slide 26 The reality of going over the top was very different! Slide 27 Soldiers were expected to carry all of their equipment with them at all times. They were supposed to keep it clean and in good condition they were British after all. Slide 28 How the uniform and equipment changed after just three weeks in the trenches Slide 29 Posters always showed men ready and willing to fight. They never showed the boredom of the trenches or actual fighting taking place. Why do you think the government showed no fighting? What hidden message is in this image? Slide 30 Slide 31 No smiling and relaxed faces No clean uniforms Their equipment is scattered everywhere Boredom and sleep are obvious Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 The soldiers had very little decent food, and what food they had was often attacked by rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits and badgers because they had fed on the decomposing bodies of dead soldiers. Slide 36 WARNING, TRENCH FOOT NASTINESS ON THE NEXT SLIDE! Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 WWI Comes to an End Slide 42 German Surrender On the 11 th Hour of the 11 th Day of the 11 th Month the war comes to an end (November 11, 1918), as Germany accepts an armistice. Allies meet to discuss a treaty. Slide 43 The Treaty of Versailles with Germany The Big Four-all had different allied objectives Slide 44 David Lloyd George-Great Britain Prime minister who wanted to expand Britain's Colonial Empire, preserve its naval and industrial supremacy and make Germany pay for the war. Slide 45 Georges Clemenceau French Premier Wanted to ensure security against future German invasion Weaken Germany by imposing military limitations, financial payments, and territorial losses. Slide 46 Vittorio Orlando Premier of Italy Sought to enlarge Italy's territory in Europe and expand its empire overseas Slide 47 Woodrow Wilson President of the United States Sought to provide a just and lasting peace and create a better world by implementing the Fourteen Points* Slide 48 *Fourteen Points-Wilsons Plan for a Lasting Peace 1. Open covenants (treaties) of peace openly arrived at. 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Removal of international trade barriers (such as tariffs). 4. Reduction of armaments 5. Impartial adjustment of colonial claims with regard for the interests of native peoples Slide 49 Fourteen Points Cont. 6-13. Adjustment of European boundaries in accordance with the principle of nationality, that is, the right of any national group to self- determination regarding its own government and independent state. 14. Establishment of a League of Nations to handle international disputes. European nations approved of the 14 Points only sparingly because of their nations interests. Slide 50 Treaty of Versailles Of Wilsons Fourteen Points, only a few were taken seriously. One of them was the League of Nations, What others were taken seriously? Slide 51 Differing Views of the Treaty Arguments Against: a harsh treaty that planted the seeds of WWII- The treaty transferred German-inhabited territory, seized all colonies of Germany, and compelled Germany to accept sole war guilt. It forced Germany to be unarmed while other nations remained armed, and it wounded German pride. By attacking the treaty the Nazi party gained support of the German people, achieved power, and brought on WWII. Slide 52 Arguments For: A fair treaty that was not enforced The treaty transferred German territory chiefly on the basis of nationality, assigned German colonies as League of Nations mandates with the objective of eventual disarmament, and provided a League of Nations. The treaty alone cannot be blamed for the German peoples support of Nazism. Furthermore, if the military provisions of the treaty had been enforced, Nazi Germany would not have been able to wage war Slide 53 Results of WWI-Social A. almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million soldiers were wounded B. Millions of civilians died as a result of the hostilities, famine and disease. C. The world was left aflame with hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism. D. debt and economic dislocation caused the depression of 1929. Slide 54 Political A. The U.S. emerged as a leading world power B. 3 major European powers dethroned- Germans, Austria-Hungary, and Russia C. New national states arosePoland and Czechoslovakia D. League of Nations established to solve international problems Many European nations turned to dictatorship because of economic and political discontent Russia, Italy, Germany. Slide 55 Economic A. total cost of the war was 350 billion dollars. Led to heavy taxation of the people of Europe. B. International trade suffered because of increased tariffs C. Russia became communist, thus a new economic system was introduced Slide 56 Slide 57 League of Nations Slide 58 Destruction Slide 59 Famine Russia Slide 60 unemployment Slide 61 1923 - German money so worthless they burn it to keep warm Slide 62 GlamourThe Charleston Slide 63 Louis Armstrong - Jazz Slide 64 Silent movies Slide 65 Slide 66 Picasso - cubism Slide 67 Rise of fascism in Italy - Benito Mussolini Slide 68 Dictators between the Wars Stalin Hitler Mussolini Slide 69 1930s World-Wide Depression Slide 70 Unemployment & Food lines Slide 71 Walking over the League Slide 72 Hitler (Der Fhrer) & Nazis come to power in Germany Slide 73 Nazi book burnings Slide 74 Francisco Franco - fascist Spain Slide 75 German annexation of Austria Slide 76 Concentration Camps Established - Dachau Slide 77 Chamberlain and Daladier Slide 78 Sudetenland falls to Hitler Slide 79 Anti-semitism Slide 80 Kristallnacht -7500 businesses destroyed Slide 81