Water Treatment Handbook by ADIL

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Transcript of Water Treatment Handbook by ADIL

Water Treatment Hand Book

PREFACEAqua Designs was started with the mission of providing eco friendly solutions which will be useful for individuals, industries and also to nature. Since its inception, Aqua Designs has offered successful solutions on environmental perspective which has created a unique place in the industrial sector. The vision of MD Mr. Suthakar is to spread the message of harvesting water, reducing its usage, recycling and reuse. This vision transformed into collection of data on water and its uses and sharing this knowledge with one and all in order to make this world a lively place to live. .......... and hence this book. With best compliments from S. Suthakar Managing Director Aqua Designs

ABOUT USAqua Designs Offers A to Z solutions for water and waste water treatment. A one Stop Shop for all types of consultancies in water and waste water management. Aqua Designs commitment to the environment, keeps it in the forefront of product innovations, purification and recycling technologies. Aqua Designs provides water solutions for Institutions, Industry, Municipal Authorities, and Commercial and Public properties. The Company boasts of the widest range of specialty water-related products and services that are ISO 9001:2000 certified by RINA of Italy. Aqua Designs was the proud recipient of the prestigious Award for The Best Upcoming Water Company 2006 2007given by the magazine Water Digest in association with UNESCO, NDTV Profit & WES-Net India in order to acknowledge those persons and Organizations, who have contributed toward water and its industry. Aqua Designs was also the proud winner of the Awards for Best Water Treatment Project Industrial 2007-2008 & Best Water R&D and Technological Breakthrough 2007-2008 instituted by Water Digest. For the year 2008-2009, Aqua Designs added one more feather in its cap. It bagged two more Awards instituted by the Water Digest for the categories Best Consultancy & Best Water Conservation IT Park showing its strength in IT Sector using MBR Technology. A proven track record of offering A Z solutions was appreciated and the Best Consultancy Award is the proof for that. The Company has excellent marketing and sales team with a cumulative experience beyond 100 years. It is one of the major reason for Aqua Designs entering big corporate and Multi National Companies. Due to its expertise the Company is able to offer competitive Designs and proposals, which keeps the competitors at bay .This proven technology has made the company one of the front runners in this field.

Aqua Designs success depends on its human resources. From Designs, Proposals, Projects, Erection and commissioning to operation and maintenance, it has proved its capability in the market which gives them a clear edge over others in the market. Aqua Designs is supported by its own State-of-the-Art Laboratory for testing water, waste water, air & stack samples both for physiochemical and microbiological parameters as per PCB norms and IS standards. We have the facility to monitor stack emissions and ambient air quality...The facility is certified under ISO 9001:2000. The Laboratory handles and supports all in house requirements; specific client needs and also offers Pilot Plant studies. Aqua Designs provides services starting from EIA to Designs to implementation of Projects to Operation & Maintenance to Supply of Specialty Chemicals to run the operations and finally to analyze the various products of the treatment using its Laboratory facility. Aqua Designs also has its own chemical manufacturing and fabrication facilities to support its growing needs in business. Aqua Designs was formed with the sole intention of suggesting eco friendly solutions for Industries and Municipalities. The vision was to provide solutions to varied sectors in par with the developed nations. Aqua Designs not only offers the concepts and design to their customers, but also stay with the customer and successfully operate the scheme for years. The customer satisfaction has lead Aqua Designs to be successful in various types of Industries ranging from Petrochemicals, Automobile, Food and Beverages, Breweries and Distilleries, Chemicals, Electronics, Power Industries etc. Aqua Designs believes only in continual improvement. It keeps offering innovative solutions to its customers. One such is the concept of Membrane Bio Reactors technology for treating the Sewage. Aqua Designs has now set a trend such that big IT Parks have started using MBR Technology. Aqua Designs is leaping forward like a giant and nothing can stop it. In the near future it aspires to be a Global leader. Aqua designs believes in Better the Best and this has made everything possible.

CHAPTER 1 Impurities in Water................................ ................................................................ ...................... CHAPTER 2 Filters ................................................................ ................................ ........................................... CHAPTER 3 Iron Removal Filters ................................ ................................................................ ..................... CHAPTER 4 Ion Exchange ................................ ................................................................ ................................ CHAPTER 5 Softener ................................................................ ................................ ....................................... CHAPTER 6 Membrane System................................ ................................................................ ....................... CHAPTER 7 Steam Boiler ................................ ................................................................ ................................ CHAPTER 8 Cooling Water Treatment................................ ................................ ................................ ............. CHAPTER 9 Pumps ................................................................ ................................ .......................................... CHAPTER 10 Raw Water Treatment ................................ ................................................................ ................. CHAPTER 11 Industrial Waste Water Treatment ................................................................ .............................. CHAPTER 12 Chemical Cleaning................................ ................................................................ ........................

1

8

13

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WATER SAMPLE TEST PROCEDURES ................................................................ ........................ 107 Phenolphthalein (P) Alkalinity Test Procedure ................................ ................................ ........ 109 Total (M) Alkalinity Test Procedures ................................................................ ....................... 110 Conductivity Test Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................... 112 pH-Electrometric Method Test Procedures ................................................................ ............. 113 Total hardness Test Procedures ................................................................ .............................. 114 Sulphite testing procedure ................................ ................................ ...................................... 115 Chloride Test Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 116 Checking Acid Solution Strength for Cleaning ................................ ................................ .......... 117

UNITS AND MEASUREMENT CONVERSION ...................................................... 118BASICS................................................................ ................................ ..................................... 119

CHAPTER 1

01

Impurities in WaterWater impuritiesImpurity in water technology is a relative term. For example Hardness is not considered as an impurity in drinking water but in industrial water treatment it leads to scaling of equipment and hence considered as an impurity. Common impurities in water, their effect and method of removal are as follows: Impurities Turbidity Suspended silica Effect Can clog pipelines and equipment can choke Ion exchange resin and RO membranes Indication of organic, iron etc. and can be harmful to the unit operation ahead. Can foul Ion exchange resins membranes and may be detrimental to process. Will depend upon the type of bacteria, can induce corrosion and also harmful to RO membrane. Red water, corrosion, deposit, interferes with dyeing, bleaching etc. Method of removal Coagulation, and filtration setting

Color

Coagulation, settling filtration, followed by activated carbon filter. Coagulation, setting, filtration, followed by activated carbon filtration. Coagulation, filtration, setting and super chlorination, UV, ozonation Aeration, coagulation, filtration, filtration through Manganese Zeolite Ion exchange, addition of acid or alkali. Ion exchange Lime Soda

Organic matter

Bacteria

Iron

pH

High pH or low pH can both induce corrosion. Scaling, cruds with soap interfere with dyeing and also harmful to other process.

Calcium, Magnesium (Hardness)

02

WATER TREATMENT HAND BOOK

Impurities Sodium

Effect Unharmful when low in concentration, increase TDS, high concentration can induce corrosion. Corrosion, foaming and carry over

Method of removal Ion Exchange through cation H+ resin. Reverse Osmosis

Bicarbonates, Carbonates, Alkalinity, Hydroxide (Alkalinity)